Shayest Na-Shayest (Proper and Improper)
Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East,
volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1885.
This digital edition prepared by Joseph H. Peterson, 1995. Last updated: Feb 21, 2022.
License CC-BY 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
"... is a compilation of miscellaneous laws and customs regarding
sin and impurity, and other memoranda about ceremonies and religious
subjects in general." It quotes many times from Avesta texts
which are no longer extant.
Part 1. -- The Original Treatise
- Chapter 1. The names and amounts
of the various degrees of sin; the names of the chief commentators
on the Vendidad
- Chapter 2. Precautions
to be taken regarding corpses and menstruous women, the pollution
caused by a serpent
- Chapter 3. More precautions
- Chapter 4. The proper
size and materials of the sacred thread-girdle [kusti] and shirt,
giving some details about the sins of running about uncovered
and walking with one boot
- Chapter 5. The sin of
- Chapter 6. Details about
good works, and those who can and cannot perform them; in which
reference is made to Christians, Jews, and those of other persuasions
- Chapter 7. Reverencing
the sun and fire; the sin of extinguishing fire
- Chapter 8. Confession and renunciation
of sin, atonement for sins, especially mortal sins, both those
affecting others and those only affecting one's own soul; a digression
(Chap. 8.3) prohibiting the rich from hunting.
- Chapter 9. The Hasar of
time; priests passing away in idolatry; the discussion of religion;
ceremonies not done aright; throwing a corpse into the sea; evil
of eating in the dark; the four kinds of worship; when the angels
should be invoked in worship; the ephemeral nature of life
- Chapter 10.
proper looseness for a kusti (sacred thread-girdle); when the
sacred cake [dron] set aside for the guardian spirits [farohars] can be used; maintaining
a fire where a woman is pregnant; providing a tank for ablutions;
the Gathas not to be recited over the dead; food and drink not
to be thrown away to the north at night; unlawful slaughter of
animals; how the corpse of a pregnant woman should be carried;
forgiveness of trespasses; evil of walking without boots; when
the sacred girdle is to be assumed; breaking the spell of an inward
prayer; ten women wanted at childbirth, and how the infant is
to be treated; sin of beating an innocent person; evil of a false
judge; men and women who do not marry; a toothpick must be free
from bark; acknowledging the children of a handmaid; advantage
of offspring and of excess in almsgiving; prayer on lying down
and getting up; Avesta not to be mumbled; doubtful actions to
be avoided or consulted about; evil of laughing during prayer;
crowing of a hen; treatment of a hedgehog; after a violent death
corruption does not set in immediately; necessity of a dog's gaze;
putrid meat and hairy calces or butter unfit for ceremonies; when
a woman can do priestly duty
Part 2. -- A Supplementary Treatise.
- Chapter 11.
The names and amounts
of the various degrees of sin (again); the proper meat-offerings
for various angels [yazads] and guardian spirits [farohars].
- Chapter 12.
The simplest form of worship; necessity of submitting
to a high-priest; advantage of a fire in the house; sin of clothing
the dead; presentation of holy-water to the nearest fire after
a death; nail-parings to be prayed over; advantage of light at
childbirth; offerings to the angels; maintaining a fire where
a woman is pregnant and a child is born; a toothpick must be free
from bark; acknowledging the children of a handmaid; advantage
of offspring and of excess in almsgiving; evil of drawing well-water
at night; food not to be thrown away to the north at night; advantage
of prayer at feasts; treatment of a hedgehog; praying when washing
the face; the proper choice of a purifying priest; no one should
be hopeless of heaven; necessity of a wife being religious as
well as her husband; the ceremonies which are good works; the
cause of sneezing, yawning, and sighing.
- Chapter 13.
An account of the mystic signification of the Gathas
- Chapter 14.
The errors which may be committed in consecrating
the sacred cakes [dron], and how the beginning of the morning watch is
to be determined.
Part 3 -- Appendix
- Chapter 15.
The intangible nature of Ohrmazd and the archangels;
an account of how each of the archangels can be best propitiated,
by a proper regard for the particular worldly existence which
he specially protects
- Chapter 16.
The various degrees of sin, and of the amount
of good works attributed to various ceremonies
- Chapter 17.
An account of the ceremonies after a death; particulars
of those who have no part in the resurrection; the duty of submission
to the priesthood; whether evil may be done for the sake of good;
the place where people will rise from the dead
- Chapter 18.
Aeshm's complaint to Ahriman of the three things
he could not injure in the world
- Chapter 19.
The occasions on which the Ahunwar formula should
be recited, and the number of recitals that are requisite, etc.
- Chapter 20.
Admonition to frequent the fire temple; nature of wisdom;
admonitions to avoid nasu, to use gomez,
to observe Kwarshed Niyayesh, and to destroy noxious creatures;
three greatest concerns; three places to frequent;
acts benefiting the soul or body; Gathas and patets;
anxiety; truth and deceit; extinguishing fire; gifts to the
vile; on what to fix the attention; Fredun and Azi Zohak
- Chapter 21.
The lengths of midday and afternoon shadows (for calculating the
beginning of Uzerin)
- Chapter 22.
Blessings invoked from the thirty angels and archangels
who preside over the days of the month
- Chapter 23.
Special epithets of the same
PART 1. -- The Original Treatise.
- In the name of God (yazdan) and the good creation may there
be the good health, long life, and abundant wealth of all the
good and the right. doers specially for him whose writing I am.
- As revealed by the Avesta, it is said in the Vendidad that
these seven degrees (payak) of sin are mentioned in revelation,
which are Farman, Agerept, Avoirisht, Aredush, Khor, Bazhai, Yat,
and tanapuhr. 2. A Farman is the weight of four stirs, and each
stir is four dirhams (jujan); of Agerept and Avoirisht that which
is least is a scourging (tazhano), and the amount of them which
was specially that which is most is said to be one dirham; an
Aredush is thirty stirs; a Khor is sixty stirs; a Bazhai is ninety
stirs; a Yat is a hundred and eighty stirs; and a Tanapuhr is
three hundred stirs.
- In the administration of the primitive faith there are some
who have been of different opinions about it, for Gogoshasp spoke
otherwise than the teaching (chashtak) of Ataro-Ohrmazd, and Soshyans
otherwise than the teaching of Ataro-frobag Nosai, and Medok-mah
otherwise than the teaching of Gogoshasp, and Afarg otherwise
than the teaching of Soshyans. 4. And all those of the primitive
faith rely upon these six teachings, and there are some who rely
more weakly and some more strongly upon some of them.
- For in the third fargard ('chapter') of the Vendidad of Medok-mah
it is declared that when life is resigned without effort, at the
time when the life departs, when a dog is tied to his foot, even
then the nasa rushes upon it, and afterwards, when seen by it,
the nasa is destroyed by it. 2. This is where it is stated which
is the dog which destroys the nasa, the shepherd's dog, the village-dog,
the blood-hound, the slender hound, and the rukunik; and as to
the rukunik there have been divers opinions, as Vand-Ohrmazd asserted,
from the teaching of Afarg, that it does not destroy it. 3. The
dog destroys the Nasa at the time when it sees the flesh, and
when it sees the hair or nails it does not destroy it. 4. A blind
dog also destroys if at the time when it places a paw on the corpse;
and when it places it upon the hair or nails it does not destroy
it. 5. The birds which destroy the Nasa are three: the mountain
kite, the black crow, and the vulture; the bird, moreover, destroys
it at the time when its shadow falls upon it; when it sees it
in the water, a mirror, or a looking-glass, it does not destroy
- Vand-Ohrmazd said, where a pregnant woman is to be carried
by two men, both are to be cleansed by the barashnom ceremony,
and the head of the corpse, when they carry it away, is to be
set towards the dakhma. 7. And on account of contamination (padvishak)
two are not to be carried at one time, and two by one person are
not proper; one dog and one person are proper. 8. Every one who
understands the care of a corpse is proper; two boys of eight
years old, who understand the care, are proper; a woman free from
menstruation, or free from dead matter, or a man, with a woman
or a child of eight years old, is proper.
- It is not to be carried all covered up, for that is burying
the corpse; to carry it in the rain is worthy of death. 10. When
clouds have been around, it is allowable to carry it away from
the house; and when rain sets in upon the road it is not allowable
to carry it back to the house; but when it is before a veranda
(dahlizh) one should put it down there; that is allowable when
he who owns the veranda is apprehensive, and when he does not
allow it inside; and, afterwards, it is to be carried away to
its place, and when the water stands the height of a javelin (nizhak)
inside, one puts it down and brings it away yet again. 11. Medok-mah
says that there should be a shelter (var) one should fasten above
that place, and it would make it dry below; one should place the
corpse under that shelter, and they may take the shelter and bring
- From the fifth fargard of the Vendidad of Medok-mah they state
thus, that at the place where one's life goes forth, when he shall
die upon a cloth, and a hair or a limb remains upon the bed-place
and the ground, the ground conveys the pollution, even not originating
with itself (ahambunich), in like manner down unto the water.
13. And when he is on a bedstead, and its legs are not connected
with the ground, when a hair or a limb remains behind on the bedstead,
it does not convey the pollution down. 14. When he shall die on
a plastered floor the plaster is polluted, and when they dig up
that plaster and spread it again afterwards, it is clean. 15.
When he shall die on a stone, and the stone is connected with
the ground, the stone will become clean, along with the ground,
in the length of a year; and when they dig up the place, the stone-being
polluted is to be washed at the time. 16. When a stone is connected
with the ground, or is separated, and one shall die upon it, so
much space of the stone as the corpse occupied is polluted; when
they shall leave it, in the length of a year it will become clean
along with the ground; and when they dig it up, the stone is all
polluted, and is to be washed at the time; when the stone is not
made even with the ground, above the ground the stone is all polluted,
and is to be washed at the time.
- Dung-fuel and ashes, when the limbs of a menstruous woman
come upon them, are both polluted; and the salt and lime for washing
her shift (kartak-shui) are to be treated just like stone.
- If one shall die on a terrace roof (ban), when one of his
limbs, or a hair, remains behind at the edge of the roof, the
roof is polluted for the size of the body as far as the water;
and they should carry down all the sacred twigs (barsom) in the
house, from the place where the pollution is, until there are
thirty steps of three feet to the sacred twigs, so that the sacred
twigs may not be polluted; and when his hair or limb has not come
to the eaves (parakan) the roof is polluted to the bottom (tohik).
19. And when one shall die on a rita it is polluted for the size
of the body as far as the water; in the length of a year it will
become clean along with the ground. 20. A built bridge is liable
just like a terrace roof. 21. When one shall die on the terrace
roof of a trellised apartment (varam), that is also liable just
like a terrace roof. 22. When he shall die in a trellised apartment,
when one of his limbs, or a hair, does not remain on the borders
(parakan), it does not convey the pollution down, but when any
of him remains behind it conveys it down; it is allowable when
they dig it up, and one also spreads it again afterwards, and
it is clean.
- When one shall die by strangulation and a rope in a crowd,
when there is no fear of his falling down they should not carry
him down; and when there is a fear of his falling down, when that
fear is as regards one side of him, they should carry him down
on that side; and when he has fallen down they should carry him
down in such place as he has fallen. 24. When one is seated upright
and shall die, when there is fear of his falling on one side they
should carry him down on that one side, and when there is fear
on all four sides, then on all four sides; and when he has fallen
down they should carry him down in such place as he has fallen.
- And when one shall die on a tree, when its bark is green and
there is no fear of falling off, they should not carry him down;
and when there is fear of it, they should carry down the whole
of the body (tanu masai). 26. And when the bark of the tree is
withered, when there is fear of it and when there is no fear of
it, they should carry if down. 27. When he shall die on a branch
of a tree which is green, when there is no fear of his falling
off they should not carry him down. 28. And when there is fear
of it, or it is a branch of a withered tree, when also, a hair
originating with him, or a limb, remains behind on the particular
tree, they should carry down the whole of the body. 29. And when
it does not remain behind him on the particular tree, but when
there is fear of its falling off, they should not carry it below
- When a corpse (nasai-I), from outside of it, remains behind
on a jar (khumbo) in which there may be wine, the jar is polluted,
and the wine is clean. 31. And when one shall die inside, in the
wine in the jar, if not even a hair or a curl originating with
him remains behind on the jar, the wine is polluted and the jar
not polluted. 32. When it is a jar in which there is oil, and
dead matter (nasa), from outside of it, remains behind on it,
this is even as though it remains inside it, because the oil comes
outside and goes back to the inside, and both are polluted, the
jar and the oil; and even on making the jar dry it is not fit
to put anything in.
- When a serpent (garzak) is in a jar in which there is wine,
both are useless and polluted, for it makes them contaminated
(padvishak). 34. And when corn shall be in it, the jar is polluted
and the corn clean; and when nothing originating with the serpent
inside the jar remains behind on the jar, so much of the corn
as includes the serpent, and upon which the touch (malishn) of
the serpent has gone -- because the touch of the serpent's seed
might be the death of one -- is to be taken out and to be thrown
away. 35. And when hair or dead matter, even not originating with
the serpent, remains behind on the jar, the jar is polluted, but
is serviceable (shayad) on making it dry.
- Brick, earth, and mortar are separated by their own substance
(pavan mindavam-i nafsman), and are connected with the ground;
being separated by their own substance is this, that so much space
as dead matter comes upon is polluted; being connected with the
ground is this, that they would convey the pollution down unto
the water. 37. Dung-fuel, ashes, flour, and other powdered things
are connected with their own substance, and are separated from
the ground; being connected with their own substance is this,
that when dead matter comes upon them the whole of them is polluted;
and being separated from the ground is this, that when dead matter
comes upon them it does not make the ground polluted.
- At a house in which the sacred ceremony (yazishn) is prepared,
and a dog or a person passes away in it, the first business to
be done is this, that the fire is to be preserved from harm; moreover,
if it be only possible to carry the fire so that they would carry
it away within three steps of the corpse, even then it is to be
carried away, and the wall is not to be cut. 39. Roshan said that
an earthen one is to be cut into, but a mortar one is not to be
cut; below and above no account is taken of damaging (bodozedih)
the wall. 40. To bring the fire within the three steps from the
corpse is a tanapuhr sin; and when exudation happens to the corpse,
it is worthy of death. 41. The prepared food in that house is
all useless, and that which is not prepared is usable in the length
of nine nights or a month. 42. Clothing also in like manner, except
that which one wears on the body; that, even in that time, is
not clean, since it remains in use. 43. And the holy-water (zohr),
too, which is taken and remains in that place is to be carried
away immediately to the water, also the sacred milk (jiv) and
butter (jum) in like manner. 44. Of the prayer clothing Vand-Ohrmazd
said that it is usable in the length of nine nights or a month;
the writer (dapir) said that it is when they perform the washing
of hands, and wash it thoroughly, it will become clean at the
- If in a house there are three rooms (gunjinak), and one shall
die in the entrance place (dargas), if it be so that they may
set the door open, and the corpse comes to this side, only this
side is polluted; and if the corpse comes to that side, only that
side is polluted; when it comes to both sides at once (aevak),
only the entrance place is polluted alone, both the dwelling-rooms
(khanak) are clean.
