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This digital edition copyright © 1995 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.
Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881.
Be it known that, the source which averts disease (i.e. a physician) ought to be possessed of such forethought that he should have in him a very good knowledge of how to overcome disease and how to avert human suffering. The object of medicine is to protect the people of this world from blemish-giving defects and to ward off by proper remedies their illness in order to preserve them. If a physician (professing) to cure (avert) disease, should be ignorant of the science of medicine, such a physician will, without a knowledge of medicine, be wholly incapable of curing disease. In the religion there is contained, first, an exposition about the warding off of diseases of the body, and, secondly, advice regarding the prevention of diseases of the soul. The precepts for dispelling diseases of the soul have reference to the removal and diminution from the people, by means of the observances of the good religion, of those illnesses and shortcomings which have reached (into the world) through the power of the Blemish-Giver.
And the exposition (explanation) for the warding off of the maladies of the body has reference to the keeping aloof of the bodies of the people of this world from the illnesses of the Blemish-Giver and to the removal of their diseases, by means of the wisdom pertaining to the good religion. In (connection with) each of these systems of medicine there are two distinct sections (divisions) for rendering (the soul and body) immortal and for giving religious instruction in regard to them. The removal of the diseases pertaining to the soul, in order to render it immortal in the invisible world, is effected by means of the good religion: and all men, seeking the immortality of their souls, are enabled to remove the diseases affecting their souls, by improving their dispositions through the instrumentality of their master and king and of the head religious teacher of the community of Zartosht.
For the removal of the sufferings of the souls of men it is proper that they should be instructed (in religion), and, while prevented from evil-thinking, evil-speaking and evil-doing, should be encouraged in good-thinking, good-speaking, and good-doing; that thereby wise, religious people might, through a knowledge of the good religion, be the more enabled to improve their dispositions.
It is through the religious authority of the high priest and the meritorious commands of the king of the Zoroastrian community that men's bodies are, after being freed from the sufferings of this world, rendered immortal (i.e. freed from harm).
Similarly, it is owing to them that the diseases of men are averted and those whose bodies are being corrupted for want of (the services of) a physician are looked after and protected. The removal of every disease affecting the human body is owing to good physicians who give the necessary instruction and who are capable of informing men as to (the means of) averting the several maladies connected with them. Again, the removal of the diseases affecting the bodies of men is effected through the Darvestpat (surgeons) whose business it is to look after those things which injure the members (of their bodies).
For the removal of the diseases of those parts of the body as also the soul which have been injured there are these things. And (these are) their religious names: -- disease-averting purity; disease-averting fire ; disease-removing herbs (vegetation); disease-removing surgical instruments; essences (spirits or tinctures) that burn out disease ; and, disease-removing recitations from the Avesta. Of these, the explanation regarding the recitation of disease-removing Avesta is this that when bodily wounds, diseases and injuries of a malignant nature cannot, in spite of the adoption of various remedies, be removed, then the best remedy for casting away bodily illness, is the recitation of the Avesta. Secondly, the meaning of fire being a remover of suffering is this that the power of fire is the cause of the removal of illness arising from putrefaction and noxious gases, so that if conquering fragrant herbs be placed upon fire and the body be fumigated and warmed many ailments arising from this cause are dissipated. And thereby relief is obtained by the body. Thirdly, the meaning of pain being removed by vegetables and herbs is this that wounds, boils and tumors are cured by means of surgical instruments and tinctures (essences), and bodily illnesses of other kinds are dispelled by drinking (taking) and inhaling medicines. In removing disease by means of surgical instruments and medicinal essences, it is right that it should first be removed by means of instruments and then treated by means of essences.
The treatment of the soul is effected in three ways by recitations from the good religion, by putting faith in the good religion and by doing works relating to the good religion.
