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This digital edition copyright © 1997 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.
Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881
Be it known that, a man is considered to be of the side of (either of) the Powerful Ones (Spenta Mainyu and Anghra Mainyu) according as he deserves to be requited for deeds of a superior or of a perverse character. And the man who does not deserve to be requited for either superior or perverse deeds is not considered to be of the side of (either of) the Powerful Ones. Those who are of the side of the Powerful Ones, as also those who are without the strength derived from them, have been described by the Dasturs, on the authority of the religion, in four ways. Of these one is the man who is strong for the invisible world as well as for this world, that is, a man who is (both) intelligent, and sound in every member of (his) body. Another is the man who is strong as regards the invisible world but who is weak for this world, that is, a man who is intelligent but who is hindered in respect of the vigor of all his bodily members. The third is the man who is without the strength required for actions suited to the invisible world but who is possessed of the strength required for this world, that is, a man who is wanting in intelligence but is sound with the vigor of all his bodily members. Such a man, notwithstanding his power of speech, is not of the side of any one. For, the man who is without the strength of the invisible (world) is lacking in intelligence, and the unintelligent man is possessed neither of the strength (intelligence) of this world nor is he worthy of acquiring that strength. The fourth is the man who is without strength for the invisible world as also for this world, that is, a man who is wanting in intelligence and in the movements of all his bodily members.
2. Be it known that, for the work of improving man, there are, in the mixed condition of things in this world, the gifts (i. e. generous deeds) connected with the coming world: and they consist in an accordance between them and the mutually related powers (of this and the coming world): (i.e. whatever promotes the physical and spiritual happiness of man, is a work of generosity i.e. of religion). Owing to this (truth) it was that that virtuous high priest and holy teacher, Adarbad the son of Zartosht was able to expound, in the form of the Naksh (text) quoted below, to that far-sighted emperor, Yazdegard the son of Shahpuhr, the potent thoughts of religion. And (he) pointed out (the fact) that the strength of the good and evil powers, being mutually destroyed, was rendered useless; (3) for, it is owing to (his) good sense that every man in this world is known to be an improver of (his) existence through the medium of things related to both this and the invisible world. 4. And the boon of the things related to both the worlds depends on the soul remaining steadfast in this world as the associate of the invisible world. 5. Among them, (i.e. things related to both the worlds), one thing related to this world is the body (of man). And the thing related to the invisible world is the soul. And man is formed by the union of these with each other.
6. Another (thing) belonging to this world is wealth, and to the invisible world is righteousness. 7. A third (thing) belonging to this world is honor and to the invisible world is good behavior. 8. A fourth (thing) belonging to this world is dominion, and to the coming world is religion. 9. A fifth (thing) belonging to this world is well-directed generosity, and to the coming world is wisdom.
10. (Man) becomes worthy of honor through the good powers belonging to the soul. And (he) becomes possessed of riches and the highest righteousness through good movements (deeds). 11. It is owing to (his) soul that (a man's) body is well-warned. 12. And the soul (itself) remains aloof from the contact of false Drujs, owing to the connection, one with another, (of soul and body). 13. And each (soul and body) is rendered dull by the weakening of the strength of the other; for, when any of the power of the soul become enfeebled, every one of the powers of (the) body is brought to a standstill. And when harm is done to any part of the body, injury is caused to its co-related soul. Therefore, it is owing to the purity of the soul that the body pertaining to this world becomes valuable. And the acquisition of purity by the soul is through the powers of the body pertaining to this world. 14. The riches of this world are exalted when they render help to the righteousness of the coming world; (for), it is generally through the riches of this world that the acquisition of righteousness for the coming world is rendered possible. 15. Honor in this world acquires (its) value through the good movements (deeds) for the coming world. 16. And the increase of good movements (deeds) for the coming world depends on the solicitude felt for the honors of this world. 17. The improvement of rule in this world depends on the influence exerted on the people by the religion from the invisible world. And the religion from the invisible world is continued (in this world) that rule may be maintained among the people in excellence.