- And the vault of the sacred fires alone does not become polluted.
- If one shall die in a wild spot (vashkar), prepared food which
is within three steps is all useless, and beyond four steps it
is not polluted. 48. Prepared food is this, such as bread, boiled
and roast meat, and prepared broth.
- And the ashes (var) of the sacred fire become in a measure
- Should they carry in the fire into that house in which the
length of nine nights or a month is requisite for becoming clean,
there is a sin of one tanapuhr through carrying it in, and one
Tanapuhr through kindling it; and every trifling creature (khur
or khul) which shall die and shall remain causes a sin of one
Tanapuhr. 51. Also through carrying water in, there is a sin of
one Farman; and to pour water on the place where any one's life
departs is a sin of one Tanapuhr, and to pour it on a different
place is a sin of one Yat. 52. And to undergo ablution inside
the unclean house is all non-ablution. 53. And whoever goes into
it needlessly, his body and clothes are to be every time thoroughly
washed, and his sin is one Tanapuhr; and when he goes in needfully
it is neither good work nor sin.
- And this pollution is all in the sharp account (tikhak amar)
when the life departs; the only thing which amounts to polluting
is contact with the flesh, and even with the hair and nails. 55.
Of the contact which is stated in the Avesta, the account is that
from one side, and it ever cleaves to one; the curse (gazishn)
which is stated in the Avesta advances from all four sides. 56.
Soshyans said it is, until its exhibition to a dog, just as it
becomes at the time when its life departs; a priest, a warrior,
and a husbandman are no use, for merely a dog is stated. 57. Kushtano-bujed
said the account is at the time when its life departs; and that
which Kushtano-bujed specially said is, 'when anything is inside
it (the place) the pollution is as far as to the place where that
thing stands.' 58. when a dog, or a goat, or a pig is requisite
(darvai) it is proper, for the pollution does not attack further
there; and the pollution of a child in the womb is along with
- The direct pollution of a hedgehog cleaves to one, and not
the indirect pollution. 60. Direct pollution (hamred) is that
when the body is in contact with a corpse, and indirect pollution
(paitred) is that when one is in contact with him who touched
the corpse; and from contact with him who is the eleventh indirect
pollution cleaves to one in the same manner. 61. The indirect
pollution of an ape and a menstruous woman, not acting the same
way, remains. 62. The shepherd's dog, and likewise the village-dog,
and others also of the like kind carry contamination to eight;
and when they shall carry the carcass down on the ground the place
is clean immediately; and that, too, which dies on a balcony (ashkup),
until they shall carry it down to the bottom, is polluted for
the length of a year.
- Whoever brings dead matter (nasa) on any person is worthy
of death; he is thrice worthy of death at the time when a dog
has not seen the corpse (nasa); and if through negligence of appliances
and means (char va tubano) he disturbs it, and disturbs it by
touching it, he knows that it is a sin worthy of death; and for
a corpse that a dog has seen, and one that a dog has not seen,
the accountability is to be understood to be as much, and for
the death and sickness of a feeble man and a powerful one. 64.
Afarg has said there is no account of appliances and means, for
it is not allowable to commit a sin worthy of death in cases of
death and sickness.
- When they move a corpse which a dog has not seen with a thousand
men, even then the bodies of the whole number are polluted, and
are to be washed for them with ceremony (pishak). 66. And for
that which a dog has seen, except that one only when a man shall
move it all by touching it, his washing is then not to be with
ceremony. 67. And when he is in contact and does not move it,
he is to be washed with bull's urine and water. 68. And when he
shall move with a stake (dar) a corpse which a dog has not seen,
except that one only when he shall move it all, the washing for
him is not to be with ceremony.
- And when a man shall move a corpse, which a dog has not seen,
by the hand of another man, he who moves it by the hand of a man,
and he also whose own hand's strength does it are polluted in
the bodies of both; and it is the root of a Tanapuhr sin for him
himself and of a Tanapuhr for the other one, for this reason,
because his own body and that also of the other are both made
polluted through sinfulness. 70. And when there is not in him,
nor even originating with him (ahambunik), the strength of him
whose own hand it is, it is just as though he would move it (the
corpse) with a stake; and he who held it in the way of contact
with his hand is to be washed with ceremony; and it is the root
of a Tanapuhr sin for him whose own hand it is, and of a Khor
for himself. 71. When he shall move a corpse by the hand of a
man, and the corpse is of those which a dog has seen -- except
that one only when he shall move it all -- the washing for him
is not to be with ceremony.
- When one is going by a place at night, and comes back there
on the morrow, and a corpse lies there, and he does not know whether
the evil (dush) was there when he came by not, it is to be considered
by him that it was not there.
- Of a flock in which is a sheep by whom dead matter is eaten,
of a forest in which is a tree with which dead matter is mingled,
and of a firewood-stand (aesamdan) in which is a stick of firewood
with which grease is mingled, Afarg said that it is not proper
to make the flock and the forest fruitful, and the firewood is
- About a door on which a corpse impinges; as to the door of
a town and city they have been of the same opinion, that it is
to be discarded by his comrades (hamkar); as to a door which is
mostly closed (badtum) they have been of different opinions, Gogoshasp
said that discarding it by his comrades is likewise proper, and
Soshyans said that it is not proper; and as to other doors they
have been of the same opinion, that it is not proper. 75. The
door of one's own chief apartment (shah-gas) is fit for that of
the place for menstruation (dashtanistan), and that of the place
for menstruation is fit for that of the depository for the dead
(khazano), and that of the depository of the dead is not fit for
any purpose whatever; that of the more pleasant is fit for that
of the more grievous.
- Any one who, through sinfulness, throws a corpse into the
water, is worthy of death on the spot; when he throws only one
it is one sin worthy of death, and when he throws ten at one time
it is then one sin worthy of death; when he throws them separately
it is a sin worthy of death for each one. 77. Of the water, into
which one throws dead matter, the extent of pollution is three
steps of three feet in the water advancing, nine steps of three
feet; in the water passed over, and six steps of three feet in
the water alongside; six steps of three feet in the depth of the
water, and three steps of three feet in the water pouring over
the dead matter are polluted as regards the depth. 78. When it
is thrown into the midst of a great standing water, in like manner,
the proportion it comes is ever as much as it goes, and is the
proportion of it they should always carry away with the dead.
- And when a man comes forth, and a corpse lies in the water,
when he is able to bring it out, and it is not an injury to him,
it is not allowable to abandon it except when he brings it out.
80. Soshyans said that, when it is an injury, it is allowable
when he does not bring it out; and when it is not an injury, and
he does not bring it, his sin is a Tanapuhr. 81. Kushtano-bujed
said that even in case of injury it is not allowable to abandon
it, except when he brings it out; when he does not bring it he
is worthy of death. 82. And Gogoshasp said that it is even in
case of injury not allowable, except when he brings it out; and
when, in case of injury, he does not bring it out his sin is a
Tanapuhr; and when it is no injury to him, and he does not bring
it, he is worthy of death.
- And when he shall wish to bring it his clothing is to be laid
aside, for it makes the clothing polluted, and whatever he is
first able and best able to bring is to be brought out by him.
84. When, too, he is able to bring it out through the breadth
of the water, then also it is to be brought out so; and when he
is not able, it is to be brought out through the length of the
water; and showing it to a dog, and the two men are not to be
- And it is to be carried by him so much away from the neighborhood
of the water that, when he puts it down, the water which comes
out dropping from the, corpse does not reach back to the water;
for when the water which comes out from the corpse reaches continuously
back to the water he is worthy of death; and after that (min zak
fraj) it is to be shown to a dog, and it is to be carried away
by two men. 86. And when he wishes to throw it out from the water,
Mard-bud said it is allowable to throw it out thus, so that the
water of the dripping corpse does not reach continuously back
to the water; Roshan said it would be allowable to throw it out
- To drag it over the water is allowable, to grasp and relinquish
it is not allowable; and when it is possible to act so that he
may convey it from a great water to a small water, when the water
is connected is allowable, and when separated it is not allowable.
88. Afarg said it is allowable to drag it below through the water,
but to drag it over is not allowable, for this has come on the
water as a danger, and that has not come on it as a danger. 89.
Medok-mah said it is allowable to drag it above, but to drag it
below is not allowable, for the danger has gone out across the
water, and the danger is not now to be brought upon it; and on
that which is below, on which the danger has not come, the Danger
will at last arrive.
- When he goes into the water he is to go into it with this
idea, that 'should there be many below, then I will even bring
all;' for whoever goes in not with this idea, and shall disturb
any other one which lies there, will become polluted. 91. And
if the corpse be heavy and it is not possible to bring it out
by one person, and he goes out with this idea, that 'I will go
and prepare means, and bring this corpse out of the water;' and
when through sinfulness he does not go back his body is polluted
and worthy of death, and when he is unable to go back he is not
- When the corpse is so decomposed (pudak), when it is thus
necessary to bring it out, that he must cut off various fragments,
even after he cuts them off they are to be brought out; and for
every fragment his hands and knife are to be washed with bull's
urine (gomez), and with dust and moisture (nambo) they are clean.
93. And they are to be torn off by him, and for every single fragment
which he brings out his good work is one Tanapuhr.
- And when rain is falling the corpse lies in the water; to
take it from the water to deposit it in the rain is not allowable.
- Clothing which is useless, this is that in which they should
carry a corpse, and that even when very much or altogether useless;
of that on which they shall decompose (bara vishupend), and of
that on which the excretions (hikhar) of the dead come, so much
space is to be cut away, and the rest is to be thoroughly washed
for the six-months' period. 96. That which a menstruous woman
has in wear (mah-manih) is to be discarded in like fashion.
- The clothing which is to be washed for the six-months' period
is such as is declared in the Avesta. 98. If the clothing be leather
it is to be thoroughly washed three times with bull's urine (gomez),
every time to be made quite dry with dust, and to be thoroughly
washed three times with water, and to be laid out three months
in a place to be viewed by the sun; and then it is proper for
an unclean person (armesht) who has not performed worship, or
it is proper for a menstruous woman. 99. Other clothing, when
hair is on it, is liable just like woven cloth (tadak); all the
washing of wool, floss silk, silk, hair, and camel's hair is just
like that of woven cloth; and woven clothing is to be washed six
- Wool which is connected together, when one part is twisted
over another, and a corpse rests upon it, is all polluted on account
of the connection; and when fleece (mesh) rests upon fleece, then
so much space as the corpse rests upon is polluted. 101. When
one shall die upon a rich carpet (bup) when the carpet is on a
coarse rug (namad) and is made connected, the rug and carpet are
both polluted, and when separated the rug is clean. 102. When
several cushions are heaped (nichid) one upon the other, and are
not made connected, and dead matter comes upon them, they have
been unanimous that only that one is polluted on which the dead
matter came. 103. A cushion together with wool is liable just
like a carpet with a rug. 104. Of several cushions which are tied
down together, when dead matter comes to the tie, both are polluted,
the cord and the cushions; and when the dead matter comes to a
cushion, and does not come to the tie, the cushions are all polluted
on account of the connection, and the tie is clean.
- A pregnant woman who devours dead matter through sinfulness
is polluted and worthy of death, and there is no washing for her;
and as for the child, when it has become acquainted with duties
(pishak-shinas), ashes and bull's urine are for its eating and
for its washing. 106. As for a child who is born of solitary carriers
of the dead, although its father and mother may both have devoured
dead matter through sinfulness, that which is born is clean on
the spot, for it does not become polluted by birth.
- Roshan said that every one, who, through sinfulness, has become
polluted by means of dead matter, is worthy of death, and his
polluted body never becomes clean; for this one is more wretched
than the fox which one throws into the water living, and in the
water it will die. 108. One worthy of death never becomes clean;
and a solitary carrier of the dead is to be kept at thirty steps
from ceremonial ablution (padiyavih).
- Whichsoever of the animal species has eaten their dead matter,
its milk, dung, hair, and wool are polluted the length of a year;
and if pregnant when it has eaten it, the young one has also eaten
it, and the young one is clean after the length of a year from
being born of the mother. 110. When a male which has eaten it
mounts a female, the female is not polluted. 111. When dead matter
is eaten by it, and even while it is not digested it shall die,
it is liable just like a leather bag (anban) in which is dead
- Gold, when dead matter comes upon it, is to be once thoroughly
washed with bull's urine (gomez), to be once made quite dry with
dust, and to be once thoroughly washed with water, and it is clean.
113. Silver is to be twice thoroughly washed with bull's urine,
and to be made quite dry with dust, and is to be twice thoroughly
washed with water, and it is clean. 114. And iron, in like manner,
three times, steel four times, and stone six times. 115. Afarg
said: 'Should it be quicksilver (avginak) it is liable just like
gold, and amber (kahrupai) just like stone, and all jewels just
like iron.' 116. The pearl (murvarid), amber, the ruby (yakand)
gem, the turquoise, the agate (shapak), coral-stone (vasadin sag),
bone, and other substances (gohar) which are not particularly
mentioned, are to be washed just like wood; and when they are
taken into use there is no washing, and when they are not taken
their washing is once. 117. Of earthen and horny articles there
is no washing; and of other substances which are not taken for
use the washing is once, and they are declared out of use.
- Firewood, when green, is to be cut off the length of a span
(vitast), one by one, as many sticks as there are -- and when
dry one span and two finger-breadths -- and is to be deposited
in some place the length of a year, and water is not to be dropped
upon it; and it is drawn out after the length of a year; Soshyans
said that it is proper as firewood for ordinary fires, and Kushtano-bujed
said that it is just as declared in the Avesta: 'The washed one,
even then, is proper in dried clothing.' 119. About corn they
have been unanimous that so much space is polluted as the dead
matter comes upon; and of that which is lowered into pits, or
is wanted to be so, and of that which is scattered (afshid) at
such a place there are different opinions; Soshyans said: 'Should
it be of such a place it is polluted as much as the dead matter
has come upon it;' and Gogosasp said: 'Should it be so it is all
polluted, and the straw is all polluted.'