Of these (three) the strength of faith being infused into the (other) two, -- recitations from and performance of the work relating to the good religion, -- the diseases relating to the souls of men are enabled to be dispelled. There are two worthy persons who keep (men) in a state of security in (the) world: one of these renders the soul of man imperishable from sin, and the other preserves the body of man from disease. Whoever in the world is a remover of the sins pertaining to the souls of men and of the ailments affecting his body is deserving of the name of a physician (doctor). And whoever saves (the souls of) men from sin and their bodies from disease, he, among men, is deserving of the name of the all-saving master. Every man who, among men, is a remover of the pain caused by the sin of the souls of men and the disease of their bodies is worthy of the name of a doctor. And, further, those among them who are physicians of the body are of two descriptions, one for the restoration of the bones of the body and the other for the cure of the body from disease. Similarly, the physicians of the soul are of two kinds : One preserves the soul and the other frees it from sin. It is in the preservation of the souls and bodies of immortal men and in the removal of their sufferings that the immortal work of physicians consists. And the benefits of it consist in the maintenance of the world in safety, purity and good discernment.
The good work of physicians connected with the End consists in securing the soul of every man from sin and his body from illness. And the benefit that results therefrom is that of keeping the bodies of men in health and of doing the work of purity of their souls. Physicians possessing thought and foresight like this ought to be appointed by the king. And the physicians, both of soul and body, versed in the good religion, should be under the control of the high physician of the soul, the priest of priests of Zoroastrians, which high priest should be pure of disposition, possessed of natural ability, an adorner of the religion, one who remembers God, believes in Ohrmazd, perceives the soul, recites the true Avesta, understands the meaning of the Avesta, is versed in the religion, is of indubitable conduct, large of heart, high of thought, a discerner of the good of thought, passionless, a destroyer of perverse thought, a suppresser of temptations, giving immediate orders for the punishment of sinners (offenders), making appropriate gifts to those worthy of the reward and portion of virtue, and a supporter of those obedient to Ohrmazd. And he (the high priest) should be one who keeps within bounds (in due proportion) these five things,-the eyes, the mouth, the tongue, the ears and the neck,-the eyes from casting an evil eye, the mouth from irregular food, the tongue from foolish speech, the ears from hearing what is improper and the neck from frequent motion : that thereby he may not be possessed of certain defects (blemishes): and the men of the four professions may not become of sinful conduct. Furthermore, he (the high priest) should be one who keeps the people harmless from injury by the Devs, points out to them (the path to) salvation and gives right decisions as between the sovereign and the subject. A true Dastur (high priest) is able, through wealth of all kinds and adequate income, to preserve the luster and the aims of the religion and to issue all commands pertaining to the religion and to bring them into force.
The physician who is the improver (restorer) of the enfeebled body by means of (medicinal) things, is the preceptor (teacher) who keeps the people of the good religion in health. Again, the physician who, in every situation, prevails through good expedients, loves the soul, examines diseases with minuteness, reads largely, remembers what is written, and possesses great experience, is a curer of original (disease) and a victor over maladies that give pain to the body. An accomplished physician is one who is acquainted with the members of the body, knows their changes, understands the remedies for illness, is possessed of unadulterated things (i. e. drugs that are not unclean), treats patients in person, is a helping friend to them, is without envy, sweet-spoken (speaks with a sweet-tongue), undisdaining, adopts preservative and good remedies, is an enemy of illness, a friend of those who are ill, tends the sick without feeling ashamed, is harmless, free from disease, never keeps back (conceals) any kind of assistance (from the sick), a care-taker of patients with all renown, a pointer-out of remedies for maladies, is careful of (his) good name (as a physician), treats (patients) without (hope of) income (in this world) but in expectation of a good reward in the invisible world, and, listens to every circumstance that has happened (to the patient). And such (a physician) owing to the superior assistance and friendship of Airyaman, averts disease by means of the virtues of medicinal herbs, adopts good, efficacious remedies, keeps (preserves) sick persons by means of illness-dispelling regimen, and, gives happiness, flavor and ease to life by turning away the hurtfulness and the impurity of disease.