18. The good gifts (deeds) of this world acquire eminence by being connected with the wisdom for the coming world. And the wisdom for the coming world depends on good gifts (deeds) in this world. 19. The body of this world is punished because of the sins of the invisible soul. And the invisible soul is separated from the body, when the body of this world is injured. 20. When the riches of this world are lost, the righteousness for the invisible world is obstructed. And it is when the righteousness for the invisible world is enfeebled by them that the contact of the riches of this world becomes improper. 21. The good movements (deeds) for the coming world are broken up when reputation in this world is lost. And when the good movements (deeds) for the coming world are broken up the connection of this world's honor with man ceases to exist.
22. When the waxing condition of rule (sovereignty) in this world is destroyed, the continuance in this world of the religion pertaining to the invisible world is prevented. And when the religion which pertains to the invisible world becomes unstable, rule (sovereignty) in this world is rendered unenduring. 23. The non-acquisition of good reward from gifts (deeds) in this world is owing to the unwise (and) enfeebled understanding connected with the invisible world. And the gifts (deeds) of this world made without a desire for (the) wisdom (of the invisible world) are undeserving of praise.
This world's body is (exists) because of the soul which belongs to the invisible world.
The gifts (good deeds) of this world are (exist) because of the wisdom belonging to the invisible world.
Sovereignty (rule) in this world is (exists) because of the religion which concerns the invisible world,
Honor (reputation) in this world is (exists) because of the good movements (deeds) concerning the invisible world.
The riches of this world are (exist) because of the righteousness belonging to the invisible world.
Be it known that, the source of all good and the head-most promoter of all good is the Spenta Mainyu who is possessed with an exceeding desire for the goodness of the Creator, Ohrmazd. Therefore, the king, who is on the side of goodness, causes immense benefit to all the people and raises them to a high position in the invisible world through the works of this world. And he puts off harm from himself. The source of all evil and the most forward promoter of all wickedness, Anghra Mainyu of the wicked desires, is Ahriman, the injurer (of the world). Therefore, the king who is of the side of wickedness is the doer of exceeding harm to all mankind both in this world and in the coming world. And hence he is the hinderer of benefits to himself. Hence the man who in this world, through the Source of well-inclined wisdom, perpetually keeps (himself) connected with righteousness, is, as much as possible, possessed of a desire for good deeds. And, therefore, he is desirous of the income of righteousness. And the man who, in this world, through the Source of wickedly-inclined evil wisdom, keeps (himself) always connected with sin, is, as much as possible, a doer of wicked deeds. And he is possessed of the income-less desire (of sin). (Therefore), if the religion of one religious teacher, among others, (is such as to ) impart wicked wishes and commandments, the religion of that religious teacher is wicked and calculated to cause injury to his community through all wickedness. Hence, the religion which is devoid of the wishes pertaining to life, is a religion which conforms to the wishes of the Unknowing and the Death-causing (Anghra Mainyu). Whoever accepts such a religion as a religion is an approver, through missing the (right ) path, of a lifeless religion. It is not right to consider such a religion as a religion.
Be it known that, in (this) mixed (world of good and evil) the progeny of man is divided into three ranks, -- the highest, the middle, and the lowest. And the particulars thereof are this-wise. The highest is superior to the middle and the lowest (rank). The middle is superior to the lowest. The lowest of the children of men become superior to those in the highest and middle rank. And the reason generally is their firmer faith in the good religion and their greater liking (for it).
It is this-wise that, in proportion as the lowest of the progeny of men are more solicitous to remain firm in the good religion than the middle (rank) of the progeny of men, and as the middle (rank) of the progeny of men are more solicitous than the highest believers, in the same proportion are they superior (in rank to the others), owing to the greater solicitude of the one than that of the other. And it is because of their solicitude that the highest believers are of a nature like unto that of the Yazads.
