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The Bundahishn ("Creation"), or Knowledge from the Zand

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1897.

CHAPTER 29. On the spiritual chieftainship of the regions of the earth

On [the spiritual chieftainship of the regions of the earth] it says in revelation, that every one of those six chieftainships has one spiritual chief; as the chief of Arezahi is Ashashagahad-e Hvandchan, the chief of Sawahi is Hoazarodathhri-hana Pareshtyaro, the chief of Fradadhafshu is Spitoid-i Ausposinan, [the chief of Vidadhafshu is Airizh-rasp Ausposinan,] the chief of Wourubareshti is Huvasp, the chief of Wourujareshti is Cakhravak. 2. Zartosht is spiritual chief of the region of Xwaniratha, and also of all the regions; he is chief of the world of the righteous, and it is said that the whole religion was received by them from Zartosht.
In the region of Xwaniratha are many places, from which, in this evil time of violent struggling with the adversary, a passage (vidarg) is constructed by the power of the spiritual world (mainokih), and one calls them the beaten tracks of Xwaniratha.
Counterparts of those other regions are such places as Kangdez, the land of Saukavastan, the plain of the Arabs (Tazhikan), the plain of Peshyansai, the river Naivtak, Eranvej, the enclosure (var) formed by Yim [Jamshed], and Cashmere in India. 5. And one immortal chief acts in the government of each of them; as it says, that Peshotan son of Vishtasp, whom they call Chitro-maino, is in the country of Kangdez; Aghrerad son of Pashang is in the land of Saukavastan, and they call him Gopatshah; Parshadga Hvembya is in the plain of Peshyansai, and he is Hvembya for this reason, because they brought him up in a hvemb ('jar') for fear of Khashm ('Wrath'); [Asam-i Yamahusht is in the place which they call the River Naivtak]; the tree opposed to harm is in Eranvej; Urvatadnar son of Zartosht is in the enclosure formed by Yim [Jamshed]. 6. Regarding them it says, they are those who are immortal, as are Narsih son of Vivangha, Tus son of Nodar, Giw son of Gudarz, Ibairaz the causer of strife, and Ashavazd son of Pourudhakhsht; and they will all come forth, to the assistance of Soshyant, on the production of the renovation of the universe.
Regarding Sam it says, that he became immortal, but owing to his disregard of the Mazdayasnian religion, a Turk whom they call Nihaj wounded him with an arrow, when he was asleep there, in the plain of Peshyansai; and it had brought upon him the unnatural lethargy (Bushasp) which overcame him in the midst of the heat. 8. And the glory (far) of heaven stands over him for the purpose that, when Azi Dahak [Zohak] becomes unfettered (arazhak), he may arise and slay him; and a myriad guardian spirits of the righteous are as a protection to him. 9. Of Dahak [Zohak], whom they call Bevarasp, this, too, it says, that Faridoon when he captured Dahak [Zohak] was not able to kill him, and afterwards confined him in Mount Damawand; when he becomes unfettered, Sam arises, and smites and slays him.
As to Kangdez, it is in the direction of the east, at many leagues from the bed (var) of the wide-formed ocean towards that side. 11. The plain of Peshyansai is in Kavulistan, as it says, that the most remarkable upland (balist) in Kavulistan is where Peshyansai is; there it is hotter, on the more lofty elevations there is no heat. 12. Eranvej is in the direction of Ataro-patakan [Azerbaijan]. 13. The land of Saukavastan is on the way from Turkistan to Chinistan, in the direction of the north. 14. [The enclosure] formed by Yim [Jamshed] is in the middle of Pars, in Sruva; thus, they say, that what Yim [Jamshed] formed (Yim-kard) is below Mount Yimakan. 15. Cashmere is in Hindustan.