The excellence and dignity of a physician of the soul depend upon his love (fondness), in this world, for true obedience to Ardwahisht Ameshaspand while (endeavoring) to ward off diseases of the soul. And the excellence and dignity of a physician of the body depend upon his acquisition of the virtue (efficacy), from among the Yazads who ward off diseases of the body, of Airyaman the invisible power working in conjunction with Ardwahisht Ameshaspand. Further, the work among men, of him who averts diseases of the soul is of the first rank, (for) he (the physician) of the soul belongs to (i.e. is the physician of) all men, and, his principal work is to give instruction in the doing of works pertaining to the good religion and in remaining aloof from deeds of the opposite kind. And it (the work) consists in saving the soul from sin and rendering (man) pure by means of righteousness through the acquisition of the virtue (occult efficacy) of Ardwahisht Ameshaspand.
The chief work of the physician of the body has reference to the stomach of the soul-possessing body of man: hence his work it is to strengthen the stomach of the body of man by regimen and remedies, to preserve the bodies of men in safety through the occult efficacy of Airyaman, and, to cure it of disease. The removal of the sin pertaining to the soul and the rendering it precious depends upon the strength of the body; (for,) it is owing to the existence of the body that there is cleansing of the sin of the soul. The removal of the diseases of the body and the rendering it valuable depend upon the strength of the soul: (for,) it is owing to the strength of the powers of the soul that the work of the body is performed.
The system of medicine pertaining to the soul is the religion itself. And the system of medicine pertaining to the body constitutes the strength of the powers pertaining to the religion. The merit of the physician of the soul consists in (literally, the physician of the soul becomes possessed of merit by) removing the diseases of the soul, by discovering the perverse powers of the soul and every sin connected with those powers and keeping man back from (the commission of) those sins, and by understanding how to annihilate every sin pertaining to him, break it down and keep his soul in a safe, durable condition. The merit of the physician of the body consists in improving and rendering uniformly fitting, in the manner required by medical science, the bodily members whose humors have become internally vitiated.
The trial of a physician of the soul, as to averting diseases of the soul, should be made, in respect of the necessary temper and intellectual vigor, first, among Athornans (priests), secondly, among householders, thirdly among the heads (owners) of streets, fourthly among the heads (owners) of villages and fifthly among kings. And according as he should be found qualified, (beginning) from the lowest rank, in the art of treating the soul, he should be raised in rank until he is chosen as the high priest of the community of Zartosht. He who is the highest physician of the soul ought not be tried (tested) by men, for, men of inferior abilities are incapable of testing and selecting men of superior abilities. The trial of a physician of the body, as to the art of treating the body, having first been made upon the diseased body of a Daevayasna, and the sufferer having been freed from the disease, he (the physician) should be considered an experienced physician of the body. Should he be found, in the examination for the business of removing diseases of the body from among men, to be possessed of superior abilities (literally, strength) it is proper, he should, on a sufficiency of votes, be selected for and appointed to the post of a health-conferring physician by the entire population of Iran. But if on examining him (trying his skill) upon three persons, they should (all) die, he should not be considered to have successfully passed his examination. And he should not be permitted to practice physic. The duty of a physician as regards his profession (work) is to cure men: hence a physician ought always to visit the villages to make inquiries about the illnesses of God's creation and to (learn to) distinguish diseases. And he should visit every patient every day at a time appointed, and should, on the second day, administer superior medicine to other parts of the body of the patient and help him well with instruments.
After diagnosing the disease, he should endeavor, in order to cure the patient, (to fight) against the disease with the help of superior medicines, as if he were its enemy. And he should avert the sufferings of sick persons in such a way that, through his exertions, there should be no person affected with disease in the village whose sufferings have remained without a remedy being applied. Such a physician men should always make their companion. And his wants as regards good food, fine dress, fast horses, a house in a central elevated locality together with the funds and even the furniture required in connection with it, should be supplied. If a physician belonging to a house (attached to a family) does not possess in the house, or a physician attached to a street does not possess in the street, or a physician attached to a village does not possess in the village, or a physician attached to a city does not possess in the city, -- if anywhere he does not possess the things required by him and an animal to ride upon, he will be incapable, without the necessary materials and an animal to ride upon always, applying remedies to sufferers. Therefore, in order to cure the sick, a fast-trotting horse, sufficient medicines and instruments should be supplied to a physician at fitting times.