Similarly, the highest of the children of men become, of their own accord, like unto the lowest of the children of men and (even) inferior to them by reason of excessive faith in the religion of evil. Those also who are the meanest and who become like unto the Devs and Drujs in their nature, are such, because of their wicked desires.
Be it known that, men fit to hold communion with or to remain aloof from are of various kinds: of these, firstly, the communion between those obedient to God is owing to their disposition to remain in obedience to God. And the severance between those obedient to God and those disobedient to Him is owing to the disobedient disposition (of the latter) towards God. Secondly, the communion between those who obey God and the believers in the good religion is owing to their faith being that of the good religion. And their severance from those belonging to the evil religion is owing to their (of the latter) ways pertaining to the evil religion. Thirdly, those belonging to the good religion are connected with the good (i. e. the priests or Athornans) because of gifts made for the worship of God; and their separation from the wicked is owing to their (the latter) failing to worship God and to make gifts. Fourthly, of these three kinds of Mazdayasnians, those who are the highest in rank, are such, owing to the worship of God and to the acquisition of the friendship of the Yazads. And their separation from the Devs is owing to their entirely refraining from worshipping Devs and from doing the work pertaining to them.
Be it known that, it is mentioned in the religion that the two most excellent qualities pertaining to intelligence of a high order, are, liberality and love. And they pertain to God himself. And each of these (two qualities) is fostered by the other. (For), to make a gift with a pure heart to a holy man in order to secure his love is liberality. And a liking for making gifts to good men is love for holy men. Through these (qualities) man becomes connected with heaven (paradise). Similarly, there are two most evil vices pertaining to perverse intelligence of a low order, which are miserliness and animosity. Further, these two vices belong to the Devs themselves. And each of them is set off by the other. Miserliness consists in refusing to give a thing to a holy man who asks for it (merely) from animosity to the holy man (and) notwithstanding that the person has the thing in abundance. Animosity for holy men is where there is a good man worthy of securing the love of men, and instead of securing his love, enmity is shown towards him, through (a spirit of) miserliness.
Be it known that, it is owing to light and darkness, that there is a mixture (formation) in this world of heat, cold, moisture, and dryness. And the other related varieties of created things possess them in the required degree. Thus, it is owing to them (light and darkness) that the things of this world are possessed of light, darkness, heat, cold, moisture, and dryness. Similarly, this world is shining because of light, dark because of darkness, hot because of heat, moist because of moisture, and dry because of dryness. Therefore, it is impossible for these two rivals (light and darkness) to associate with each other and for this world to wear a uniform aspect. Similarly, it is not possible, owing to many diverse ways, for this world to be the rival (antagonist) of the one (and the partisan of the other). Again heat and moisture are (exist) because of light. When this world is lighted up everything upon it is fragrant, pure, and good looking. And other (portions of the) good creation are possessed of good sway (influence). Similarly, cold and dryness are owing to darkness. When this world is in darkness everything upon it is stinking, filthy, and of sinful movement. And (other portions of the) evil creation acquire evil luster and evil sway (influence). Therefore, the antagonism of these two (light and darkness) depends upon the predominance in this (world), one over another, of the superior powers in whom they have their different sources. Hence, one (of these powers) cannot associate (coexist) with the other. (For), one of these things (light) has a source (Spenta Mainyu) through which it fights (its fights), keeps within bounds and performs good deeds in this world. And the other thing (darkness) has a source (Anghra Mainyu) through which there is companionship with sin. From this it appears that one of these powers introduces relations with powers, good at adopting remedies and well-regulated, such as belong to the Yazads. And the other power gives (introduces) relations with the (perverse powers) connected with the cherishing of the body. This (the above) was written by the head of the religion, the virtuous Adarfarobag the son of Farokhjad, in the (book called) A'inin Nameh and has been introduced into what was written on the same subject in the Denkard composed by the former heads of the religion.