CHAPTER 30. On the resurrection and future existence

On the nature of the resurrection and future existence it says in revelation, that, whereas Mashye and Mashyane, who grew up from the earth, first fed upon water, then plants, then milk, and then meat, men also, when their time of death has come, first desist from eating meat, then milk, then from bread, till when they shall die they always feed upon water. 2. So, likewise, in the millennium of Hoshedarmah, the strength of appetite (az) will thus diminish, when men will remain three days and nights in superabundance (sirih) through one taste of consecrated food. 3. Then they will desist from meat food, and eat vegetables and milk; afterwards, they abstain from milk food and abstain from vegetable food, and are feeding on water; and for ten years before Soshyant comes they remain without food, and do not die.
After Soshyant comes they prepare the raising of the dead, as it says, that Zartosht asked of Ohrmazd thus: 'Whence does a body form again, which the wind has carried and the water conveyed (vazhid)? and how does the resurrection occur?' 5. Ohrmazd answered thus: 'When through me the sky arose from the substance of the ruby, without columns, on the spiritual support of far-compassed light; when through me the earth arose, which bore the material life, and there is no maintainer of the worldly creation but it; when by me the sun and moon and stars are conducted in the firmament (andarvai) of luminous bodies; when by me corn was created so that, scattered about in the earth, it grew again and returned with increase; when by me color of various kinds was created in plants; when by me fire was created in plants and other things without combustion; when by me a son was created and fashioned in the womb of a mother, and the structure (pishak) severally of the skin, nails, blood, feet, eyes, ears, and other things was produced; when by me legs were created for the water, so that it flows away, and the cloud was created which carries the water of the world and rains there where it has a purpose; when by me the air was created which conveys in one's eyesight, through the strength of the wind, the lowermost upwards according to its will, and one is not able to grasp it with the hand out-stretched; each one of them, when created by me, was herein more difficult than causing the resurrection, for it is an assistance to me in the resurrection that they exist, but when they were formed it was not forming the future out of the past. 6. Observe that when that which was not was then produced, why is it not possible to produce again that which was? for at that time one will demand the bone from the spirit of earth, the blood from the water, the hair from the plants, and the life from fire, since they were delivered to them in the original creation.'
First, the bones of Gayomard are roused up, then those of Mashye and Mashyane, then those of the rest of mankind; in the fifty-seven years of Soshyant they prepare all the dead, and all men stand up; whoever is righteous and whoever is wicked, every human creature, they rouse up from the spot where its life departs. 8. Afterwards, when all material living beings assume again their bodies and forms, then they assign (bara yehabund) them a single class. 9. Of the light accompanying (levatman) the sun, one half will be for Gayomard, and one half will give enlightenment among the rest of men, so that the soul and body will know that this is my father, and this is my mother, and this is my brother, and this is my wife, and these are some other of my nearest relations.
Then is the assembly of the Sadvastaran, where all mankind will stand at this time; in that assembly every one sees his own good deeds and his own evil deeds; and then, in that assembly, a wicked man becomes as conspicuous as a white sheep among those which are black. 11. In that assembly whatever righteous man was friend of a wicked one in the world, and the wicked man complains of him who is righteous, thus: 'Why did he not make me acquainted, when in the world, with the good deeds which he practiced himself?' if he who is righteous did not inform him, then it is necessary for him to suffer shame accordingly in that assembly.
Afterwards, they set the righteous man apart from the wicked; and then the righteous is for heaven (garothman), and they cast the wicked back to hell. 13. Three days and nights they inflict punishment bodily in hell, and then he beholds bodily those three days' happiness in heaven. 14. As it says that, on the day when the righteous man is parted from the wicked, the tears of every one, thereupon, run down unto his legs. 15. When, after they set apart a father from his consort (hambaz), a brother from his brother, and a friend from his friend, they suffer, every one for his own deeds, and weep, the righteous for the wicked, and the wicked about himself; for there may be a father who is righteous and a son wicked, and there may be one brother who is righteous and one wicked. 16. Those for whose peculiar deeds it is appointed, such as Dahak [Zohak] and Frasiyav of Tur, and others of this sort, as those deserving death (marg-arjanan), undergo a punishment no other men undergo; they call it 'the punishment of the three nights.'
Among his producers of the renovation of the universe, those righteous men of whom it is written that they are living, fifteen men and fifteen damsels, will come to the assistance of Soshyant. 18. As Gochihr falls in the celestial sphere from a moon-beam on to the earth, the distress of the earth becomes such-like as that of a sheep when a wolf falls upon it. 19. Afterwards, the fire and halo melt the metal of Shahrewar, in the hills and mountains, and it remains on this earth like a river. 20. Then all men will pass into that melted metal and will become pure; when one is righteous, then it seems to him just as though he walks continually in warm milk; but when wicked, then it seems to him in such manner as though, in the world, he walks continually in melted metal.
Afterwards, with the greatest affection, all men come together, father and son and brother and friend ask one another thus: 'Where has it been these many years, and what was the judgment upon thy soul? hast thou been righteous or wicked?' 22. The first soul the body sees, it inquires of it with those words (guft). 23. All men become of one voice and administer loud praise to Ohrmazd and the archangels.
Ohrmazd completes his work at that time, and the creatures become so that it is not necessary to make any effort about them; and among those by whom the dead are prepared, it is not necessary that any effort be made. 25. Soshyant, with his assistants, performs a Yazishn ceremony in preparing the dead, and they slaughter the ox Hadhayosh in that Yazishn; from the fat of that ox and the white Haoma they prepare Hush, and give it to all men, and all men become immortal for ever and everlasting. 26. This, too, it says, that whoever has been the size of a man, they restore him then with an age of forty years; they who have been little when not dead, they restore then with an age of fifteen years; and they give every one his wife, and show him his children with the wife; so they act as now in the world, but there is no begetting of children.
Afterwards, Soshyant and his assistants, by order of the creator Ohrmazd, give every man the reward and recompense suitable to his deeds; this is even the righteous existence (ait) where it is said that they convey him to paradise (Wahisht), and the heaven (garothman) of Ohrmazd takes up the body (kerp) as itself requires; with that assistance he continually advances for ever and everlasting. 28. This, too, it says, that whoever has performed no worship (yasht), and has ordered no getig-kharid, and has bestowed no clothes as a righteous gift, is naked there; and he performs the worship (yasht) of Ohrmazd, and the heavenly angels provide him the use of his clothing.
Afterwards, Ohrmazd seizes on the evil spirit! Vohuman on Akoman, Ardwahisht on Andar, Shahrewar on Savar, Spandarmad on Taromat who is Naunghas, Hordad and Amurdad on Tairev and Zairich, true-speaking on what is evil-speaking, Srosh on Eshm. 30. Then two fiends remain at large, Ahriman and Az; Ohrmazd comes to the world, himself the Zota and Srosh the Raspi, and holds the Kusti in his hand; defeated by the Kusti formula the resources of the evil spirit and Az act most impotently, and by the passage through which he rushed into the sky he runs back to gloom and darkness. 31. Gochihr burns the serpent (mar) in the melted metal, and the stench and pollution which were in hell are burned in that metal, and it (hell) becomes quite pure. 32. He (Ohrmazd) sets the vault into which the evil spirit fled, in that metal; he brings the land of hell back for the enlargement of the world; the renovation arises in the universe by his will, and the world is immortal for ever and everlasting.
This, too, it says, that this earth becomes an iceless, slopeless plain; even the mountain, whose summit is the support of the Chinwad bridge, they keep down, and it will not exist.