The physicians for removing the diseases of the body are of the following five kinds: -- Of these, one occupies the highest rank, one the lowest rank, and three are of intermediate rank. Of these, those who avert the diseases of men from motives of righteousness and for the sake of the renown that attends only upon them (such motives) are the best physicians. Those who are actuated by the rewards and renown of this world are (physicians) of intermediate rank; and a physician of the intermediate rank is the ordinary physician. of those who are actuated by (both) righteousness and money, the physician who has a greater love for righteousness (than for money), though he is reckoned as of intermediate rank, yet he approaches nearer to the rank of the highest physician (than the other).
Of those who are actuated by (both) money and righteousness, he who loves money more (than righteousness), -- that physician of intermediate rank approaches nearer the physician of the lowest rank (than the other). Among these, the physician who looks to the renown of pure righteousness must be considered as the most noble in rank, must be relied upon and honored. And the physician who looks to be rewarded in money, -- his rank as regards physicians whose reward is righteousness is intermediate, for, his righteousness is (not pure), but mixed. And, therefore, he is possessed of mixed righteousness. And the lowest physician is he who is sinful and cruel in averting diseases.
It is enjoined in the religion that such physicians should be disapproved of and neither honored nor rewarded. As to what remuneration should be given to the physician experienced in the work of removing the diseases of the body, particulars are given in the religion of the highest to the lowest amount (to be given) for removing the diseases of the bodies of the lowest to the highest Gospand (cows, sheep, &c.), and of the bodies of the highest to the lowest men. Similarly, an untried physician is prohibited from practicing physic. In the event of an untried physician curing (a disease), nothing is mentioned about the remuneration to be paid to him; but if a man is injured (literally, wounded) by him, it is provided (mentioned) in the religion that he (the physician) should be punished for the injury and hardship inflicted on his person.
A Dastur (high priest) who has been tried and chosen is a physician for removing the diseases of the soul. And over him is the head Dastur of the whole Zartoshti community. The Darvestpat for (the whole of) Iran is the superior over the physician of the body. Of those who follow the profession of physician, the physician for the removal of suffering who belongs to the Athornan class is, as it were, a physician of the soul. And the physician for the removal of suffering who belongs to the Vastariosh class is, as it were, a physician of the body. Viewed cursorily, removing pain and bestowing health are one (and the same thing), but looked at thoughtfully there are two degrees in illness. As regards these, the going beyond bounds and becoming possessed of blemishes (vices) is the source of the illness of the soul ; and the same is also the source of the illness of the body. And the source of illness of both these kinds is Anghra Mainyu who does the work of carrying man beyond bounds and renders man possessed of blemishes.
Illness is the effect of the rivalry of the blemish-giving Anghra Mainyu seeking to render sinful the powers of the soul. To render the soul full of blemishes (vicious) there are evil understanding, deceit, injury to purity, apathy, pride, scorn, evil passions, slander, adultery, and idleness. And these things are the cause of relations with sin and evil. Of the ingredients (principles) of the body, those that originate disease in the body are cold, dryness, stinks, putrescence, hunger, thirst, old age and anxiety. And these things are the causes that render (man) ill and mortal. Those things that cause illness (to men) through their behavior are the affections and passions that mislead the soul. Thus anger of soul is (a thing) that injures the impulses that do good, and so on. There are many kinds of ailments that enfeeble the body which have been produced by Anghra Mainyu ever since the beginning of creation. And God has commanded the power, Airyaman, to remove these ailments and as is mentioned in the Mazdayasnian religion, that Yazad cures (breaks) diseases of 4,333 kinds. The names of these diseases are given as follow: ashir, aghur, aghram, ughram, daju, tafnu (fever), saran, sarsataya, aghshi, and others which are well-known. The above-mentioned diseases have power to mix with the elements of the body. And they will endure till the time of Frashegird (resurrection).