If the sayings of any one of the religious teachers are calculated for darkness, and are wholly devoid of light, such (sayings) are connected with darkness. And where (in the sayings of religious teachers) there is much shining of light there, there is permanence of light and disappearance (setting) of darkness. Just as where darkness shines (prevails) no object can obtain light, so as long as there is the existence of these two (Spenta Mainyu and Anghra Mainyu) holding relations with the conduct of man in this world, so long the above objects (causes) (light and darkness) will appear: but when the limit of both (Spenta Mainyu and Anghra Mainyu) is reached (completed) nothing will perish. For this reason these two are nowhere found in the same place, but one of them is always covered up or rendered lusterless (deprived of vigor) by the other. And the shutting up of the one is the manifestation of the other. As where heat is, cold cannot remain, and where moisture is, there is no dryness: so (where there is Spenta Mainyu, there Anghra Mainyu cannot remain). Hence, it is just to speak suitably of the one (Anghra Mainyu) who is deserving of being covered up and rendered lusterless by the other. For wanting the existence of heat there is cold. And wanting the existence of cold there is heat. And where there is (exists) no dryness there is moisture. And the non-existence of moisture is dryness. For this reason, without (the existence of) any one of these things the end of the action of any one (the other) cannot be made out (distinguished). Further in all the things in the world there is antagonism and a suppression of one by the other. Therefore it must be said (admitted) that all things (in this world) are for destruction.
Again (further explanation) in regard to this matter is this, that, he who is for destruction (Anghra Mainyu) will not be able to obtain the first one (Spenta Mainyu). And will not be able to be of his side. Then, how is it possible for light and darkness to obtain (secure) each other? or how can they be of the side of each other? If things of darkness were not rendered lusterless (feeble) by light; if, similarly, cold was not destroyed by heat, these things differing from each other could have remained together. Therefore, the religious teacher who is of the side of light makes (man) open-eyed. And the religious teacher who is of the side of darkness shuts up the eyes (of mall). For this reason he who does the work of destruction (sin) is spoken of (in the religion) as connected with Devs. And he who is wholly unconnected with destruction is spoken of as one who can live within (the) bounds (prescribed by Spenta Mainyu). Therefore, if (a religious teacher) is for darkness, he pertains to destruction. And for this reason in proportion as religious teachers are for darkness they are connected with Devs and hold corresponding designations (titles). For, such speeches (sermons) are made by them as if they intended to render their (followers) perishable (sinful). Therefore these religious teachers are wholly undeserving of glory. Those who belong to the Mazdayasnian religion are well able to understand both light and darkness. And (they) are able to keep themselves on the side (of Spenta Mainyu): And keep themselves on their guard against the perverse Source.
Be it known that, thoughts (considerations) regarding the work of the Blemish-giver in connection with men, from his beginning to his end, are promulgated in the one (Mazdayasnian) religion. Therefore the man who, by means of the explanations in that religion, points out to the soul (of man) the best way for attaining superior position has for his object the suppression of perverse passions and the strengthening of virtue. In the beginning (of the world) the first person to communicate high thoughts to men doing the work pertaining to the Blemish-giver was Gayomard. And it was through the precepts (thoughts) of this one man who was the first (person) created in this world, that all men became good-thinking, good-speaking and good-doing. And it is owing to his precepts that men even now think (what is) good, speak (what is) good and do (what is) good, and will continue to be in the habit of thinking, speaking and doing the same till the time of the final improvement. And it is by means of them that whatever sinful deeds and miseries are inflicted (given) on the world by the Blemish-giver will be removed (got rid of). And there will be final improvement of the world in consonance with the wishes of the holy Ohrmazd. And the people of this world will become free from the evil passions of the Blemish-giver, and the whole good creation will be for ever immortal and free from vice.