CHAPTER 31. On the race and offspring of the Kayans

On the race and genealogy of the Kayanians.
Hooshang was son of Fravak, son of Siyamak, son of Mashye, son of Gayomard. [2. Tahmurasp was son of Vivangha, son of Yanghad, son of Hooshang. 3. Yim [Jamshed],] Tahmurasp, Spitur, and Narsih, whom they also call 'the Rashnu of Chino,' were all brothers. 4. From Yim [Jamshed] and Yimak, who was his sister, was born a pair, man and woman, and they became husband and wife together; Mirak the Aspiyan and Ziyanak Zardahim were their names and the lineage went on. 5. Spitur was he who, with Dahak [Zohak], cut up Yim [Jamshed]; Narsih lived then also, whom they call Nesr-gyavan; they say that such destiny (gadman) is allotted to him, that he shall pass every day in troubles, and shall make all food purified and pure.
Dahak [Zohak] was son of Khrutasp, son of Zainigav, son of Virafsang, son of Tazh, son of Fravak son of Siyamak; by his mother Dahak [Zohak] was of Udai, son of Bayak, son of Tambayak, son of Owokhm, son of Pairi-urvaesm, son of Gadhwithw, son of Drujaskan, son of the evil spirit.
Faridoon the Aspiyan was son of Pur-tora the Aspiyan, son of Sok-tora the Aspiyan, son of Bortora the Aspiyan, son of Siyak-tora- the Aspiyan, son of Sped-tora the Aspiyan, son of Gefar-tora the Aspiyan, son of Ramak-tora the Aspiyan, son of Vanfragheshn the Aspiyan, son of Yim [Jamshed], son of Vivangha; as these, apart from the Aspiyan Purtora, were ten generations, they every one lived a hundred years, which becomes one thousand years; those thousand years were the evil reign of Dahak [Zohak]. 8. By the Aspiyan Pur-tora was begotten Faridoon, who exacted vengeance for Yim [Jamshed]; together with him also were the sons Barmayun and Katayun, but Faridoon was fuller of glory than they.
By Faridoon three sons were begotten, Salm and Tuj and Airik; and by Airik one son and one pair were begotten; the names of the couple of sons were Vanidar and Anastokh, and the name of the daughter was Guzhak. 10. Salm and Tuj slew them all, Airik and his happy sons, but Faridoon kept the daughter in concealment, and from that daughter a daughter was born; they became aware of it, and the mother was slain by them. 11. Faridoon provided for the daughter, also in concealment, for ten generations, when Manush-i Khurshed-vinik was born from his mother, [so called because, as he was born, some of] the light of the sun (khwarshed) fell upon his nose (vinik). 12. From Manush-i Khurshed-vinik and his sister was Manush-khurnar, and from Manush-khurnar [and his sister] was Manuschihar born, by whom Salm and Tuj were slain in revenge for Airik. 13. By Manuschihar were Frish, Nodar, and Durasrobo begotten.
Just as Manuschihar was of Manush-khurnar, of Manush-khurnak, who was Mam-sozak, of Airak, of Thritak, of Bitak, of Frazushak, of Zushak, of Fraguzak, of Guzak, of Airik, of Faridoon, so Frasiyav was of Pashang, of Zaeshm, of Turak, of Spaenyasp, of Duroshasp, of Tuj, of Faridoon. 15. He (Frasiyav) as well as Karsevaz, whom they call Kadan, and Aghrerad were all three brothers.
Pashang and Visak were both brothers. 17. By Visak were Piran, Human, Shan, and other brothers begotten. 18. By Frasiyav were Frasp-i Chur, Shan, Shedak, and other sons begotten; and Vispan-frya, from whom Kay Khosraw was born, was daughter of Frasiyav, and was of the same mother with Frasp-i Chur. 19. From Frasp-i Chur were Surak, Asurik, and other children; and by them were Khvast-airikht, Yazdan-airikht, Yazdan-sarad, Freh-khurd, La-vahak, and others begotten, a recital of whom would be tedious.
By Aghrerad was Gopatshah begotten. 21. When Frasiyav made Manuschihar, with the Iranians, captive in the mountain-range (gar) of Padashkh-var, and scattered ruin and want among them, Aghrerad begged a favor of God (yazdan), and he obtained the benefit that the army and champions of the Iranians were saved by him from that distress. 22. Frasiyav slew Aghrerad for that fault; and Aghrerad, as his recompense, begat such a son as Gopatshah.