And it is declared (in the religion) that all these diseases will, at the time of Frashegird, be destroyed and brought 44 to an end. These bodily diseases are divided into different classes. As regards these, every ailment gives rise to ailments of other kinds. Some of these diseases are visible and these are mentioned (known) under the name of Patushak, i.e. diseases that appear outwardly (literally, come out), such as those diseases that disappear on a heavy fall of rain, and boils and others. And certain other diseases which are invisible are mentioned (known) under the name of Apatushak, i.e. diseases that do not appear outwardly, such as fever and diseases pertaining to the inner parts. In the same way the ailments of the soul are divided into two parts. (The ailments) in the first of these (parts) are designated evil attributes (vices) of the previous dispensation (intention, scheme), among which are covetousness, anger &c. The others are designated evil attributes (vices) of the after dispensation, and among them are mentioned worship of Devs and secret (sinful) deeds, and other vices.
The medical treatment of diseases of the body is declared to be by means of herbs and plants, which innumerable herbs and plants grow out of the ground. And these medicines, it is enjoined, should be administered in proportion to the strength of men. The medicine which at the present time is considered (fixed) as, among medicines, better and more excellent than all previous (medicines) is that called Arirakne kaburi. This medicine was at first highly poisonous, but at present, being administered in conjunction with other medicines, it has come to be a remedy (for disease). And whenever any poison has got into the food of man or gospand, all that virulent poison is removed by this medicine. Moreover, it has been said that the various remedies for dispelling diseases and ailments and the new co-related (secondary) affections, and that all the most powerful articles for conferring health are derived from a tree named Gokartan which grows out of the ground in a manner different from other trees and from trees like the sandalwood tree.
And all medicines are derived from this tree named Gokartan. Again, it is mentioned (in the religion) that at the time of the final improvement men will be rendered immortal by means of the Haome Shufed [white Haoma], a tree which grows in the sea called Frakard.
Health is of two kinds: of these, one depends upon the acquisition of merit (virtue) through the good qualities of the soul and upon the improvement of the powers of the soul. The second (description of) health refers to the body: it consists in the safe-ordering of the members of the body. The necessity for the improvement of the soul arises from the dangers inherent in its powers. Thus, the power of understanding, which is a power of the soul, has (inherent) in it, as its enemy, evil sense, adultery, sins committed through ignorance of the religion and other things. And good disposition, which is the result of the power of wisdom, has in it adultery, the hostility to the soul that consists in not attending to the religion, sinful deeds that cause injury to purity, and, deceit. Again, vigor, wherein (literally, which) is the strength of the soul, has residing in it, as its enemy, the sin of Dev-worship and of doing harm to purity. Further, the power of sufficing thought, wherein (literally, which) is the strength of the soul, has mixed with it, as the enemy that causes harm to purity, the sin of Dev-worship. Similarly, with the power of politeness pertaining to the soul, is mixed, as its enemy, the vice of adultery connected with (arising from) a perverted intellect. Again, with the proper (suitable) power of sight, is mixed, as its enemy the vice of adultery connected with (arising from) a perverse intellect. In the same way, with the power of movement of the soul are mixed, as its enemies, the vices of idleness and ill-doing.
Again, with the power of silence are mixed, as its enemies, the vice of speaking about wickedness and the sin of idleness. Hence, so long as man does not improve himself (by breaking away) from contact with evil by means of contact with the improving faculties pertaining to him, so long does he remain in danger. And the powers of his soul suffer injury from that danger. It is by improving the soul by holiness; and, by making endeavors for righteousness, remaining aloof from sin; and by remaining pure without being impure that (man) is enabled to put off from his soul the dullness (unwariness) of (induced by) those whose business it is to throw (upon others) the evil of misguidedness. It is necessary to avert the ailments of the body because of the measures to be taken against the diseases of (arising from) cold and dryness which are strokes from the Blemish-Giver.