- A walnut, through its mode of connection, is all polluted,
and the washing of both its shell and kernel (post va mazg) is
just like that of wood. 121. A pomegranate also is of such nature
as a walnut. 122. As to the date, when its stalk is not connected
the date is polluted and the stalk and stone (astak) are clean;
the washing of the date is just like that of corn; and when it
is touched upon the stalk, when the stalk, stone, and date are
connected, the whole is polluted; as to the date when not connected
with the stalk, and touched at the stalk, the date is clean, and
the washing of the stone is just like that of wood. 123. The pomegranate,
citron, quince, apple, pear, and other fruit, when in bearing
and the rind (pazavishno) is perceptible on it, when dead matter
comes upon it there is no pollution of it; and when the rind (pazamishno)
is not perceptible on it, its washing is just like that of corn;
and rind is ever with the citron. 124. For meat, butter, milk,
cheese, and preserves (richar) there is no washing.
- The clothing of a menstruous woman which they shall take new
for her use is polluted, and that which is in use is not polluted.
2. When a bed-chamber (shad-aurvan) is overspread, and a carpet
(bup) is laid upon it and a cushion on the two, and a woman sits
upon it and menstruation occurs, when she puts a foot from the
cushion on to the carpet, and from the carpet out into the bed-chamber,
the carpet and bed-chamber are both polluted, for they are taken
newly for her use, but of the cushion there is no pollution for
this reason, because it is in use. 3. And when she sits on the
cushion so that she shall have both the carpet and cushion in
use, the bed-chamber is polluted by itself; and when all three
shall be in use there is no pollution whatever.
- Just as she knows that it is menstruation, in the place she
is in for the purpose, first the necklace, then the ear-rings,
then the head-fillet (chambar), and then the outer garments (jamak)
are to be put off by her. 5. When in the place she remains in
for the purpose, even though she may remain a very long time for
that purpose, yet then the outer garments are clean, and there
is no need of leather covering and leather shoes.
- When she knows for certain (aevar) that it is menstruation,
until the complete changing (guhari-dano) of all her garments,
and she shall have sat down in the place for menstruation, a prayer
is to be retained inwardly. 7. When worship is celebrated a prayer
is to be retained inwardly, and should menstruation occur the
prayer is to be spoken out by her. 8. When in speaking out the
prayer should menstruation occur, both afterwards, when the time
was certain (aviguman), and now she is certain. 9. When she retains
a prayer inwardly, and a call of nature arises, there is no need
for her to speak out the prayer, for the formula for the call
is to be spoken by her.
- Hands sprinkled in ceremonial ablution (padiyav), when a menstruous
woman sees them, become quite unclean (apadiyav) by her look,
and even when she looks hastily, and does not see the sacred twigs
(barsom), it is the same. 11. And on the subject of a house (khanak-I
baba), when a menstruous woman is above in it, and the sacred
twigs stand right below, if even fully fifteen steps below, even
then the sacred twigs are unclean (apadiyav); but when not right
below fifteen steps are plenty.
- Prepared food which is within three steps of a menstruous
woman is polluted by her, and food which she delivers up (bara
pardazed) from her morning meal (chasht) is not fit for the evening
meal (sham), nor that which she delivers up from her evening meal
for the morning meal; it is not fit even for the same woman; and
water which is within three steps of her, when they shall put
it into a pail (dubal) or ablution-vessel (padiyavdan), and shall
do it without handling (ayadman), is fit for the hands in ceremonial
ablution. 13. When she touches the bedding and garments of any
one, Soshyans said that so much space is to be washed with bull's
urine (gomez) and water; her bedding which touches the bedding
of any one does not make it polluted.
- A menstruous woman who becomes clean in three nights is not
to be washed till the fifth day; from the fifth day onwards to
the ninth day, when- ever she becomes clean, she is to sit down
in cleanliness one day for the sake of her depletion (tihik),
and then she is fit for washing; and after nine nights the depletion
is no matter.
- A woman who has brought forth or miscarried (nasa), during
forty days sees whenever she is polluted; but when she knows for
certain that she is free from menstruation she is, thereupon,
to be associated with meanwhile (vadas), from the forty days onward;
but when she knows for certain that there is something of it,
she is to be considered meanwhile as menstruous.
- A menstruous woman when she has sat one month as menstruous,
and becomes clean on the thirtieth day, when at the very same
time she became quite clean she also becomes again menstruous,
her depletion (tihik) is from its beginning, and till the fifth
day washing is not allowable. 17. And when she is washed from
the menstruation, and has sat three days in cleanliness, and again
becomes menstruous as from the beginning, four days are to be
watched through by her, and the fifth day is for washing. 18.
When she has become free from the second menstruation she is not
in cleanliness for nine days and nights, -- these days and nights
are for watching, -- and then she is to be washed; when the nine
days and nights are completed, on the same day washing is good.
- Of leucorrhoea (chiharak), when it has quite changed color,
that which comes on before and also that which is after menstruation,
the pollution is just like that of menstruation.
- When she has become so completely clean from menstruation
that her washing may be as usual (dastobarag hae), she does not
make the sacred twigs (barsom), nor even other things, polluted
when beyond three steps.
- On account of severe cold it is allowable for her to sit out
towards the fire; and while she washes a prayer (vaj) is to be
taken inwardly by her, and the washing of her hands, except with
bull's urine (gomez), is not proper till then; and when they are
washed by her, two hundred noxious creatures are to be destroyed
by her as atonement for sin.
- A woman who goes beyond the period of menstruation, and, afterwards,
sees she is polluted, when her pregnancy is certain -- except
when her miscarriage (nasa yehevuntano) is evident -- is then
to be washed with bull's urine and water; when her pregnancy is
not certain she is to be considered as menstruous. 23. Some say,
moreover, that when miscarriage is certainly manifest she is,
meanwhile, to be considered as menstruous. 24. Some say that when
she is doubtful about the miscarriage she is to be washed with
- And for any one who comes in contact with a menstruous woman,
or with the person whom it is necessary to wash with water and
bull's urine, it is the root of a sin of sixty stirs. 26. And
for whomever knowingly has sexual intercourse with a menstruous
woman it is the root of a sin of fifteen Tanapuhrs and sixty stirs.
- Of a menstruous woman who sees a fire the sin is one Farman,
and when she goes within three steps it is one tanapuhr, and when
she puts a hand on the fire itself it is a sin of fifteen Tanapuhrs;
and in like manner as to the ashes and water goblet. 28. When
she looks at water it is a sin of one Farman; when she sits in
water it is a sin of fifteen Tanapuhrs; and when through disobedience
she walks out in the rain every single drop is a sin of fifteen
Tanapuhrs for her. 29. And the sun and other luminaries are not
to be looked at by her, and animals and plants are not to be looked
at by her, and conversation with a righteous man is not to be
held by her; for a fiend so violent is that fiend of menstruation,
that, where another fiend does not smite anything with a look
(akhsh), it smites with a look.
- As to a house in which is a menstruous woman, the fire of
that house is not to be kindled; food which is delivered up from
before a menstruous woman is not proper. for the same woman. 31.
A tray-cloth (khvano jamak) which stands before her, when it is
not in contact with her, is not polluted; a table napkin (patashkhur)
when apart from her thigh, and contact does not occur, is proper.
- When one wishes to consecrate the sacred cakes (dron), when
one holds up the sacred twigs (barsom) from the twig-stand (barsom-dan),
and menstruation occurs, and just as it came to one's knowledge
one puts down the sacred twigs and goes out, the sacred twigs
are not polluted.
- And during her menstruation she is to be so seated that, from
her body, there are fifteen steps of three feet to water, fifteen
steps to fire, fifteen steps to the sacred twigs, and three steps
to a righteous man. 34. And her food is to be carried forth in
iron or leaden vessels; and the person (valman) who shall carry
forth the food stands at three steps away from her. 35. When worship
is celebrated, every time at the dedication (shnumane) of the
consecration of sacred cakes (dron yasht) it is to be uttered
aloud by her; some say the Itha and Ashem-vohu.
- A sacred thread-girdle (kusti), should it be made of silk
(parvand), is not proper; the hair (pashm) of a hairy goat and
a hairy camel is proper, and from other hairy creatures (muyino)
it is proper among the lowly (nakhezhik). 2. The least fullness
necessary for it is exactly three finger-breadths; when it is
exactly three finger-breadths altogether from one side, and when
the rest is cut off, it is proper. 3. When one retains the prayer
inwardly [that is, begun the baj] and has tied his girdle, and
ties it anew once again, he will untie that which he has tied,
and it is not proper.
- Cloth of thick silk brocade (dipako) and figured silk (parnikano)
is not good for girdling; and cloth of hide when the hair is stripped
from it, of wool, of hair, of cotton, of dyed silk, and of wood
is proper for shirting (shapikih). 5. Four finger-breadths of
shirt is the measure of its width away from each side, from the
neck to the skirt (parik); and as to the length before and behind,
as much as is proper to cover up is good. 6. So much length and
breadth, when it is double or thickened, are not proper; when
on the separation (durmanak) of the two folds one remains clothed
on one side, both when he wears the girdle (kusti), and when he
does not wear the girdle, even then it is not undress (vishadakih).
- When a skirt of one fold is put on, and the skirt has concealed
both sides, the girdle is tied over it, and it is proper. 8. When
two shirts are put on, and they shall tie the girdle over that
which is above, then it is for him a root of the sin owing to
running about uncovered.
- By a man and woman, until fifteen years of age, there is no
committal of the sin of running about uncovered; and the sin of
unseasonable chatter arises after fifteen years of age. 10. The
sin of running about uncovered, as far as three steps, is a Farman
each step; at the fourth step is a Tanapuhr sin.
- A girdle to which there is no fringe is proper; and when they
shall tie a woman's ringlet (gurs) it is not proper.
- Walking with one boot as far as four steps is a Tanapuhr sin,
when with one movement; and after the fourth step as much as one
shall walk is a Tanapuhr; and when he sits down and walks on the
sin is the same that it would be from his starting-point (bunih);
and there were some who said it is a Tanapuhr for each league
- At night, when they lie down, the shirt and girdle are to
be worn, for they are more protecting for the body, and good for
the soul. 14. When they lie down with the shirt and girdle, before
sleep one shall utter one Ashem-vohu, and with every coming and
going of the breath (vayo) is a good work of three Srosho-charanams;
and if in that sleep decease occurs, his renunciation of sin is
- Of unseasonable chatter, that of children of five years of
age has no root; and from five years till seven years, when one
is under the tuition of his father and innocent, it has no root
in him, and when sinful it has root in the father. 2. And from
eight years till they are man and woman of fifteen years, if even
one is innocent during the performance of the ritual (yashto),
but is able to say its Itha and Ashem-vohu,
and does not say them, it is the root of unseasonable chatter
for him; and when he is able to perform his ritual by heart (narm),
and says only the Itha and Ashem-vohu, some
have said that such is as when his ritual is not performed and
there is no offering (yastofrid), and some have said that it is
not unseasonable chatter.
- Unseasonable chatter may occur at every ceremonial (yazishno);
for him who has performed the ritual it is a Tanapuhr sin; for
him who has not performed the ritual it is less, some have said
three Srosho-charanams. 4. The measure of unseasonable chatter
is a Tanapuhr sin; this is where every ceremony, or every morsel,
or every drop of urine is not completed. 5. Of the unseasonable
chatter of him who has not performed the ritual Afarg said this
degree is slighter; Medok-mah said both are alike, and he spoke
further of this, since for him who has not performed the ritual,
and does not attend to saying its Itha and Ashem-vohu,
it is more severe than for him who has performed the ritual, and
does not attend to consecrating its sacred, cake (dron). 6. Medok-mah
said that it (the ceremonial) does not become getig-kharid; Afarg
said that it amounts to an offering (yastofrid) for every one,
except for that person who knows the ritual by heart, and through
sinfulness will not perform it; and it becomes his at the time
when, during his life and by his command, it is recited with this
intention, namely: 'I wish to do it, my faith (astobanih) is in
- The deaf and dumb when it is not possible for him to say an
Ashem does not commit unseasonable chatter; and when
it is possible for him to say an Ashem he shall three
times say of it, 'Ashem, ashem, ashem;' and if it be
possible for him to say 'itha' and 'ashem-vohu'
it is well, and when it is only possible for him to say 'itha'
it matters not.
- The deaf and dumb and helpless (armesht), though of unblemished
conduct and proper disposition, is incapable of doing good works,
and from the time when he is born till the time when he shall
die, all the duty and good works which they may perform in the
world become his property (nafshman) as much as his even by whom
they are performed; some say that it is thus: as much as they
belong to Zartosht. 2. Though he does not do the good works not
really originating with (ahambunich) him, and does not commit
the sin not really originating with him, it is better than though
he were able to do the good works not really originating with
him, and should not do them; but should commit the sin not really
originating with him; when, afterwards, he passes away, and then
also comes to his account as to sin and good works, when the good
works not really originating with him are more he is in heaven
(vahisht), when the sin not really originating with him is more
he is in hell, and when both are equal he is among the ever-stationary
(hamistagan). 3. When the good works are three Srosho-charanams
more than the sins he is in heaven (vahisht), when the good works
are one Tanapuhr more he attains to the best existence (pahlum
ahvan), when his ceremony (yasht) is performed. 4. Soshyans said
that to come into that best existence it is not necessary to perform
the ceremony, for when his good works are one Tanapuhr more than
the sin he attains to the best existence, and no account is taken
of performing his ceremony; because in the heavenly existence
(garodmanikih) it is not necessary to perform a ceremony, for
an excess of good works must attain garothman. 5. As Soshyans
said, in heaven (vahisht) he who is below is elevated to him who
is above; and it says thus: 'Happy indeed art thou, O man! who
art in any way near unto that imperishable existence.'
- Kushtano-bujed said that an infidel (akdino) [that is, one
of another religion; not an apostate, nor an atheist], when his
good works are one Tanapuhr more than his sin, is saved from hell.
- Of a pure law (dad) are we of the good religion, and we are
of the primitive faith; of a mixed law are those of the Sinik
congregation; of a vile law are the Zandik, the Christian (Tarsak),
the Jew (Yahud), and others of this sort (sano).