Be it known that it is because of wisdom that a man is a doer of good or evil deeds. He who is a doer of good deeds is possessed of good wisdom (intelligence). And he, using his wisdom for the purpose of doing good deeds, is able to keep up his connection with the One Lord with whom connection ought to be maintained. And he who is a doer of evil deeds is possessed of evil wisdom (intelligence). And lie, using his wisdom in doing evil deeds, is of the way of the other one (Anghra Mainyu) (and) Farehbut. Good intelligence keeps (a man) pure of sin. For, good intelligence (wisdom) keeps (a man), in accordance with justice, aloof from secretly dispoiling the people and doing them harm, and similarly, keeps (him aloof) from appropriating to himself, through the Blemish-giver, the goods and property of other. In the same way a person of good intelligence (wisdom) opposes the open plunder, and highway robbery of men's goods and property.
Be it known that, the moving of the world in the good path depends upon the first of the two desires (inclinations) of Kings, -- one, (a desire) to do good deeds and another, (a desire) to do evil deeds. For, men are enabled to maintain (themselves) because of the desire of kings to do good deeds. similarly, it is owing to the desire of Kings to do good that men are enabled to redeem their souls from hell. And thus is the world made to move in the right manner (path). But if the desire of the King be to do evil deeds) then mankind are diminished and their souls are enfeebled. And thus are the people of the world destroyed.
Be it known that, foresight is a knowledge of the final end of things derived from a knowledge of the religion. Superiority consists in making (creating) many things out of one. To recognize a thing out of a multitude is wisdom. To know the advantages and disadvantages of every thing is the power of discrimination. Faith and belief are the analogical indications for understanding the things which obtain (secure) life and which do not obtain life. Inference is the power to understand the object (or aim of things). Sense is the strength for preserving the internal powers. The understanding is for examining and selecting things. Thought is (given) for guiding the powers of (man) through approvable reflection. Speech is (given) for the purpose of making known what is hidden (private) in man and for describing the invisible powers. Deeds are the result of the guidance, through the members of the body (and) through wisdom, of its powers (of the body.)
Be it known that, it is through wisdom that men possess all desires and the power of speech. Similarly, men with desires are possessed of wisdom because of the power of expressing (their thoughts) in every way. And it is through the power of speech that all men are possessed of wisdom and of the strength of desires. Without the power of speech, men with desires would not have appeared possessed of wisdom. Similarly, without wisdom, men would not have possessed desires through the power of speech. And without the power of speech men would not have appeared possessed of desires and wisdom. Hence, wisdom, desires and the power of speech become manifest through their mutual connection. Consequently, the existence of those among religious teachers who are for (on the side of) the wishes of the Creator, is destroyed because of their manifesting ignorance regarding the Creator and because of their failing to explain to the people of the world the excellencies of the Lord. And for this reason such religious teachers are not considered religious.
Further, what are known to be deeds connected with conduct are (exist) through (the instrumentality) of speech and motion. One of these is connected with desire, which has its source in man. And the other is connected with passion which has its source in fire. He whose desires are without religion (irreligious) is not deserving of life. And he who does (his) work through the movements of the passions, is without thought (thoughtless) throughout his life. There is no work of movement for life-possessing man after the termination of his life: Similarly, previously (to birth) there is no possibility of work for the soul. After (life) is ended, nothing done (by man) is to be seen, for, without bodies, (men) are without thoughts, without objects and without end. The man who is not thankful to his Creator is not obedient to His rule and does not act in accordance with His behests. Again, every man becomes possessed of religious enthusiasm through the power of a religious teacher who excites (creates) religious enthusiasm (passion), and thereby he is enabled to remain, in faith, on the side of his Creator, the Self-Existent. Without it (religion) the Creator cannot be for the creation and the creation for its Creator. Should any one say (question): man being of the side of the appetites (desires) (i.e. appetites springing naturally in him), the (satisfaction of) appetites must be considered just; that being so, how can it (such satisfaction) be considered improper? for, unless a thing is wanted there is no necessity for it; and there is no want (felt) without desire (appetite); and unless there be one antagonistic to life there can be no liking (desire). The answer is: Any thing that is right according to the religion is (a thing that is) wise, (that) suppresses danger to the people of the world and gives them strength, and (that) drives out the power of the Blemish-giver from the creation and reduces it. And in virtue of it (man) becomes possessed of strength of a superior kind, successful in his hopes, and thankful to his Maker through the proper wishes connected with it (the religion). If the Blemish-giver were not forced out (suppressed) from among the people, because of wants (desires), there would be no diminution of him whatever. And danger could not be averted from among the people notwithstanding all proper (and) sensible measures. Hence it is a duty to avert and diminish as much as possible the power of the Blemish-giver. Again, the success of the Enemy of Life, although it does not enable (man) to help himself, yet thereby harm (emanating) from the Destroyer (possessor of death) is thrown into men to render them unworthy. Therefore, to drive him out is, for men, a victorious deed. Hence, those who, at whatever place, largely annihilate from among their people harm-causing works of the Blemish-giver and who do battle against those possessed of injurious desires have always been known to be victorious.