Again, blood is like unto an ornament of the body: in whatever part that blood is injured there it coagulates. And owing to cold the heat of the blood is reduced. And owing to dryness the moisture (of the blood) is dried up. Thereby the blood that embellishes the body does not keep at all strong in the body to preserve it. And hence the creation is prevented from continuing in this world and from forming relations for Frashegird (final improvement). Those who work in accordance with the commands of God (i.e. the Yazads) give, without delay, renewed life, in the body, to the blood of the enfeebled body which has been injured, through the elements, owing to heat being suddenly covered up (driven out) by cold and moisture being destroyed by dryness. And thereby the elements behave (work) well with each other and work improvement. And the evil of cold being prevented the body again obtains moisture. And the evil of dryness being prevented the body is again remedied. That is to say that the blood and the strength of the body which, owing to some evil connection, have become injurious to life, become, through the instrumentality of the powers that develop the principles of the body, durable and improved.
It is declared (in the religion) that illness arises in the bodies of all life-possessing things through the hostility (rivalry) and the wickedness of the Blemish-Giver. And all the physical (bodily) danger (destruction) that originates in the body, does so because of the residence within it of the Power of Falsehood. And the improvement and the strength of the blood of the body depend upon its vigor (vitality). The vitality of the blood, with (the assistance of) the good physician who administers the medicines and adopts the remedies appropriate to it, confers health upon the inner as well as the outer parts of the body. And thus there is a continuance of the people and of their progeny in the world notwithstanding the state of destructive commingling of the Blemish-Giver.
Again, it is declared (in the religion) that man must, in the state of destructive commingling of the Blemish-Giver, improve himself in the way calculated to preserve himself. For improving the health of the body of man there are the elements which give form to the body. And the powers for benefiting the soul of man are akin to (resemble) Akho (the invisible power that gives foresight). It is owing to their enemy hunger that the bodily functions are in a state of want; hence, to suppress that enemy-like hunger the bodily functions ought to be helped, (for) to continue the strength of life-possessing man there is food and drink. When there is adequate food in the stomach of man he remains, owing to the assistance of the elements, strong and vigorous. Again, if there be much moisture in the food, the element of water prevails (over the other elements). That is to say that so long as there is the watery element for (to neutralize) the injuriousness of dryness, so long (man) feels no harm. And so long as there is the element of heat for (to balance) injurious cold, so long (man) does not become cold. If the element of air preponderate in the food, it overpowers the other elements. That is to say that so long as the element of air is for weakness (i.e. counter-balances and so removes weakness) so long it does not stop the breath of man. If the element of earth preponderate in the food, that earthy element overpowers the other elements. That is to say that so long as the earthy element does not stop the breath through lassitude and keeps it free, so long it, of all the elements, improves (makes better) any of the elements which, owing to an attack of hunger, have anywhere become to any extent injuriously unhealthy.
The improvement of life (health) depends upon moderate (and) proportionate food. In the same way, where medicine is (taken) in excess proportionately to food, man is rendered lifeless by the potency of the medicine. Some medicines do good to man when taken in small quantities. And his elements obtain vigor proportionately. Among the things received from God for (the purposes of) life, mostly for the improvement of the soul, is wisdom, whereby the powers of the soul become like unto things that apply remedies to its sins and its impurities. Similarly, to keep the body in health and in right condition there are the elements as things to apply remedies, through wisdom, to its ailments and to death. Except wisdom; no other thing can annihilate the danger (to life and body). It is because there is a physician of the soul that there is a physician of the body. And it is because there is a physician of the body that there is a physician of the soul: for, it is because of the fitness of the body that the teacher of the good religion, the physician of the soul, is successful in dispelling the diseases of the soul: And it is because of the suitableness of the soul that the physician learned in curing diseases of the body succeeds in dispelling diseases of the body.
Physicians (of) both (these descriptions), qualified by their abilities for their posts and the due ordering of their work, ought to be appointed by the king for dispelling the diseases pertaining to them. As regards this, the chief things to be done in removing diseases of the body are of the five kinds mentioned below: First, the setting right of the original (i.e. the body) and of existence (i.e. the soul): Secondly, making the elements work harmoniously: Thirdly, to set right again parts of the body and the soul that have been injured: Fourthly, bringing up those that have been born: Fifthly, keeping the bodily passions and disposition in regulation (order).