- The morning sun it is necessary to reverence (yashtano) till
midday, and that of midday it is necessary to reverence till the
afternoon time, and that of the afternoon time it is necessary
to reverence till night; whenever one is quite prepared for activity
(khveshkarih), and shall then do reverence, it is proper. 2. And
when anything of that happens which indicates when it is not proper
to wash the hands, and about this he considers that when he does
not reverence the sun it will stop, at the time previous to that
in which it occurs the sun is to be fully reverenced by him, and,
afterwards, when his hands are washed, it is to be reverenced
again; and when he does not reverence it, except when innocent
through not reverencing it, then it becomes irreverence (la yasht)
of the sun for him.
- As to the sun it is better when one reverences it every time
at the proper period (pavan gas-i nafshman); when he does not
reverence it for once it is a sin of thirty stirs. 4. Reverencing
the sun is every time a good work of one Tanapuhr; and so of the
moon and fire in like manner. 5. When on account of cloudiness
the sun is not visible (pedak), and one shall reverence it, it
- And while one does not reverence the sun, the good works which
they do that day are not their own; some say that of the good
works which they do within the law (dad) of the good religion
he has no share. 7. While they do not wash dirty hands any good
work which they do is not their own, for while one does not utterly
destroy corruption (nasa) there is no coming of the angels to
his body, and when there is no coming of the angels to his body
he has no steadfastness in the religion, and when he has no steadfastness
in the religion no good work whatever reaches unto him.
- When one wishes to perform the propitiation (shnuman) of fire,
it is allowable to perform one 'athro' by itself, and,
when two and the 'mat vispaeibyo aterebyo,' these three
are thus the propitiation everywhere; some say that it would be
proper to perform it while allowable, except that of the heterodox.
- Whoever shall extinguish a fire, by him ten fires are to be
gathered together, by him ten punishments are to be endured, by
him ten ants are to be destroyed, and by him holy-water (zohr)
is to be presented to the sacred fire (Atash-i Warharan).
- Sin which affects accusers is to be atoned for (vijarishn)
among the accusers, and that relating to the soul is to be atoned
for among the high-priests (radan), and when they do whatever
the high-priests of the religion command the sin will depart,
and the good works which they may thenceforth do will attain completion
(avasporik). 2. The sin of him who is worthy of death (margarzan)
is to be confessed (garzishno) unto the high-priests, and he is
to deliver up his body; except to the high priests he is not to
deliver up his body.
- On account of the dexterity (farhang) of horsemen it is not
their business to hunt (nakhchir kardano); and it is not allowable
for any one else to hunt for game, except for him whose wealth
is less than three hundred stirs.
- The ceremonial worship (yazishn) of those worthy of death,
which they do not perform by way of renunciation of sin, is the
ceremonial which is demon worship; and when the officiating priest
(aerpat) does not know it the merit (kirfak) of the ceremonial
goes to the store (gang) of the angels, and they give the enjoyment
which arises from that merit in the spiritual existence to the
soul of that person who has at once (aevak) become righteous in
- When the mortal sinner (margarzan) has delivered his body
and wealth at once to the high-priests, and engages mentally in
renunciation as to the sin which has occurred, and the high-priests
give him their decision (dastobarih) as to duty and good works,
the duty and good works which were before performed by him come
back to him; and when they inflict punishment for three nights,
he does not enter hell. 6. And if the high-priest orders the cutting
off of his head he is righteous on the spot, and the three nights'
(satuih) ceremony is to be celebrated for him, and the account
of the three nights (satuih) does not affect him. 7. And if he
does not engage in renunciation he is in hell till the future
existence; and in his future body they will bring him from hell,
and for every mortal sin they will cut off his head once, and
the last time they will make him alive again, and will inflict
(numayend) three nights' severe punishment.
- However a man engages in renunciation of sin the duty of his
state of renunciation (patitih) is to be engaged therein openly
and mentally in renunciation; the duty of openness is this, that
the sin which he knows has assailed him, is to be specially confessed
(bara gobishno) by him, and the mental duty is this, that he engages
in renunciation with this thought, that 'henceforth I will not
commit sin.' 9. And that which occurs before the renunciation,
except pious alms, it is well for him not to be overlooked by
him, and not to be kept secret by him; for when he shall overlook,
or shall keep secret, about sin committed, it becomes for him
as much, some say, as three Srosho-charanams; some say that when
he keeps secret about a sin of three Srosho-charanams he is worthy
of death; some say much otherwise. 10. Ataro-pad son of Zartosht
had remarked (pedakinid) to a disciple, about this duty, thus:
'Conform to the renunciation of sin!' and one time a secret was
kept by him, and he ordered him thus: 'Henceforth be thou never
apparent in this duty!' and after that he looked upon the supplication
(avakhshih) and much repentance of that disciple, and even then
he did not become the high-priest (dastur) over him.
- The rule is this, that of those who would be proper for this
priestly duty (dastobarih), that person is proper who is perfect
in (narm) the commentary (zand) of the law, and the punishment
of sin is easy for him, and he has controlled himself; some say
thus: 'By whom a course of priestly studies (aerpatastan) is performed.'
12. And the punishment of sin being easy for him, and his having
controlled himself are proper, and when, in danger before a menstruous
woman, he engages in renunciation it is proper.
- Neryosang said thus: 'Thou deemest it most surprising that,
of the renunciation of sin with energy, whatever may be its efficacy,
they have been so much of the same opinion, so that whenever they
perform renunciation, however they perform it, and before whomever
they perform it, whenever a sin is not even mentally originating
with one a renunciation should be performed by him; and when very
many mortal sins (margarzan) are committed by him, and he engages
mentally in renunciation of every one separately, he is not on
the way to hell, owing to his renunciation; and if there be one
of which he is not in renunciation the way to hell is not closed
to him, for he does not rely upon the beneficence (sud) of Ohrmazd,
and it is allowable to appoint a priestly retribution (rad tojishn)
to fully atone for it, and when thou appointest a priestly retribution
for it, and dost not fully atone, it is allowable to inflict it
justly and strongly (drubo).'
- When his sin is committed against (den) accusers it will be
necessary to act so that the head of the family (mirak) shall
not become evil-minded, and shall not divorce the wife from matrimony,
and they shall not bring him on unto him; before his accusers
he is to be engaged in renunciation, and when not, he is to be
engaged in renunciation of the sin before the high-priests (radan),
and it will become debts, and debt does not make a man wicked;
its effect is this, that in the future existence they may quite
forsake him, and this becomes a great shame, and they disturb
(kavend) his enjoyment. 15. As to the sin which affects the accusers,
when the female has atoned for it, its stem (payak) is atoned
for; some say that the stem (payakghih) has no root; some say
that it is just like a tree whose leaves wither away.
- Sin relating to the soul, when one engages in renunciation,
stays away from him; when it shall be fully atoned for it is well,
and when he does not fully atone they will make him righteous
by the three nights' (satuih) punishment. 17. Kushtano-bujed said
that even that which affects accusers, when one engages in renunciation,
stays away from him.
- Nosai Burz-Mitro spoke these three sayings, that is, 'Next-of-kin
marriage will extirpate mortal sins (margarzan), and the sacred
twigs when their ablution is such as renders them improper for
firewood, and a man when his wife becomes pregnant by him.'
- Whoever commits a sin against (den) water, and kills a lizard,
or other noxious water-creature, has atoned for it; also when
thou atonest to (den) fire for that against water it is proper,
and when thou atonest to water for that against fire it is proper;
some say that even a scorpion is proper to be killed. 20. And
when a sin of one tanapuhr is committed by him, and he shall consecrate
a sacred cake (dron), or shall accomplish a good work of one tanapuhr,
it has atoned for it.
- When he has committed a mortal sin (margarzan), and engages
mentally in renunciation, and the high-priest (rad) knows that,
though he ought to give up his body, he will not give it up, it
is allowable when he shall kill him; that is, because he relies
upon the beneficence (sud) of Ohrmazd. 22. Moreover, from the
rule (mank) 'yazemna kat na hakat' ('through being worshipped
what then at once,' &c.) it is evident, and it becomes his
through ceremonial ablution of the hands; it amounts to a whole
quarry (kano) of good works, and the worship of God (yazishn-i
yazdano) is to be performed for him. 23. Adarbad Mahraspandan
said that it is always necessary to be more diligent in performing
one's worship of God at the time that many mortal sins are committed;
all sins being admissible into renunciation, when thou shalt atone
by complete self-sacrifice (pur-jan-dadiha), and when one engages
in renunciation of the sin from its root, he becomes free from
the sin in renunciation of which sin he engaged; for Ohrmazd will
not leave his own creatures unto the evil spirit, unless on the
path of non-renunciation.
- The greater Hasar is one part in twelve parts of the day and
night, and the lesser Hasar is one part in eighteen parts.
- The priest (asruk) who passes away in idolatry (auzdayakih)
thou hast considered as desolate (viran); and there is a high-priest
(dastur) who is of a different opinion, there is one who says
he is as a non-Iranian (an-airan) country. 3. It is declared that,
when a supreme high-priest (Zarathushtrotema) passes away in idolatry,
an apostate (aharmok) will be born in that dwelling, and a rumor
of this calamity is uttered by that supreme high-priest.
- In order to be steadfast in the good religion it is to be
discussed with priests and high-priests, and when one does not
discuss it is proper that he do not teach it.
- The ceremonial worship (yazishn) which they perform in a fire-temple,
when not done aright, does not reach unto the demons; but that
which they perform in other places, when they do not perform it
aright, does reach unto the demons, for there is no medium in
worship, it reaches either unto the angels or unto the demons.
6. Of a man who has relinquished a bad habit, and through his
good capabilities engages in renunciation of sin, the good work
advances unto the future existence.
- Any one who shall die in a vessel (kashtik) it is allowable,
for fear of contamination (padvishak), to throw into the water;
some say that the water itself is the receptacle for the dead
- This, too, is declared: 'When in the dark it is not allowable
to eat food; for the demons and fiends seize upon one-third of
the wisdom and glory of him who eats food in the dark;' and it
is declared by that passage (jinak) which Ohrmazd spoke to Zartosht,
thus: 'After the departure of the light let him not devour, with
unwashed hands, the water and vegetables of Hordad and Amurdad;
for if after the departure of the light thou devourest, with unwashed
hands, the water and vegetables of Hordad and Amurdad, the fiend
seizes away from thee two-thirds of the existing original wisdom
which, when he seizes it away, is the glory and religion which
are auspicious for thee that day, so that diligence becomes a
vexation this day.'
- In a passage of the fifth fargard of the Pazag Nask
it is declared that one mentions these characteristics of four
kinds of worship of the celestial beings (yazdan):- one is that
whose Avesta is correct, but the man is bad; the second is that
whose Avesta is faulty (zifano), but the man is good; the third
is that whose Avesta is correct, and the man is good; and the
fourth is that whose Avesta is faulty and the man is bad. 10.
That whose Avesta is correct, but the man bad, the archangels
will approach and will listen to, but do not accept; that whose
Avesta is faulty, but the man good, the archangels and angels
will approach, but do not listen to, and will accept; that whose
Avesta is correct, and the man good, the archangels and angels
will approach, will come to, will listen to, and will accept;
that whose Avesta is faulty, and the man bad, they do not approach,
do not listen to, and do not accept.
- In every ceremonial (yazishno), at the beginning of the ceremony,
and the beginning of the sacred-cake consecration (dron), the
angels and guardian spirits of the righteous are to be invited
to the ceremony. 12. When they invoke the angels they will accept
the ceremony, and when they do not invoke them, all the guardian
spirits of the righteous are to be invoked at the beginning of
'staomi;' and when not, they watch until the words 'frasho-charethram
saoshyantam,' [y26.20] and when they shall invoke them there
they will accept the ceremony; and when not, they will watch until
the words 'vispau fravashayo ashaonam yazamaide,' [y26.34]
and when they shall invoke them there they will accept the ceremony;
and when not, they will watch until the words 'tauscha yazamaide;'
and when they invoke them at the threefold 'ashem vohu'
and the word damanam,' [y8.10] at the twice-told 'aokhto-namano,'
[Y22.33] the 'ashat hacha,' [y24.30] or the 'yatumanahe
jasaiti,' [Y8.9] they will accept; and when not, they go
up the height of a spear (nizak) and will remain. 13. And they
speak thus: 'This man does not understand that it will be necessary
even for him to go from the world, and our prayer (apistan) is
for reminding men; it is not that our uneasiness arises from this,
that we are in want of their ceremony, but our uneasiness arises
from this, that when they do not reverence and do not invoke us,
when evil comes upon them it is not possible for us to keep it
- 'O creator! how much is the duration in life of him who is
dead?' And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'As much as the wing of a fly,
O Zartosht the Spitaman! or as much as the hearing a wing unto
a sightless one.'
- The rule is this, that a sacred thread-girdle (kusti) be three
finger-breadths loose transversely (pavan targun), as is said
in every teaching (chastak), and when it is less it is not proper.
- The rule is this, that the sacred cake (dron), set aside at
the dedication formula (khshnuman) on the days devoted to the
guardian spirits, is to be used at the season-festivals, the Nonabar,
the three nights' ceremony, the Haoma-dron, and other rites of
the righteous guardian spirits; and when they shall not do so,
according to some teachings, it is not proper.
- In the exposition (chastak) of the Nigadum Nask it
says that a man is going to commit robbery, and a wall falls in
upon him, it is his destroyer; when a man strikes at him he is
his adversary, and both are in sinfulness; when he is going to
perform the worship of God (yazisno-i yazdano) both of them are
- The rule is this, that when a woman becomes pregnant, as long
as it is possible, the fire is to be maintained most carefully
in the dwelling, because it is declared in the Spend Nask
that towards Dogdo, the mother of Zartosht, when she was pregnant
with Zartosht, for three nights, every night a leader (khuda)
with a hundred and fifty demons rushed for the destruction of
Zartosht, but owing to the existence of the fire in the dwelling
they knew no means of accomplishing it.
- The rule is this, that they have a tank (moj) for the disciples,
when they are going to perform the worship of God, and are sprinkling
the stone seat (magok); and lest they should make a wet place
by that sprinkling through taking water out from it, it is to
be done sitting; for in the Vendidad the high-priests have taught,
about making water when standing on foot, that the measure it
refers to applies to everything else, not even of a like origin;
by him who makes water the Avesta for making water is to be uttered,
and then it is the root of a tanapuhr sin for him, and when he
does not utter it he is more grievously sinful.