Auzobo the Tuhmaspian, Kanak-i Barzisht, Arawishanasp, and Vaetand-i Raghinoid were the three sons and the daughter of Agaimasvak, the son of Nodar, son of Manuschihar, who begat Auzobo. 24. Kavad was a child in a waist-cloth (kuspud); they abandoned him on a river, and he froze upon the door-sills (kavadakan); Auzobo perceived and took him, brought him up, and settled the name of the trembling child.
By Kavad was Kay Apiveh begotten; by Kay Apiveh were Kay Arsh, Kay Vyarsh, Kay Pisan, and Kay Kaus begotten; by Kay Kaus was Siyavakhsh begotten; by Siyavakhsh was Kay Khosraw begotten. 26. Kersasp and Aurvakhsh were both brothers. 27. Athrat was son of Sahm, son of Turak, son of Spaenyasp, son of Duroshasp, son of Tuj, son of Faridoon. 28. Lohrasp was son of Auzav, son of Manush, son of Kay Pisin, son of Kay Apiveh, son of Kay Kobad. 29. By Kay Lohrasp were Vishtasp, Zarir, and other brothers begotten; by Vishtasp were Spend-dad and Peshotan begotten; and by Spend-dad were Vohuman, Ataro-tarsah, Mitro-tarsah, and others begotten.
Artakhshatar descendant of Papak -- of whom his mother was daughter -- was son of Sasan, son of Veh-afrid and Zarir, son of Sasan, son of Artakhshatar who was the said Vohuman son of Spend-dad.
The mother of Kay Apiveh was Farhank, daughter of him who is exalted on the heavenly path, Urvad-gai-frasht, son of Rak, son of Durasrobo, son of Manuschihar. 32. This, too, it says, that the glory of Faridoon settled on the root of a reed (kanya) in the wide-formed ocean; and Noktarga, through sorcery, formed a cow for tillage, and begat children there; three years he carried the reeds there, and gave them to the cow, until the glory went on to the cow; he brought the cow, milked her milk, and gave it to his three sons; as their walking was on hoofs, the glory did not go to the sons, but to Farhank. 33. Noktarga wished to injure Farhank, but Farhank went with the glory away from the fierce (tib) father, and made a vow (patyastak) thus: 'I will give my first son to Aushbam.' 34. Then Aushbam saved her from the father; and the first son, Kay Apiveh, she bore and gave to Aushbam, was a hero associating with Aushbam, and traveled in Aushbam's company.
The mother of Auzobo was the daughter of Namun the wizard, when Namak was with Frasiyav.
And, moreover, together with those begotten by Sam were six children in pairs, male and female the name of one was Damnak, of one Khosraw, and of one Margandak, and the name of each man and woman together was one. 37. And the name of one besides them was Dastan; he was considered more eminent than they, and Sagansih and the southern quarter were given to him; and Avar-shatro and the governorship were given by him to Avarnak. 38. Of Avar-shatro this is said, that it is the district of Avarnak, and they offered blessings to Srosh and Ardwahisht in succession; on this account is their possession of horses and possession of arms; and on account of firm religion, purity, and manifest joy, good estimation and extensive fame are greatly among them. 39. To Damnak the governorship of Asuristan was given; sovereignty and arranging the law of sovereignty, willfulness and the stubborn defects they would bring, were among them. 40. To Sparnak the governorship of Spahan was given to Khosraw the governorship of Rai was given; to Margandak the kingdom, forest settlements, and mountain settlements of Padashkhvargar were given; where they travel nomadically, and there are the forming of sheep-folds, prolificness, easy procreation, and continual triumph over enemies. 41. From Dastan proceeded Rudastam and Huzavarak.]