In the practice of physic, the work of dispelling the diseases of the body consists in protecting from harm the four elements out of which the world has been created, and in taking out from the elements of the body increments and defects calculated to put an end to it, and in improving and preserving it by proper remedies.
The work of dispelling the diseases of the soul consists in keeping united, one with another, for the doing of good deeds, the four powers (faculties) of the soul*, in preserving the soul from the Sinful Enemy, and keeping back the thoughts, the speech and the deeds of men from evil-thinking, evil-speaking and evil-doing, in giving splendor to their final condition and saving souls from hell by means of good thoughts, good words and good deeds.
[*The four powers or faculties are, Jan, Boe, Akho and Farohar.]
Be it known that, there are two ways (distinctions) as regards what works (deeds) are to be done and what not to be done. Of these, one is the way of doing deeds with knowledge (of the religion), and the other is the way of doing things without knowledge. As regards these there are four modes of the way of doing things with knowledge; and there are eight modes of the way of doing things without knowledge. And the exposition of each of them, according to the religion, is as follows: --
Thus, it is declared (in the religion) that whoever does righteous deeds and remains aloof from sin knowingly, he, according to the religion, is, by his deeds, as holy of person as the Yazads. (Secondly) whoever knowingly does sinful deeds and remains aloof from doing righteous (deeds), he, according to the religion, is as sinful of person as the Devs. (Thirdly) whoever knowingly does both righteous and sinful deeds, is, according to the religion, (a man) of this description that he obtains good reward by doing righteousness and suffers punishment by doing sinful deeds. (Fourthly) as regards him who notwithstanding that he knows (what is right) does, of the two, neither righteous nor sinful deeds, it is declared in the religion that, not committing sin, he, in the way of justice, is without (free from) imprisonment and not doing the righteousness which was obligatory, is (deserving) of imprisonment.
Again, of those men who act without knowledge he who, without knowledge (but simply) through considerations of good behavior, does righteous deeds and remains aloof from sin, -- regarding such (a man) it is declared in the religion that he, being inclined towards good, will acquire superior station by doing righteous deeds. But he who without seeing (i.e. making inquiries) does righteous deeds and remains aloof from sin will not thereby acquire greatness (in the coming world).
(Secondly) regarding him who, without knowledge (and) with (notwithstanding) thoughts of evil behavior, does righteous deeds and remains aloof from sin, it is declared, in accordance with the religion, that he, notwithstanding thoughts of evil, will be exempted from punishment.
(Thirdly) as regards him, who without thoughts pertaining to the religion does righteous deeds to obtain the reward of heaven, and despises whatever sin he may have committed and refrains from again committing the sinful deed, it is declared in the religion that notwithstanding he is inclined towards good through thoughts of good behavior, still, having committed sin, he will suffer punishment, and having remained aloof from righteousness, he will endure imprisonment.
(Fourthly) regarding him, who without knowledge, (and) with thoughts of evil behavior commits sin and remains aloof from righteousness, it is declared in the religion that being inclined to evil he, owing to commission of sin, will suffer much punishment, and owing to remaining aloof from righteousness, will endure rigorous imprisonment.
(Fifthly) regarding him who without knowledge (and) with thoughts of good behavior both does righteous deeds and commits sin, it is declared in the religion that, being inclined to good, he will, by doing righteous deeds, obtain greatness (exaltation): but if he should not have made inquiries about it (the righteous deed), he will not obtain liberation (from hell), and, having committed sin, will be a prisoner.
(Sixthly) as regards him who without knowledge (and) with thoughts of perverse behavior both does righteous deeds and commits sin, it is ordered in the religion that, being inclined towards evil, he cannot be considered to be thankful (grateful) (to his Creator) by doing righteous deeds; and, doing the deed without inquiry, he is without liberation (from hell), and, committing sin, will suffer rigorous imprisonment.