- The rule is this, that to recite the Gathas over those passed
away is not to be considered as beneficial, since it is not proper
to recite the three Has which are the beginning of the Ushtavat
Gatha whenever one is on the road; whenever one recites them over
a man in the house they are healing.
- The rule is this, that in the night wine and aromatic herbs
(sparam) and anything like food are not to be cast away towards
the north quarter, because a fiend will become pregnant; and when
one casts them away one Yatha-ahu-vairyo is to be uttered.
- The rule is this, that reverential should be the abstinence
from unlawfully slaughtering of any species of animals; for in
the Sudgar Nask it is said, concerning those who have
unlawfully slaughtered animals, the punishment is such that each
hair of those animals becomes like a sharp dagger (tekh), and
he who is unlawfully a slaughterer is slain. 9. Of animals, the
slaughtering of the lamb, the goat (vahik), the ploughing ox,
the war-horse, the hare, the bat (chiharaz), the cock or bird
of Vohuman, and the magpie (kaskinak) bird, and of birds that
of the kite, eagle (humai), and swallow is most to be abstained
- A pregnant woman who passes away is not to be carried away
by less than four men, who are at it constantly with united strength;
for with other corpses, after a dog's gaze, when they carry them
along by two men with united strength, they do not become polluted;
but for a pregnant woman two dogs are necessary, to whose united
power she is to be exposed; and they carry her along by four men
with united strength, and they do not become polluted; but when
they carry her along by two men they are to be washed with ceremony
- The rule is this, that when they beg forgiveness for a person
(mardum) who has passed away, such a prayer is more significant
when one says thus: 'Whenever a trespass (vinas) of mine has occurred
against him, you will take account of it along with those of his
which have occurred against me, and the trespasses have passed
away one through the other; any further trespasses of his which
have occurred against me are then made a righteous gift by me.'
- The rule is this, that one should not walk without boots;
and his advantage therefrom is even this, that when a boot (mujak)
is on his foot, and he puts the foot upon dead matter, and does
not disturb the dead matter, he does not become polluted; when
a boot is not on his foot, and he puts the foot upon dead matter,
and does not disturb it, he is polluted, except when he knows
for certain (aevar) that a dog has seen it, or if not it is to
be considered as not seen by a dog.
- The rule is this, as revealed in the Duwasrud Nask,
where a day in the year is indicated, that the sacred thread-girdle
[kusti] of every one who shall be one day more than fourteen years
and three months old is to be tied on -- it is better so than
when he remains unto fifteen years, and then ties on the girdle
-- who is more cared for, that way, than a five-months' child,
on whom they should put it in the womb of its mother.
- The rule is this, that when one retains a prayer inwardly,
and wind shall come from below, or wind shall come from the mouth,
it is all one.
- Also this, that ten women are necessary for affording assistance
to a woman who is in labor: five women for directing the making
of the cradle (gavarak), one woman should be opposite the left
shoulder, and one to hold the right shoulder, one woman to throw
a hand on her neck, one woman to hold her waist, and one woman,
when the infant shall be born, to take it up and cut the navel
cord, and to make the fire blaze. 16. Three days and three nights
no one is to pass between the fire and the child, nor to show
the child to a sinful man or woman; they are to titrate a little
sulfur in the sap (maya) of a plant, and to smear it over the
child; and the first food to give it is Haoma-juice (parahom)
and aloes (shapyar).
- The rule is this, that in case any one shall beat an innocent
man, until the pain shall cease it becomes every day the root
of a tanapuhr sin for him.
- The rule is this, that when in a country they trust a false
judge, and keep him among their superiors, owing to the sin and
breach of faith which that judge commits, the clouds and rain,
in that country, are deficient, a portion (bavan) of the deliciousness,
fatness, wholesomeness, and milk of the cattle and goats diminishes,
and many children become destroyed in the mother's womb.
- The rule is this, that a man, when he does not wed a wife,
does not become worthy of death; but when a woman does not wed
a husband it amounts to a sin worthy of death; because for a woman
there is no offspring except by intercourse with men, and no lineage
proceeds from her; but for a man without a wife, when he shall
recite the Avesta, as it is mentioned in the Vendidad,
there may be a lineage which proceeds onwards to the future existence.
- The rule is this, that a toothpick is to be cut out clear
of bark (post pak), for the high-priests have taught that when
one's toothpick -- made for the mouth with the bark -- shall fall,
and when a pregnant woman puts a foot upon it, she is apprehensive
about its being dead matter.
- The rule is this, that in accepting the child of a handmaid
(chakar) discrimination is to be exercised; for in the fourteenth
of the Nask Husparum the high-priests have taught thus:
'My son is suitable also as thy son, but my daughter is not suitable
also as thy daughter.'
- The rule is this, that one perseveres much in the begetting
of offspring, for the acquisition of abundance of good works at
once; because, in the Nigadum Nask, the high-priests
have taught that the duty and good works which a son performs
are as much the father's as though they had been done by his own
hand; and in the Damdad Nask it is revealed thus: 'Likewise,
too, the good works, in like measure, which come into the father's
- The rule is this, that they shall give to the worthy as much
of anything as is proper for eating and accumulating; because
in the Nigadum Nask the high-priests have taught thus:
'A man gives a hungry one bread, and it is too much, yet all the
good works, which he shall perform through that superabundance,
become as much his who gave it as though they had been done by
his own hand.'
- The rule is this, where one lies down, in circumstances of
propriety and innocence, one Ashem-vohu is to be uttered, and
in like manner when he gets up well; when he does so, every single
drawing of the breath (vayo) becomes a good work of three Srosho-charanams,
that is, a weight of ten dirhams of the full weight of four mads.
- The rule is this, that when an action or an opinion comes
forward, and one does not know whether it be a sin or a good work,
when possible it is to be abandoned and not executed by him; as
it says in the Sagadum Nask that Zartosht has not provided
about everything whatever, but three times it been done by Zartosht
about this duty, that is, so that the Avesta and Zand, when one
has learned it thoroughly by heart, is for recitation, and is
not to be mumbled (juyishno), for in mumbling (judano) the parts
of the Ahunwar are more chattering. 26. As it says in the Bag
Nask thus: 'Whoever shall mutter, O Zartosht! my allotment
of the Ahunwar -- that is, shall softly take it inwardly -- and
shall let it escape again -- that is, shall utter it aloud --
so much as a half, or one-third, or one-fourth, or one-fifth,
his soul will I shield, I who am Ohrmazd, from the best existence
-- that is, I will keep it away -- by so much of an interval as
the width of this earth.'
- The rule is this, that one is to proceed with great deliberation
when he does not know whether it be a sin or a good work, that
is, it is not to be done.
- The rule is this, that an opinion (andazak) of anything is
to be formed through consultation with the good; even so it is
revealed in the Chihrdad Nask that Spandarmad spoke to
Manuschihar thus: 'Even the swiftest horse requires the whip (tazanak),
the sharpest steel knife requires the whetstone (afsan), and the
wisest man requires counsel (ham-pursih).'
- The rule is this, that when one laughs outright (bara khanded)
the Avesta and Zand are not to be mumbled, for the wisdom of Ohrmazd
is omniscient, and good works are a great exercise of liberality,
but an extreme abstinence from producing irritation (hanjidar-dahishnih);
because in the Ratushtaiti Nask many harsh things are
said about the severe punishment of producers of irritation, in
the spiritual existence.
- The rule is this, that as there may be some even of those
of the good religion who, through unacquaintance with the religion,
when a female fowl crows in the manner of a cock, will kill the
fowl, so those of the primitive faith have said that there may
be mischief (vinastarih) from wizards in that dwelling, which
the cock is incapable of keeping away, and the female fowl makes
that noise for the assistance of the cock, especially when the
bringing of another cock into that dwelling is necessary.
- The rule is this, that when one sees a hedgehog, then along
with it a place in the plain, free from danger, is to be preserved;
for in the Vendidad the high-priests have taught that
it is when the hedgehog every day voids urine into an ant's nest
that a thousand ants will die.
- The rule is this, that in the Vendidad seven kinds
of things are mentioned, and when they are the cause of a man's
death, until the forthcoming period of the day (gas-i levin) comes
on, contamination (nisrusht) does not rush upon him; and for this
reason, this, too, is well for the good, that is, to show a dog
rightly again a previous corpse in the forthcoming period of the
- The rule is this, that by those who attend to a corpse among
the pure it is then to be shown to a dog very observant of the
corpse; for when even a thousand persons shall carry away a corpse
which a dog has not seen, they are all polluted.
- The rule is this, that meat, when there is stench or decomposition
not even originating with it, is not to be prayed over; and the
sacred cake (dron) and butter (gaush-dak) which are hairy are
also not to be prayed over.
- A woman is fit for priestly duty (zotih) among women, and
when she is consecrating the sacred cake (dron), and one Ashem-vohu
is uttered by her, she puts the sacred twigs (barsom) back on
the twig-stand, brings them away, and the utterance of another
one is good; when she says it is not expedient to do it with attention
before a meal, it is proper. 36. The sacred cake of a disreputable
woman is not to be consecrated, but is to be rendered ineligible
- When one places a thing before the fire observantly, and does
not see the splendor itself, 'tava athro' is not to be said.
- At night, when one lies down, the hands are to be thoroughly
washed. 39. That which comes from a menstruous woman to any one,
or to anything, is all to be thoroughly washed with bull's urine
(gomez) and water.
- The rule is this, as Adarbad Mahraspandan said when every
one passed away:- 'The mouth-veil and also the clothing are to
be well set apart from the gifts (dasaran), so that his soul may
become easier.' Completed in peace and pleasure.]
PART 2. -- A Supplementary Treatise.
- The degrees of sin are these, such as a Farman, Srosho-charanam,
Agerept, Aivirisht, Aredush, Khor, Bazai, Yat, and tanapuhr, and
I will mention each of them a second time. 2. A Farman is the
weight of three dirhams of four mads; a Srosho-charanam is one
dirham and two mads; three Srosho-charanams are the weight of
four dirhams and two mads; an Agerept is thirty-three stirs; an
Aivirisht is the weight of thirty-three dirhams; an Aredush is
thirty stirs; a Khor is sixty stirs; a Bazai is ninety stirs;
a Yat is a hundred and eighty stirs, and a Tanapuhr is three hundred
- Every one ought to be unhesitating and unanimous about this,
that righteousness is the one thing, and heaven (garothman) the
one place, which is good, and contentment the one thing more comfortable.
- When a sheep is slaughtered and divided, its meat-offering
(gavus-dak) is to be thus presented: the tongue, jaw, and left
eye are the angel Haoma's own; the neck is Ardwahisht's own; the
head is the angel Vae's own; the right shoulder (arm) is Aredvisur's,
the left is Drvasp's; the right thigh (hakht) is for the guardian
spirit of Vishtasp, and the left for the guardian spirit of Jamasp;
the back is for the supreme chief; the loin is the spirits' own;
the belly is Spandarmad's; the testicles are for the star Vanand;
the kidneys are Haptoring's; the ventricle (naskadako) is for
the guardian spirit of priests; the lungs are for the guardian
spirit of warriors; the liver is for compassion and sustenance
of the poor; the spleen is Mahraspand's; the fore-legs (bazai)
are for the waters; the heart is for the fires; the entrail fat
is Ardafrawash's; the tail-bone (dunb-gazako) is for the guardian
spirit of Zartosht the Spitaman; the tail (dunbak) is for Vad
the righteous; the right eye is in the share of the moon; and
any that may be left over from those is for the other archangels.
5. There have been those who may have spoken about protection,
and there have been those who may have done so about meat-offerings;
whoever has spoken about protection is such as has spoken well,
and whoever has spoken about meat-offerings has not spoken everything
which is noteworthy. 6. When one shall offer up what pertains
to one (khadukag) on account of another it is proper; except the
tongue, jaw, and left eye, for that those are the angel Haoma's
own is manifest from the passage: 'Hizvam frerenaot,' etc.
- The rule is this, that when one's form of worship (yasht)
is performed, and it is not possible for him to prepare it, the
practice of those of the primitive faith is, when the girdle (aipiyaung)
is twined about a sacred twig-bundle (barsom) of seven twigs (tak),
to consecrate a sacred cake (dron) thrice, which becomes his form
of worship that is performed one degree better through the sacred
cake; and of the merit of a threefold consecration of the sacred
cake the high-priests have specially taught, in the Husparum
Nask, that it is as much as that of a lesser form of worship.
- The rule is this, that he who is himself more acquainted with
religion is he who considers him who is more acquainted with religion
than himself as high-priest, and considers him as high-priest
so that he may not destroy the bridge of the soul; as it says
in the Sagadum Nask that no one of them, that is an inattentive
(asrushdar) man who has no high-priest, attains to the best existence,
not though his recitations should be so many that they have made
his duty and good works as much as the verdure (sapdak) of the
plants when it shoots forth in spring, the verdure which Ohrmazd
has given abundantly.
- The rule is this, that they keep a fire in the house, because,
from not keeping the fire properly, there arise less pregnancy
of women and a weeping (av-didano) for the loss of strength (tanu)
of men; and the chilled charcoal (angisht) and the rest which
are without advantage (bar) are to be carried away from the fire;
and in the Spend Nask it is revealed that a fire, when
they shall make it quite clean from its chilled charcoal, has
as much comfort as a man whose clothing they should make clean.
- The rule is this, that when any one passes away it is proper
to render useless as much as the smallest mouth-veil, for it says
in the Vendidad that 'if even those Mazdayasnians should
leave on him who is dead, in parting with him, as much as that
which a damsel would leave in parting with the food-bowl (padmanako)
-- that is, a bag (anbanako-hana)' -- the decree is this, that
it is a Tanapuhr sin at root, which is hell; and in the Vendidad
it says that the clothing of the charitable (dahishn-homand) soul,
and even the clothing which they will give it, are out of almsgivings
- The rule is this, that when any one passes away, after keeping
fasting the three nights, still the presentation of holy-water
(zohr) to the fire is to be performed, which is the presenting
of the holy-water to the nearest fire; for in the Damdad Nask
it is revealed that when they sever (tebrund) the consciousness
of men it goes out to the nearest fire, then out to the stars,
then out to the moon, and then out to the sun; and it is needful
that the nearest fire, which is that to which it has come out,
should become stronger (zor-homandtar).
- The rule is this, that they should not leave a nail-paring
unprayed over (anafsudak), for if it be not prayed over (afsand)
it turns into the arms and equipments of the Mazendaran demons;
this is explicitly shown in the Vendidad.