Be it known that, he who is possessed of the power of the Spenamino causes harm (to Ahriman). And he who is possessed of the power of the Spenamino in the highest degree does the greatest harm (to Ahriman). And that man is the doer of deeds which harm Ahriman. And that strength-possessing man causes harm to his antagonist, smites him and makes him hide himself (in the earth). He who is deserving of being harmed, who is (exists) for the work of harm and who has received harm at the hands of one most strong with the full good strength of Spenta Mainyu, is Anghra Mainyu of sinful strength. And the reason why Anghra Mainyu is deserving of the utmost harm is that he is for harming each good created thing. And those men who possess in the smallest degree the strength of Spenta Mainyu are also capable of causing harm to that harm-causing Druj (Anghra Mainyu.)
Be it known that, it is by means of the one religion of great wisdom that the weighing and ascertainment of the men belonging to the religion who hold relations with good and with evil can be made. And these (men) are of three ways. Of these, one way is that pertaining to religious disposition: another way is that pertaining to religious habit: and the third way is that pertaining to the wisdom of the religion. Further explanation regarding these three ways is given under the sections relating to them where some (men) are considered as acting according to the law and some as acting contrary to the law. Men of these three ways, as they are doers of good deeds so are they doers of evil deeds. And they are of eight kinds.
A discerning wise man is able find out by examination who among these eight kinds of men holds good and who evil relations.
Be it known that, the severance and remaining aloof (from man) of him of the Evil Source is by means of the one (Mazdayasnian) religion, and is not at all by means of the religion of Devs or that of Yahudis (Jews). For, in these (religions) it is thought that if the Other (Anghra Mainyu) is a rival, why should he be called of the Evil Source and one to be kept aloof from and one connected with Devs? for, if the Other is to be a rival of the First, (Spenta Mainyu) for limitless time, that must be said to be a reason for their being a pair connected with this world. Again, it is the belief in every religion of the Evil Source pertaining to Mani (and) accepted in this world as divine: why should it not be possible for man to become personally divine (heavenly)? For, the manifestation in man of that (divine) power is through the living thing (principle) other than the body. But each of these two religions was fabricated in this world; how can they be considered divine? All those religions which are formed of (founded on) work done with things of art repose faith in the religion, base in thought, of him of the Evil Source. Again, it is said (thought) in those religions: when, according to compact the One (Spenta Mainyu) is to remain (in the world) for limitless time, why should the other be considered as of the Devs? Then (the answer is): notwithstanding (the existence of) numerous different compacts for limitless time in reference to each, how can they be called the colleagues of each other*?
[It is the opinion of men of other religions that good and evil qualities having been placed in man by God they are the complements of each other and that any act which has its origin in either of these qualities cannot be called sinful. The learned author of the Denkard has declared such religions to be opposed to the Mazdayasnian religion and to be based on the ways of Devs. For, if according to this opinion there were no difference between virtue and vice, the commandments contained in the Mazdayasnian religion about doing virtuous deeds and the warnings given to man to remain aloof from vice would be useless and what is said about the reward of virtue being happiness in the next world and of vice being misery would be untrue. Not only that, but the laws for the punishment of wicked persons enforced in courts of justice would be nugatory.]