CHAPTER 32. Pourushasp and Zartosht

On the kindred of Pourushasp, son of Paitirasp, son of Aurvadasp, son of Haechadasp, son of Chakhshnush, son of Paitirasp, son of Hardarshn, son of Hardar, son of Spitaman, son of Vidasht, son of Ayazem, son of Rajan, son of Durasrobo, son of Manuschihar. 2. As Paitirasp had two sons, one Pourushasp and one Arasti, by Pourushasp was Zartosht begotten for a sanctuary of good religion, and by Arasti was Maidyok-mah begotten. 3. Zartosht, when he brought the religion, first celebrated worship and expounded in Eranvej, and Maidyok-mah received the religion from him. 4. The Mobads of Pars are all traced back to this race of Manuschihar.
Again, I say, by Zartosht were begotten three sons and three daughters; one son was Isadvastar, one Aurvatad-nar, and one Khurshed-chihar; as Isadvastar was chief of the priests he became the Mobed of Mobads, and passed away in the hundredth year of the religion; Aurvatad-nar was an agriculturist, and the chief of the enclosure formed by Yim [Jamshed], which is below the earth; Khurshed-chihar was a warrior, commander of the army of Peshotan, son of Vishtasp, and dwells in Kangdez; and of the three daughters the name of one was Fren, of one Srit, and of one Poruchist. 6. Aurvatad-nar and Khurshed-chihar were from a serving (chakar) wife, the rest were from a privileged (padakhshah) wife. 7. By Isadvastar was begotten a son whose name was Ururvija, and they call him Aranj-i Biradan ('fore-arm of brothers') for this reason, that, as they were from a serving wife, she then delivered them over to Isadvastar through adoption. 8. This, too, one knows, that three sons of Zartosht, namely, Hoshedar, Hoshedarmah, and Soshyant, were from Hvov; as it says, that Zartosht went near unto Hvov three times, and each time the seed went to the ground; the angel Neryosang received the brilliance and strength of that seed, delivered it with care to the angel Anahid, and in time will blend it with a mother. 9. Nine thousand, nine hundred, and ninety-nine, and nine myriads of the guardian spirits of the righteous are entrusted with its protection, so that the demons may not injure it.
The name of the mother of Zartosht was Dukdaub, and the name of the father of the mother of Zartosht was Frahimrava.

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