- The rule is this, that the labor of child-birth is not to
be accomplished at night, except while with the light of a fire,
or the stars and moon, upon it; for great opposition is connected
with it, and in the twentieth of the Husparum Nask it
is shown that over the soul of him who works in the dark there
is more predominance of the evil spirit.
- The rule is this, that they should allow the egg and other
food for those gifts and favors of the sovereign moon (mah-i khudai)
and the other angels; if so, it is to be allowed by them thus:
'I will consecrate so much food for such an angel,' and not thus:
'One sacred cake (dron) in so much food.' 9. And the reason of
it is this, that they who shall allow thus: 'One sacred cake out
of so much food,' and of which it is one thing less, even though
one shall consecrate it many times, still then he has not repaid;
and they who should allow thus: 'I will consecrate so much food
for such an angel,' though one shall reverence him with many sacred
cakes, it is proper. 10. And in the twenty-two sections of the
Sagadum Nask grievous things are shown about those who
do not make: offerings (austofrid) unto the angels.
- The rule is this, that when a woman becomes pregnant, as long
as it is possible, a fire one cares for well is to be maintained
in the house, because it is revealed in the Spend Nask
that to Dogdo, the mother of Zartosht, when she was pregnant
with Zartosht, for three nights, every night a leader (shah) with
a hundred and fifty demons came for the destruction of Zartosht,
and yet, owing to the existence of the fire in the dwelling, they
knew no means for it.
- The rule is this, where a child is born, during three days,
for protection from demons, wizards, and witches, a fire is to
be made at night until daylight, and is to be maintained there
in the day, and pure incense is to be put upon it, as is revealed
in the thirtieth of the Sagadum Nask.
- The rule is this, that from a toothpick the bark is to be
well cut off, for there are some of those of the primitive faith
who have said that, when they shall make it for the teeth with
the bark on, and they throw it away, a pregnant woman, who puts
a foot upon it, is doubtful about its being dead matter.
- The rule is this, that it is well if any one of those who
have their handmaid (chakar) in cohabitation (zanih), and offspring
is born of her, shall accept all those who are male as sons; but
those who are female are no advantage, because an adopted son
(sator) is requisite, and in the fourteenth of the Husparum
Nask the high-priests have taught thus: 'My son is suitable
also as thy son, but my daughter is not suitable also as thy daughter;'
and there are many who do not appoint an adopted son with this
idea, that: 'The child of a handmaid may be accepted by us as
- The rule is this, that one is to persevere much in the begetting
of offspring, since it is for the acquisition of many good works
at once; because in the Spand and Nigadum Nasks
the high-priests have taught that the duty and good works which
a son performs are as much the father's as though they had been
done by his own hand; and in the Damdad Nask it is revealed
thus: 'Likewise, too, the good works, in like manner, which come
to the father as his own.'
- The rule is this, that what they shall give to the worthy
is as much as is proper and beyond, for eating and accumulating;
because in the Nigadum Nask the high-priests have taught
thus: 'When a man gives bread to a man, even though that man has
too much bread, all the good works, which he shall perform through
that superabundance, become as much his who gave it as though
they had been done by his own hand.'
- The rule is this, that in the night water is not to be drawn
from a well, as in the Bagan-yasn notice is given about
the uncleanness (ayoshdasarih) of well-water at night.
- The rule is this, that in the night anything eatable is not
to be cast away to the north, because a fiend will become pregnant;
and when it is cast away one Yatha-ahu-vairyo is to be
uttered. 19. Those of the primitive faith who used to act more
orthodoxically (hu-rastakihatar), when food was eaten by them
in the night, for the sake of preservation from sin owing to the
coming of strainings and sprinklings on to the ground, directed
a man to chant the Ahunwar from the beginning of the feast (myazd)
unto the end, more especially at the feast of the season-festivals
[Gahambars]; as it says in the Hadokht Nask, that of
the sayings which are spoken out the Ahunwar is that which is
- The rule is this, that when one sees a hedgehog he takes it
back to the plain, and its own place is to be preserved free from
danger; for in the Vendidad the high-priests have taught,
that every day, when the hedgehog voids urine into an ant's nest,
a thousand ants will die.
- The rule is this, that some who are of the good religion say,
where one is washing his face, one Ashem-vohu is always
to be uttered, and that Ashem-vohu is to be uttered before
the washing; for when he utters it while washing his face, he
is doubtful (var-homand) about the water coming to his mouth.
- The rule is this, that they select from the purifiers -- when
their business (mindavam) is as important (raba) as purity and
impurity -- him with whom the control of ablution (padiyavih)
and non-ablution is connected; they select him especially with
regard to the good disposition and truthful speaking of the man,
and to the particular work; and on account of his being in innocence
he is to be considered more righteous. 23. As in the Vendidad
it says, about the two shares of righteousness, how one should
tell that he is 'a righteous man, O Zartosht the Spitaman! who
is a purifier, who should be a speaker that speaks truly, an inquirer
of the sacred texts -- that is, he has performed his ritual (yasht)
-- a righteous one who specially understands purification from
the religion of the Mazdayasnians, that is, he understands its
religious formulas (nirang).' 24. When it is so that the control
of their ablution is connected with him, so that they consider
what pertains to the purifying bowl (zak-i tashtik) as his, and
ever abstain from it, though the angels hear and consider them
as clean, and they select for him those who consecrate the water
and bull's urine (gomez) on account of their control of purification
(yoshdasarkarih), and it is to be performed very observantly by
the consecrators at the place which is to be measured with a measure
and very exactly (khuptar). 25. And the purifier is so much the
better when washed again, and when it is by some one through whose
periodic (zamanik) care he is thus done; for in the periodic interval
many secret kinds of pollution are produced. 26. Of the celebrators
of the Vendidad the good are they who shall again perform
the Navashadar rite [i.e. barashnom]; for, on account of the same
nicety (nazukih) which is written above by me, and on account
of much also that is secret, which has happened and mostly arises
about it, there is no harm from performing it. 27. And any one
of those who shall receive the water and bull's urine it is very
important to wash beforehand (pavan pesh); because, if there be
impurity about him, and he puts a hand to the cup (jamak), the
water, and the bull's urine, they are unclean (apadavo); when
it is so that there be some one, when so, it is better that they
always wash his eyelids (moyak gas), and to wash them by the clean
- The rule is this, that thou shouldst not consider even any
one hopeless (anaimed) of heaven, and they should not set their
minds steadfastly on hell; thereby much sinfulness for which there
is a desire would be undesirable, because there is nothing which
is a sin in my religion for which there is no retribution, as
it says in the Gathas thus: 'Of those who are aware that thou
art, 'O Ohrmazd! is even he who is infamous (raspako); and they
know the punishment of him even who is very sinful.' 29. And as
to him even who is a very sinful person, through the desire of
good works which is entertained by him, there then comes more
fully to him the joy of a soul newly worthy (nuk shayad); as in
the Spend Nask was shown to Zartosht about one man, that
all his limbs were in torment, and one foot was outside; and Zartosht
inquired of Ohrmazd about the reason of it; and Ohrmazd said that
he was a man, Davans by name; he was ruler over thirty-three districts,
and he never practiced any good work, except one time when fodder
was conveyed by him to a sheep with that one foot.
- The rule is this, that when a man has performed his form of
worship (yasht), and his wife has not performed it, it is extremely
necessary to perform the suitable form of worship, or to order
a Geto-kharid, so that they may become such as are dwelling more
closely together in the spiritual existence than in the world;
and in the Hadokht Nask it says that a woman (nairik)
who shall be reverent (tarsak) is to be considered as much as
she who is suitable (ziyak).
- The rule is this, that these five ceremonies (yazishn), when
they shall perform them, are good works; when one does not perform
them, and the time is manifest to him, and when he shall set them
aside to perform them out of the proper time, they shall go to
the bridge as sin; the ceremonies which go to the bridge are these,
and in the Husparum Nask it says that they are the non-celebration
of the rites (la yashtano) of the season-festivals [Gahambars],
the Rapithwin, the three nights after a death, the days devoted
to the guardian spirits, and the sun and moon.
- The rule is this, that at every one of these three things,
which come through hungry living, that is, sneezing, yawning,
and sighing, one is to speak out a Yatha-ahu-vairyo and
one Ashem-vohu; and also when one hears the sneezing
of any one, to speak in like manner is so considered as an action
of the good; and in the Sudgar Nask it says thus: '"What
prepares sneezing? that is, through what process (kar) does it
come?" And Ohrmazd said thus: "Hungry living, O Zartosht!
because the remedy for its existence is the Ahunwar,
O Zartosht! and righteousness [i.e. Ashem Vohu]"'
- The signification of the Gathas.
- These three Ashem-vohus (Y11, end) which represent
the Fravarane (Y11, end) of the preliminary ritual (pesh nirang)
and the rotation of these three Has ('chapters'), the Fravarane,
Frastuye, and Astuye -- fravarane being the beginning of the Fravarane
which extends as far as frasastayaecha, frastuye, the beginning
of the Frastuye (Y12.1-Y13.26) which extends up to the Astuye,
and astuye, the beginning of the Astaothwanem (Y13.27-Y14, end)
which extends as far as astaothwanemcha daenayau Mazdayasnoish
-- also represent the Visai-ve-amesha-spenta (Y15), which is the
beginning of the Stotan-yasno ('the ritual of praisers'), and
these three Has of the Baghan (Y19-Y21).
- In the exposition (chashidak) and through the evidence of
revelation (dino) the wise of those of the primitive faith have
thus said; that a man of fifteen years, and a son and brother
of Mazdayasnians -- when he confesses his failings (mandak) to
the high-priests (radan), and they shall bring him the whip and
scourge, and these five Gathas are chanted and the good waters
consecrated by him, and the whole of the renewed-birth ceremony
(navid-zadih) is performed by him -- becomes a mature youth and
not a child, and a share of the prayers of initiation (napar)
and of the fires is to be given over to him; and when thus much
is not performed by him, a share is not to be given. 3. These
five Gathas are made up from the body of a righteous man.
- Ahya-yasa (Y28), Khshmaibya (Y29), and Ad-ta-vakhshya (Y30)
have, severally, eleven stanzas (vachest), because eleven things
move spiritually within the bodies of men, as life, consciousness,
religion, ,soul, guardian spirit, thought, word, deed, seeing,
smelling, and hearing; and the bodies of men and other creatures
are formed of water, fire, and wind.
- Ashem-Ahurem-mazdam (Vr15) is to be recited three times before
the coming of Ushedar, Ushedarmah, and Soshyans; and when they
also recite the chapter (had) well, and by line (gas) and stanza,
those apostles are present, and the country becomes more flourishing
and more dominant in the world.
- The twenty-two stanzas of Ta-ve-urvata (Y31) are the twenty-two
judgments (dadistan) of which it speaks in the Hadokht Nask
thus: -- 'Anaomo mananghe daya vispai: kva, kva paro?' ('where
are they to be produced beyond every thought? and where before?')
'Lodging in the judge, that while he has twenty-two judgments
he may be more just;' -- so that when they pray the Ta-ve-urvata
chapter well, and recite it by line and stanza, the judges possess
those twenty-two judgments more correctly, and judiciousness is
more lodging in them.
- The sixteen stanzas of the Hvaetumaithi chapter (Y32) are
lodging in warriors, so that it becomes possible, during their
good protection, to force the enemy away from those sixteen countries
which the Vendidad mentions in its first fargard.
- The fourteen stanzas of Yatha-aish (Y33) are for this reason,
because seven archangels are more diligent in activity for the
spirit, and seven archangels for the world, so that they may attain
'to heaven, the home (mehono) of Ohrmazd, the home of the archangels,
the home of those righteous ones,' avi gara-nmanem, maethanem
Ahurahe mazdau, maethanem ameshanam spentanam, maethanem anyaesham
ashaonam [Vd19.107]. 9. The three repetitions (danar) of Ye-sevisto
(Y33.11), and the holding up of the holy-water (zohr) at these
repetitions, are for the four classes, and for this reason at
Ahurai mazdai and ashemcha fradat the holy-water is to be held
level with the heart of him who is the officiating priest (zot),
and at sraota is to be held level with the arm of him who is the
officiating priest, so that while the warriors are in battle with
foreigners (an-airan) they may be fuller of breath (vayo-girtar),
and the husbandmen stronger-armed in the tillage and cultivation
of the world.
- The fifteen stanzas of Ya-shkyaothana (Y34) are for this reason,
because it is given for the destruction of those fifteen fiends
who are disclosed in the medical part (beshaz) of the Hadokht
Nask. 11. The four repetitions (bar) of Mazda-at-moi (Y34.15)
are for the right coming on of the share of these five chieftainships
(radih), the house-ruler, the village-ruler, the tribe-ruler,
the province-ruler, and the supreme Zartosht [Zarathushtrotema].
- The two repetitions of Ahya-yasa (Y28.1) are for this reason,
that the sovereign (dahyupat) may not at once seize body, consciousness,
and soul. 13. Those four Yatha-ahu-vairyos of the first Gatha
are for this reason, that is, so that inferiors may become more
tolerant of the commands of superiors, and good thoughts, good
words, and good deeds be more domesticated (mah-mantar) in the
world, and the fiend more powerless (apadakhshahtar).
- In short (ae-mar), Ahya-yasa is as (pavan) Ohrmazd and the
righteous man, Khshmaibya as Vohuman and cattle, At-ta-vakhshya
as Ardwahisht and fire, Ta-ve-urvata as Shahrewar and metal, the
Hvaetumaithi as the Gatha of Spandarmad and the earth, Yatha-aish
as Hordad and water, and Ya-shkyaothana as Amurdad and plants.
- The progress [benefit] which is in the Ahunavaiti Gatha the
house-rulers should carry on; that which is in the Ushtavaiti
Gatha the village-rulers should carry on; that which is in the
Spenta-mainyu Gatha the tribe-rulers should carry on; that which
is in the Vohu-khshathra Gatha the province-rulers should carry
on; that which is in the Vahishto-ishti Gatha the supreme Zartoshts
[Zarathushtrotema] should carry on; and that which is in the Yasna,
which is the place of righteous blessing, these four classes themselves
should carry on.
- Of the Yasna of seven chapters (Y35-41.17) the beginning section
(kardako) has nine stanzas; and its beginning is Humatanam (Y35.4),
and its end is Humatanam (Y51.17 supl.)