Be it known that, the deeds of men appertain to that to which their disposition appertains. In especial men's dispositions are dependent upon their religion. And their turning towards sin depends upon their doing things without attending to matters of religion. And such men are of three kinds. One that makes gifts to those who do good and does not make gifts to those who do evil deeds. The second that makes gifts to those who do good and those who do evil. The third that makes gifts to those who do evil and does not make gifts to those who do good. He who, owing to his religion and disposition, makes gifts to those who do evil and does not make gifts to those who do good, -- a man of this disposition is a hinderer of that immortality which prevails in this world through the strength of the goodness of the Dadar [Creator], and is a giver of advice for evil. The man who has debased himself by the deeds (mentioned) above, has rendered himself a prisoner of hell through his disposition, and also is a great injurer of himself. Men who are very wicked hold very intimate relations with Devs and are great diminishers of the world. And thereby the people of the world become possessed of wicked morals and of wicked religion. The man who makes gifts to those who do good equally with those who do evil, thereby gets himself worshipped by many men. And that they may do their sinful deeds he makes men of perverse disposition in the world continue very much to walk in contact with sin. So, he is one who does (both) good and evil deeds. And thereby vices and immorality prevail in man; and thereby the world is rendered extremely desolate, people are diminished (in numbers) through hardships and men become very sinful. And, Owing to sin that causes harm to the souls of men, and to the heavy oppression of wicked Drujs, the gifts of glory-bestowing Yazads are covered up (disappear). And thereby he, as it were, makes known the manifestation in the world of uncleanliness, unholiness and hardships of various kinds; for which reason, such a man is (considered) an enemy of the people.
Further, the man who makes gifts to good men and gives no gifts to wicked men, -- such a man is possessed with a desire to do (secure) to the world the benefits of the religion, and to keep up among the people ways that are (calculated) for immortality, and to turn men's dispositions towards good, and to render their (men's) intelligence fit (calculated) for good thinking, good speaking and good doing through the Wisdom whose nature it is to think, speak and do good. And (such a man), through the instrumentality of good attributes and good though , renders the world superior, redeems the souls of men (from hell), and makes the souls and bodies of men fit for the gifts of the Creator of the world by making them walk in (the path that secures) superior benefits. Men become pure and good through the constant prevalence of religion in the world and through the firm belief of all men in religion. And thereby the world is rendered free from danger and perpetually good. And the thing that explains these (matters) to the people of the world is the pure, the good Mazdayasnian religion, adorned with all wisdom.
Be it known that, the man whose thoughts, words, and deeds have the tendency of his Master's, and in whose heart is, through the instrumentality of the good religion, union with the Creator Ohrmazd, the highest, -- that man is for himself. And that man conveys himself by means of that true path (system) to the shining mansion of perpetual goodness and complete joy. The man whose thoughts, words, and deeds are, owing to the aims of perverse intelligence, opposed to those of his Master's, -- that man is, owing to the connection with the evil path (system) of perverse intelligence, of the evil religion, and is, owing to the sinful efforts of Anghra Mainyu, fitted to be a prisoner in the mansion of perpetual hardship and of complete pain. Such a man is not for himself.
Be it known that, the acquisition by a man of perfect knowledge of the work of his profession, and generally his success therein, happen only when he is possessed of proper thought and of concern for the Possessor of Good Gifts. And thus he stands (remains) high in the knowledge of his calling. And in every work of his he comes above (others). And the opener of his thoughts is his heart. Just as a man of successful desires is filled with great joy on account of his success, so such a man is always of uniform action (manner) in regard to his bodily powers. Further, such a man, being accustomed to reflect through intelligence, obtains a knowledge of his work (business) through the good-thinking Power. Thus, he does not feel wearied when danger, involving much trouble, comes upon him. Likewise, he does not feel elated when a higher degree of ease is experienced.