(Seventhly) with reference to him who without knowledge (and) with thoughts of good behavior, remains aloof from both (righteousness and sin), it is ordered in the religion that he, by remaining aloof from sin, will enjoy greatness, and, by remaining aloof from righteousness, will be without imprisonment.
(Eighthly) with regard to him who without knowledge (and) with thoughts of perverse behavior remains aloof from both (righteousness and sin), it is ordered in the religion that he, owing to thoughts of perverse behavior, being inclined to evil, will, notwithstanding his remaining aloof from sin, be without greatness, and owing to remaining aloof from righteousness, will be a prisoner.
Be it known that, the man who keeps the Blemish-Giver away from within himself makes himself walk for immortality. And he, without taking (admitting) any portion of perverse intelligence in any of his movements, makes himself walk (guides himself) with fully intelligent habits. The tendency of each act of man has reference to the partnership (of the good and evil invisible principles). And the reason for that has been stated by the former heads of the religion to be that the income obtained by a man who guides himself through the good Mino [Spenta Mainyu] (invisible principle) is helpful of the righteousness of purity. And the income obtained by a man who guides himself by the beguilements of the evil Mino [Anghra Mainyu] is calculated for making him a prisoner through the sin of impurity. Hence, the Dadar [Creator] has, through his omniscience given to all men, from the beginning of the creation, knowledge for conducting themselves so as to diminish the Drujs. For, through the work of diminution of the Drujs there is the acquisition of final liberation for final improvement, and the manifestation (i.e. the being born) at the time of the final judgment in happiness, full majesty (khoreh) [khwarrah], and superior rank.
Be it known that, the sun will shine four times from the highest place in the heavens where it was created by the Dadar [Creator] in the beginning of the world. And the object in so (shining) is to impart knowledge of the religion. When the Dadar first created the world he had created the sun, stationary, in the highest put of the heavens. And it was brought down from the highest part by four stages, increasing in its face (disc) and appearing very powerful in each stage. And in that state it has been made to move that it may benefit the people and keep moving always till the time of Frashegird. Its perpetual motion is owing to the powerful design (purpose) of the Dadar, the creator of the whole world. And its return to the highest place of its first creation, where it was first created, is for (pointing out) the time of those who bring the commands that benefit the people (i.e. of the prophets).
The continued motion of the sun till the time of Frashegird and the frequency of its returns to the highest place (in the heavens) are owing to the powerful design of its creator. This design of power regarding the sun (i.e. its return to its original place and its renewed motion thence) has reference to (i.e. is a mark of) the renewed promulgation of the Mazdayasnian religion proclaimed through the holy Zartosht.
And it has reference to the determination hereafter of the millennium of Zartosht (i.e. the period for which the religion promulgated by Zartosht will endure). At this time (the sun) will pause in the first mansion (place, stage) in the heavens from which it shines, being one of the limits in returning upwards from the top which is known by the name of the first andargah (stage). And it will remain in this stage for 10 days and nights. At the end of the millennium of Ushedar (the sun) will return, with a more powerful design, into the second mansion (place, stage) in the heavens from which it shines being the second limit in returning upwards from the top which is known by the name of the second andargah (stage). And it will remain in much strength in this stage for 20 days and nights.
When the millennium of Ushedarmah comes to an end (the sun)
will return, with much more powerful design, into the third mansion
in the heavens from which it shines, being the third limit in
returning upwards from the top which is known by the name of the
third andargah (stage). And it will remain in much more strength
in this stage for 30 days and nights. When the 57 years of Saoshyant
come to an end (the sun) will return, with extremely powerful
design, and will remain in the fourth mansion in the heavens from
which it shines, being the fourth limit in returning upwards from
the top which is known by the name of the fourth andargah (stage),
where it was first created for conveying benefit to the people:
And where it was kept in the beginning without moving. At this
time when the sun will be shining in the highest stage in the
heavens those who belong to Ahriman will receive harm, the resurrection
will take place and the people will be purified.
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