- The six stanzas of Ahya-thwa-athro (Y36) are owing to the
six hot ordeals (var) which, in the Husparum Nask, are
effected by cha-thrayaim athraiam.
- The five stanzas of Itha-at-yazamaide (Y37) are thanksgiving
and praise for the production of the good creations by Ohrmazd.
- The five stanzas of Imam-aat-zam (Y38) are owing to those
five comforts and five discomforts of the earth, which, it is
declared in the third fargard in the Vendidad, are accomplished
thus:- 'The first comfort of the earth is from the land on which
a righteous man walks forth; the second is when they shall make
the dwelling of the good and fires upon it; the third is when
they sow corn upon it, and shall take heed of dead matter; the
fourth is when all beasts of burden are born upon it; the fifth
is when every beast of burden, is on it; and its first discomfort
is from the Arezur ridge and the gate of hell; the second is when
they dig it up for a dead body; the third is when one constructs
a depository for the dead (khazan) upon it; the fourth is from
the holes of its noxious creatures; the fifth is when they shall
forsake a man in affliction (vardakih) upon it, who is righteous.'
- The five stanzas of Itha (Y39) are just as those which go
- The four stanzas of Ahu-at-paiti (Y40) are about the benefit
(arj-homandih) which is on account of water, earth, plants, and
- The six stanzas of Stuto-garo (Y41.1-17), the two repetitions
of Humatanam (Y35.4-6), and the three repetitions of Hukhshathrotemai
(Y35.13-15) are on account of the existence of the sons of Zartosht.
- The two repetitions of Ashahya-aat-sairi (Y35.22, 23) are
for the laudation of righteousness and the destruction of the
fiend. 24. The two repetitions of Yenhe-hatam are for the laudation
of Ohrmazd and the archangels, and the destruction of the evil
spirit and the miscreations (vishudakan). 25. The two repetitions
of Thwoi-staotarascha (Y41.12-14) are for the laudation of ceremonial
worship (yazishno) and the sacred feast (myazd).
- The two repetitions of Ataremcha (Vr19.1-8) are for the laudation
of the [Adar] Farnbag fire and the fire Vazisht.
- Of the sixteen stanzas of the Ushtavaiti chapter (Y42) it
is related just as about the Hvaetumaithi chapter.
- The twenty stanzas of Tat-thwa-peresa (Y43) are the twenty
judgments (dadistan) between the beneficent spirit and the evil
spirit; and for this reason they should every time utter Tat-thwa-peresa
again, because they should utter the original judgment again,
and the twentieth time the evil spirit becomes confounded.
- The eleven stanzas of At-fravakhshya (Y44) are made up from
the six chieftainships and the five accomplishments (farhang)
owing to religion; one is thus, not to do unto others all that
which is not well for one's self; the second is to understand
fully what is well-done and not well-done; the third is to turn
from the vile and their conversation (andarag-guftano); the fourth
is to confess ones failings to the high-priests, and let them
bring the whip; the fifth is not to neglect the season-festivals
[Gahambars] at their proper hour (den hasar), nor the other things
which go to the bridge; and the six chieftainships are not his
property who has not these five accomplishments, and he is not
fit even for teaching.
- The nineteen stanzas of Kem-nemoi zam (Y45) are for this reason,
that every one may so persevere in his own duty (khveshakanih),
that while those are our nineteen propitiations (aushofrit), which
it says in the Sagadum Nask should be my own, the strength
and power of the angels shall become more considerable, and the
destroyer more perishable.
- The Ushtavaiti Gatha is a Gatha (gas) of four chapters, and
each stanza of five lines (gas), except Haechat-aspa-vakhshya
(Y45.15). 32. The two repetitions of Ushta-ahmai (Y42.1) are,
one as a retention and embrace of Ohrmazd, and one as a destruction
of the fiends; and Ushta-Ahurem-mazdam (Vr21.1-5) in like manner.
- Spenta-mainyu (Y46) has six stanzas, Yezi-adaish (Y47) twelve
stanzas, At-ma-yava (Y48) twelve stanzas, and Kat-moi-urva (Y49)
eleven stanzas. 34. The Spenta-mainyu Gatha is a Gatha of four
chapters, and each stanza of four lines; it is made up from the
five chieftainships and four classes. 35. The two repetitions
of Spenta-mainyu (Y46.1) are, one for the laudation of the beneficent
spirit (Spandarmad) and one for that of the earth.
- One Spentem-Ahurem-mazdam (Vr22.1-11) is the laudation of
the creatures of the beneficent spirit, and one is the destruction
of the creatures of the evil spirit.
- The twenty-two stanzas of the Vohu-khshathra Gatha (Y50) are
those twenty-two judgments which are lodging within judges, as
written above. 38. The two repetitions of Vohu-khshathrem (Y50.1)
are, one the laudation of living (zindakih), and one of the supreme
- One Vohu-khshathrem yazamaide (Vr23.1-9) is for the laudation
of Shahrewar, and one of metal. 40. The two repetitions of Avi-apam
(Vr24.1-12) are, one for the laudation of waters, and one of plants.
- The nine stanzas of the Vahishtoishti (Y52) are on account
of those nine things which are ... the supreme Zartosht-ship lodging
in the supreme Zartoshts [Zarathushtrotema], the source of fountains,
the bridge over waters, and even the navigable river, the righteous
man, and the righteous woman. 42. And it is a Gatha of one chapter,
and each stanza of four lines, except Itha-i-haithya-naro (Y52.6),
for there is always one lord and sovereign in the world. 43. And
those four lines are for this reason, because it is declared:
chathrush hamayau khshapo dahmayat paro afritoit, 'four times
every night is the "blessing of the holy" (Y59),' and
three times Srosh, twice Bushasp, and once Eshm will come to the
material world. 44. And the five lines of that one stanza (Y52.6)
are for this reason, because the assistants of the supreme Zartosht
are five, the house-ruler, the village-ruler, the tribe-ruler,
the province-ruler, and she even who is his own wife (narik).
45. The two repetitions of Vahishta-ishtish (Y52.1) are, one for
the laudation of sovereigns, and one for the laudation of peace
- The two repetitions of Vahishtem-Ahurem-mazdam (Vr26) are,
one for the laudation of Ohrmazd and the archangels, and one for
the destruction of the fiends. 47. The four repetitions of the
A Airyema Ishyo (Y53) are for the existence of more submission
(airmanih) in the house, village, tribe, and province. 48. The
four repetitions of Avat-mizhdem (Vr27) are for the healing of
those who dwell in the house, village, tribe, and province.
- The section (kardako) whose beginning is Tat-soidhish (Y57.1-9)
is, for the completion of the Gathas, taught as pertaining to
the Gathas (gasanik chasht).
- The beginning of the Gathas is Ahya-yasa (Y28.1), and their
end is drigave vahyo (Y52.9, end); and there are 278 stanzas,
1016 lines, 5567 words (vachak), 9999 marik, and 16,554 khurdak.
51. For the lines and stanzas of the Gathas were collected by
us, and were: -- one hundred stanzas of the Ahunavaiti Gatha (Y28-34),
of which each stanza is three lines; forty stanzas of the Yasna
of seven chapters (Y35-41.17), of which each stanza is three lines;
sixty-six stanzas of the Ushtavaiti Gatha (Y42-45), of which each
stanza is five lines, except Haechat-aspa (Y45.15), for that one
is four lines; forty-one stanzas of the Spenta-mainyu Gatha (Y46-49),
of which each stanza is four lines; twenty-two stanzas of the
Vohu-khshathra (Y50), of which each stanza is three lines; and
nine stanzas of the Vahishtoishti (Y52), of which each stanza
is four lines, except Itha-i (Y52.6), for that one is a stanza
of five; -- the amount of the foregoing is 278 stanzas.
- May it be in the name of God (yazdan) and the good creation!
- When they consecrate a sacred cake (dron), and it becomes
demon worship, what and how many thing are not proper?
- The decision is this: -- Whoever knowingly consecrates a sacred
cake with unpurified sacred twigs (barsom-i apatiyav), or with
a twig-bundle the number of whose twigs (tak) is too many or too
few, or of another plant not proper for sacred twigs; or holds
the end of the twig-bundle to the north and utters the Avesta
attentively; or whoever consecrates with efficacy unawares, it
is not to be considered as uttered by him. 3. Nor by him who advertently
or inadvertently takes a taste (chashnik), not from the sacred
cake with the butter (gaush-dae), but from the frasast; or takes
the prayer (baj) inwardly regarding that cake (dron) before the
officiating priest (zot) takes a taste from the same cake; or
shall utter the length of a stanza in excess, and does not again
make a beginning of the consecration of the sacred cake; or takes
up the dedication formula (khshnuman) too soon or too late; or
does not utter the Avesta for the fire when he sees the
- This is how it is when the period of the day (gas) is retained,
and how it should be when one may relinquish it; that is, when
even one of the stars created by Ohrmazd is apparent, it is retained,
and when not it is relinquished. 5. It is Vand-Ohrmazd who said
that when, besides Tishtar, Vanand, or Sataves, one of the zodiacal
stars (akhtarik) is apparent, it is retained, and when not it
is relinquished. 6. There have been some who said that when, besides
one of those three, three zodiacal stars are apparent, it is retained,
and when not it is relinquished.
PART 3. -- Appendix.
- It is revealed by a passage of the Avesta that Zartosht,
seated before Ohrmazd, always wanted information (vac) from him;
and he spoke to Ohrmazd thus: 'Thy head, hands, feet, hair, face,
and tongue are in my eyes just like those even which are my own,
and you have the clothing men have; give me a hand, so that I
may grasp thy hand.'
- Ohrmazd said thus: 'I am an intangible spirit; it is not possible
to grasp my hand.'
- Zartosht spoke thus: 'Thou art intangible, and Vohuman, Ardwahisht,
Shahrewar, Spandarmad, Hordad, and Amurdad are intangible, and
when I depart from thy presence, and do not see thee nor even
them -- since of the person whom I see and worship there is something
-- should thou and the seven archangels be worshipped by me, or
- Ohrmazd said thus: 'They should be; I tell thee, O Zartosht
the Spitaman! that each individual of us has produced his own
one creation (dayak) for the world, by means of which they may
set going in its body, in the world, that activity which they
would exercise in the spiritual existence. 5. In the world that
which is mine, who am Ohrmazd, is the righteous man, of Vohuman
are the cattle, of Ardwahisht is the fire, of Shahrewar is the
metal, of Spandarmad are the earth and virtuous woman, of Hordad
is the water, and of Amurdad is the vegetation. 6. Whoever has
learned the care of all these seven, acts and pleases well, his
soul never comes into the possession of Ahriman and the demons;
when he has exercised his care of them, he has exercised his care
of the seven archangels, and ought to teach all mankind in the
- 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Ohrmazd in the world, wishes
to promote the things of Ohrmazd; and whoever he be, with whom
Ohrmazd ever is in every place (gas), it is necessary that he
should propitiate the righteous man, in whatever has happened
and whatever occurs to him, and should act for his happiness,
and afford him protection from the vile. 8. Since the righteous
man is a counterpart of Ohrmazd the lord, and when the righteous
man acts it is caused by him who is Ohrmazd, whoever propitiates
the righteous man, his fame and welfare exist a long time in the
world, and the splendor of Ohrmazd and pleasure and joy become
his own in heaven (Wahisht).
- 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Vohuman in the world, and wishes
to act for his happiness, is he who wishes to promote the things
of Vohuman; and it is necessary for him, so that Vohuman may be
ever with him, that he should propitiate, at every place (gas)
and time, the well-yielding (hudhak) cattle, in whatever has happened
and whatever occurs, and should act for their happiness; and in
the terrible days and the hurried times (gas) which befall them,
he should afford them protection from the oppressive and idle.
10. He should not give them as a bribe to a man who is a wicked
tyrant, but should keep them in a pleasant and warm locality and
place (gas); and in summer he should provide them a store of straw
and corn, so that it be not necessary to keep them on the pastures
(charak) in winter; and he should not deliver them up for this
purpose, that is, "So that I may give them up to the vile,"
because it is necessary to give to the good; and he should not
drive them apart from their young, and should not put the young
apart from their milk. 11. Since they are counterparts of him
(Vohuman) himself in the world, the well-yielding cattle, whoever
propitiates those which are well-yielding cattle his fame subsists
in the world, and the splendor of Ohrmazd becomes his own in the
- 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Ardwahisht in the world is he
who wishes to promote his things; and it is necessary for him,
so that Ardwahisht may be with him at every place (gas) and time,
that he should propitiate the fire of Ohrmazd, in whatever has
happened and whatever occurs, and should act for its happiness;
he should not put upon it wood, incense, and holy-water which
are stolen and extorted, and he should not cook at it a ration
(bahar) which is violently extorted from men. 13. For it is a
counterpart of him (Ardwahisht) himself in the world, the fire
of Ohrmazd; and whoever propitiates those which are fires of Ohrmazd
his fame subsists in the world, and the splendor of Ohrmazd becomes
his own in heaven.
- 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Shahrewar in the world, and
wishes to act for his happiness, is he who wishes to promote the
things of Shahrewar; and whoever he be, it is necessary, so that
Shahrewar may be with him at every place and time, that he should
propitiate melted metal at every place and time. 15. And the propitiation
of melted metal is this, that he shall practice habits (aiyino)
of the heart so unsullied and pure that, when they shall drop
melted metal upon it, it does not burn. 16. And Adarbad Mahraspandan
even acted in this priestly fashion (dastobarih), so that the
melted metal, when they drop it upon the region (khano) of his
pure heart, becomes as pleasant to him as though they were milking
milk upon it. 17. When they drop it upon the region of the heart
of the wicked and sinners, it burns, and they die. 18. And one
should not commit sin with metal, and with its burning; and should
not give gold and silver to the vile. 19. For it is a counterpart
of Shahrewar himself in the world for him, and since he propitiates
those which are melted metals, his fame subsists in the world,
and the splendor of Ohrmazd becomes his own in heaven.
- 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Spandarmad in the world, wishes
to promote the things of Spandarmad; and whoever he be, it is
necessary, so that Spandarmad may be with him, that he should
propitiate, at every place and time, the earth and virtuous woman,
in whatever has happened and in whatever occurs, and should act
for their happiness. 21. For when he does not spread out (bara
la veshet) this earth, and it does not separate one piece from
another, his body also will not be always living upon it at every
place and time. 22. On account of the lodgment of Spandarmad in
the earth, when a robber, violent and worthy of death, and wives
who are disrespectful to their husbands walk about in sinfulness
in the world, and their husbands are active and virtuous, it becomes
much distressed (zanoik). 23. This, too, is declared, that, whenever
this earth becomes distressed (zanik), it is most so at the time
when sinners worthy of death are most; for it is declared, when
sinners worthy of death walk upon it, its pain and uneasiness
become as distressing (dushkhvar) to it as the dead son on her
bosom to a mother; and the lodgment of Spandarmad in the earth
is little in that place whereon sinners worthy of death walk.