Be it known that, the rule of the good improves the holy ordinances of religion, because the holy and refreshing precepts of religion make immoral and vicious (possessed of blemishes) men tremble. Therefore, he who keeps the people of the world refreshed (healthy and prosperous) is like unto water that is fragrant and of delicate excellence. As by means of excellence-imparting water moisture and ease can be obtained (by men) and dryness removed (driven away) from them, and as injurious water causes immediate death, so by means of the rule of good kings the people of this world will rise up again to invoke (remember) the holy Self-Existent and his invisible Yazads and to obtain their desires through the Self-Existent and his Yazads. Likewise, owing to the holy religion of such kings men obtain the means of being connected with that religion and make endeavors to know the goodness of the holy Yazad of Yazads.
The rule of wicked people is the rule of the Immoral and the Vicious (one full of blemishes). Thereby the power of the religious system of virtuous intelligent men is destroyed (set). Further, things are earned so far that (a man originally religious) performs in this world deeds known in the world as those of Farehbut and Aibibut. And, owing to this, the man becomes as obscured (darkened) and damaged as he (before) was glorious in the world through (good) deeds. Such rule being itself (calculated) for evil (destruction), owing to it, that good man, -- his glory (fame) being lessened, -- is reduced to the lowest rank. Further, owing to the many troubles, injuries, and hardships caused to the people by wicked rulers there is no resurrection (rising again) for the people in this world for the remembrance of the holy Self-Existent and the invisible Yazads.
Be it known that, superior strength is like unto a characteristic that raises men to a high rank and confers luster (upon them). And men in this respect are of three kinds. Of these, (the men of) the first (kind) are those who obey the advice and directions of a person highly versed in the religion and who, making inquiries about the religion, of that religious teacher and hearing good words (matter) from him, consider themselves as inferior in rank to him. Men of the second (kind) are those who being themselves superior, with consummate thought, to those of inferior rank, impart (make a gift of) those thoughts to those who are inferior to them and raise those who are of inferior rank to superior rank in virtue (excellence). Men of the third (kind) are those who, owing to their superior aims, are superior to those of the faithful (believers in the religion) who are inferior, and who, owing to their humility -- (the result) of higher obedience (to the religion), -- consider themselves inferior to the others.
Further, the inferior (low) strength which carries men to inferior rank, has characteristics the opposite of those described as belonging to the above-mentioned three kinds of men. Of these the first (kind of) men are those who obey the advice and directions of a person highly versed in the religion of Devs and who, making inquiries, about religion, of that religious teacher, are zealous in the work relating to it, and consider themselves inferior to him. (Men of) the second (kind) are those who impart (make a gift of) their hateful disposition and hurtful propensities to those inferior to them, and who raise those inferior to them to a higher degree in vice. Men of the third (kind) are those who being more disobedient to God and more fond of the religion of Devs than others, notwithstanding consider themselves, owing to the meanness of their thoughts, to be inferior in high hurtfulness to those beneath them.
Be it known that when, under the authority of the highest religious teacher of the Zartoshti community, holy men impart religious instruction to the people of their religion, and when, heeding the words of the holy religious teacher, all men remain in obedience to him, the holy religious teacher imparts increased luster to the Mazdayasnian religion. Those who impart increased darkness to the Mazdayasnian religion are the Farehbut and Aibibut*: these people belong to Anghra Mainyu, and therefore, they harm people of the good religion, create enmity and dissensions among them and teach them to hate their own Dastur.
[* By Farehbut and Aibibut are to be understood those persons
who, while walking themselves in the wicked path of Ahriman, sow
discord and dissensions among believers in the Mazdayasnian religion,
give rise to doubt, and questions in the minds of true believers
by perverting and misrepresenting the precepts of that religion
and lower Dasturs and mobeds in the estimation of their co-religionists
by slandering and traducing them, and teach Zoroastrians to despise
the Dasturs of their religion. These deceitful Ashmoghs may be
of any kind; they may act as above for the promotion of their
objects while professing the Mazdayasnian religion, or, being
irreligious, they may be actuated by animosity to that religion.]
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