24. And her happiness arises from that place when they shall perform
tillage and cultivation on it, and a virtuous son is born upon
it, and they rear cattle upon it; and it is so one's fame subsists
in the world, and the splendor of Ohrmazd becomes one's own in
- 'Whoever wishes to propitiate Hordad and Amurdad in the world,
whereas that is necessary which promotes their things, whoever
he be it is necessary that he should propitiate, at every place
and time, the water and vegetation of Hordad and Amurdad, in whatever
has happened and in whatever occurs, and should seize upon those
who consume and steal water and vegetation. 26. And he should
not act oppressively, he should not walk the world in sinfulness,
and should not bring bodily refuse (hikhar), dead matter (nasa),
or any other pollution to water; he should not destroy vegetation
unlawfully, and should not give fruit to the idle and vile. 27.
For when he commits sin against water and vegetation, even when
it is committed against merely a single twig of it, and he has
not atoned for it, when he departs from the world the spirits
of all the plants in the world stand up high in front of that
man, and do not let him go to heaven. 28. And when he has committed
sin against water, even when it is committed against a single
drop of it, and he has not atoned for it, that also stands up
as high as the plants stood, and does not let him go to heaven.
29. Since they are counterparts of Hordad and Amurdad themselves,
the water and vegetation, whoever propitiates those which be water
and vegetation, his fame subsists in the world, and a share of
the splendor of Ohrmazd becomes his in heaven.'
- Ohrmazd said this also to Zartosht, namely: 'My will and pleasure
is that the observance and propitiation of these seven archangels
shall be as I have told thee; and do thou, too, speak thus unto
men, so that they may commit no sin and may not become wicked,
and the splendor of Ohrmazd may become their own in heaven.'
- Completed in peace, pleasure, and joy.
- In the name of God (yazdan) I write a paragraph (baba) where
the sins which are as it were small are mentioned one by one.
- The least sin is a Farman; and a Farman is three coins of
five annas, some say three coins. 2. An Agerept is, as regards
whatever weapon (snesh) men strike with in the world, whenever
the weapon is taken in hand; and taken up by any one four finger-breaths
from the ground it is the root of an Agerept for him; and the
retribution and punishment for an Agerept should be fifty-three
dirhams (jugan). 3. When the weapon turns downwards it is the
root of an Avoirisht for him, and his sentence (dina) is to be
changed; his retribution and punishment should be seventy-three
dirhams, which is when anything further occurs. 4. When he shall
lay the weapon on any one it is the root of an Aredush for him,
and his retribution and punishment are thirty stirs; if the wound
thereby made by him be one-fifth of a span (disht) it is no root
of an Aredush for him, and his retribution and punishment are
the same thirty stirs.
- I write the degrees of sin: A Srosho-charanam is three coins
and a half, a Farman is a Srosho-charanam, an Agerept is sixteen
stirs, an Avoirisht is twenty-five stirs, an Aredush is thirty,
a Khor is sixty, a Bazai is ninety, a Yat is a hundred, and eighty,
and a Tanapuhr is three hundred.
- The good works which are in the ceremonial worship of the
sacred beings (yazishn-i yazdan): Consecrating a sacred cake (dron)
is a good work of one Tanapuhr; a form of worship (yasht) is a
hundred Tanapuhrs; a Visparad is a thousand Tanapuhrs; a Do-homast
is ten thousand; a duwazdah homast (Dvazdah-homast) is a hundred thousand, and the
merit (kirfak) of every one which is performed with holy-water
is said to be a hundred to one; a Hadokht is two thousand Tanapuhrs,
and with holy-water it becomes a hundred to one.
- This, too, Zartosht asked of Ohrmazd, that is: 'Which is the
time when one must not eat meat?'
- Ohrmazd gave a reply thus: 'In a house when a person shall
die, until three nights are completed, nothing whatever of meat
is to be placed on a sacred cake (dron) therein and in its vicinity;
but these, such as milk, cheese, fruit, eggs, and preserves, are
to be placed; and nothing whatever of meat is to be eaten by his
relations. 3. In all the three days it is necessary to perform
the ceremonial (yazishn) of Srosh for this reason, because Srosh
will be able to save his soul from the hands of the demons for
the three days; and when one constantly performs a ceremonial
at every period (gas) in the three days it is as good as though
they should celebrate the whole religious ritual (hamak dino)
at one time. 4. And after the third night, at dawn, one is to
consecrate three sacred cakes (dron), one for Rashn and Ashtad,
the second for Vae the good, and the third for the righteous guardian
spirit (ardafrawash) and clothing is to be placed upon the sacred
cake of the righteous guardian spirit. 5. For the fourth day it
is allowable to slaughter a sheep, and the fourth day the ceremonial
(yazishn) of the righteous guardian spirit is to be performed;
and afterwards are the tenth-day, the monthly, and, then, the
annual ceremonies; and the first monthly is exactly on the thirtieth
day, and the annual on the particular day. 6. When he shall die
at a place distant from that where the information arrives, when
the three days' ceremonies (satuih) are celebrated at that place
where he shall die it is well, when not, their celebration is
to be at this place, and from the time when the information arrives,
until three nights are completed, it is necessary to perform the
ceremonial of Srosh, and after three days and nights it is necessary
to perform the ceremonial of the righteous guardian spirit.'
- In one place it is declared that of him whose begetting is
owing to the demons, of him who commits sodomy, and of him who
performs the religious rites (dino) of apostasy, of none of the
three do they restore the dead [i.e. there is no resurrection
for them], for this reason, because he whose begetting is owing
to the demons is himself a demon, and the soul of him who commits
sodomy will become a demon, and the soul of him who performs the
religious rites of apostasy will become a darting snake.
- This, too, is revealed by the Avesta, that Ohrmazd
spoke thus: 'Give ye up the persons of all men, with the submissiveness
of worshippers, to that man to whom the whole Avesta and Zand
is easy, so that he may make you acquainted with duties and good
works; because men go to hell for this reason, when they do not
submit their persons to priestly control (aerpatistan), and do
not become acquainted with duties and good works.'
- Query: There is an action which, according to the Avesta,
is not good for a person to do, and the sentence of 'worthy of
death' is set upon it; for one's better preservation is one not
to do that action, or to accomplish and urge it on, for the advance
of religion in a state of uncertainty (var-homandih)? 10. The
answer is this, that when they act well for their better preservation
there is no fear, on account of acting well, but one is not to
forsake that, too, though it be not goodness; a forsaken duty
is very bad, for a contempt of it enters into one.
- This, too, is declared, that Zartosht inquired of Ohrmazd
thus: 'From what place do these people rise again? from that place
where they first went into their mothers, or from that place where
the mothers have given them birth, or from that place where their
bodies happen to be (aufted)?' 12. Ohrmazd gave a reply thus:
'Not from that place where they have gone into their mothers,
nor from that place where they have been born from their mothers,
nor from that place where their bodies and flesh happen to be,
for they rise from that place where the life went out from their
bodies.' 13. And this, too, he asked, that is: 'Whence do they
raise him again who is suspended from anything, and shall die
in the air?' 14. The reply was: 'From that place where his bones
and flesh first fall to the ground; hence, except when he shall
die on a divan (gas) or a bed (vistarg), before they carry him
away, whatever it is, a fragment is to be taken and to be laid
across his limbs; for when the usage is not so, they raise him
again from that place where his body arrives at the ground.'
- Completed in peace, pleasure, and joy.
- It is said in revelation that Eshm rushed into the presence
of Ahriman, and exclaimed thus: 'I will not go into the world,
because Ohrmazd, the lord, has produced three things in the world,
to which it is not possible for me to do anything whatever.'
- Ahriman exclaimed thus: 'Say which are those three things.'
- Eshm exclaimed thus: 'The season-festival (Gahambar), the
sacred feast (myazd), and next-of-kin marriage (khwetodas).'
- Ahriman exclaimed thus: 'Enter into the season-festival if
one of those present shall steal a single thing the season-festival
is violated, and the affair is in accordance with thy wish; enter
into the sacred feast! if only one of those present shall chatter
the sacred feast is violated, and the affair is in accordance
with thy wish; but avoid next-of-kin marriage! because I do not
know a remedy for it; for whoever has gone four times near to
it will not become parted from the possession of Ohrmazd and the
- The Yatha-ahu-vairyo formulas that are necessary in each place,
and how they are to be spoken in performing anything.
- One by him who goes forth to an assembly, or before grandees
and chieftains, or on any business; or when he goes to ask for
what he wants (val khvahishno); also when he quits any business;
in each of these situations he is to say only one formula, so
that his business may proceed more promptly.
- That a blessing (afrin) may be more benedictory, for this
reason one utters two formulas; for there are two kinds of blessing,
one is that which is in the thoughts, and one is that which is
- Four are for coming out more thankfully when at a season-festival.
- Five by him who goes to atone for sin, in order to expel the
fiend; because it is necessary to undergo punishment by the decision
(dastobarih) of these five persons, the house-ruler, the village-ruler,
the tribe-ruler, the province-ruler, and the supreme Zartosht;
and five Ashem-vohus are to be uttered by him at the end.
- Six by him who goes to seek power, and to battle, so that
he may be more successful.
- Seven by him who goes to perform the worship of God (yazdan),
so that the archangels may come more forward at the worship.
- Eight by him who goes to perform the ceremonial of the righteous
- Nine by him who goes to sow corn; these he utters for this
reason, because the corn will ripen (rased) in nine months, and
so that the corn may come forward he will make the mischief of
the noxious creatures less.
- Ten by him who goes to seek a wife, so that the presents may
be favorable for the purpose.
- Ten by him who wishes to allow the male access to beasts of
burden and cattle, so that it may be more procreative.
- Eleven by him who goes to the lofty mountains, so that the
glory of mountains and hills may bless him and be friendly.
- Twelve by him who goes to the low districts, so that the glory
of that country and district may bless him and be friendly.
- Thirteen by him who shall become pathless; at that same place
he shall utter them; or by him who shall pass over a bridge and
a river, so that the spirit of that water may bless him; because
the Yatha-ahu-vairyo is greater and more successful than everything
in the Avesta as to all rivers, all wholesomeness, and all protection.
- Religion is as connected with the Yatha-ahu-vairyo as the
hair is more connected with the glory of the face; any one, indeed,
would dread (samat) to separate hairiness and the glory of the
- In one place it is declared that it is said by revelation
(dino) that a man is to go as much as possible (chand vesh-ast)
to the abode of fires, and the salutation (niyayesh) of fire is
to be performed with reverence; because three times every day
the archangels form an assembly in the abode of fires, and shed
good works and righteousness there; and then the good works and
righteousness, which are shed there, become more lodged in the
body of him who goes much thither, and performs many salutations
of fire with reverence.
- This, too, that the nature of wisdom is just like fire; for,
in this world, there is nothing which shall become so complete
as that thing which is made with wisdom; and every fire, too,
that they kindle and one sees from far, makes manifest what is
safe and uninjured (airakht); whatever is safe in fire is safe
for ever, and whatever is uninjured in fire is uninjured for ever.
- This, too, that a disposition in which is no wisdom is such-like
as a clear, unsullied (anahuk) fountain which is choked (basto)
and never goes into use; and the disposition with which there
is wisdom is such-like as a clear, unsullied fountain, over which
an industrious man stands and takes it into use; cultivation restrains
it, and it gives crops (bar) to the world.
- This, too, that these three things are to be done by men,
to force the demon of corruption (nasa) far away from the body,
to be steadfast in the religion, and to perform good works. 5.
To force the demon of corruption far away from the body is this,
that before the sun has come up one is to wash the hands a and
face with bull's urine and water; to be steadfast in the religion
is this, that one is to reverence the sun; and to perform good
works is this, that one is to destroy several noxious creatures.
- This, too, that the three greatest concerns of men are these,
to make him who is an enemy a friend, to make him who is wicked
righteous, and to make him who is ignorant learned. 7. To make
an enemy a friend is this, that out of the worldly wealth one
has before him he keeps a friend in mind; to make a wicked one
righteous is this, that from the sin, whereby he becomes wicked,
one turns him away; and to make an ignorant one learned is this,
that one is to manage himself so that he who is ignorant may learn
- This, too, that the walks of men are to be directed chiefly
to these three places, to the abode of the well-informed, to the
abode of the good, and to the abode of fires. 9. To the abode
of the well-informed, that so one may become wiser, and religion
be more lodged in one's person; to the abode of the good for this
reason, that so, among good and evil, he may thereby renounce
the evil and. carry home the good; and to the abode of fires for
this reason, that so the spiritual fiend may turn away from him.
- This, too, that he whose actions are for the soul, the world
is then his own, and the spiritual existence more his own; and
he whose actions are for the body, the spiritual existence has
him at pleasure, and they snatch the world from him compulsorily.
- This, too, that Bakht-afrid said, that every Gatha (gasan)
of Ohrmazd has been an opposition of the one adversary, and the
renunciation of sin (patitik) for the opposition of every fiend.
- This, too, that, regarding the world, anxiety is not to be
suffered, it is not to be considered as anything whatever, and
is not to be let slip from the hand. 13. Anxiety is not to be
suffered for this reason, because that which is ordained will
happen; it is not to be considered as anything whatever for this
reason, because should it be expedient it is necessary to abandon
it; and it is not to be let slip from the hand for this reason,
because it is proper, in the world, to provide a spiritual existence
- This, too, that the best thing is truth, and the worst thing
is deceit; and there is he who speaks true and thereby becomes
wicked, and there is he who speaks false and thereby becomes righteous.
- This, too, that fire is not to be extinguished, for this is
a sin; and there is he who extinguishes it, and is good.
- This, too, is declared, that nothing is to be given to the
vile; and there is he by whom the best and most pleasant ragout
(khurtik) is to be given to the vile.
- On these, too, is the attention of men to be fixed, because
there is a remedy for everything but death, a hope for everything
but wickedness, everything will lapse except righteousness, it
is possible to manage everything but temper (gohar), and it is
possible for everything to change but divine providence (bako-bakhto).
- This, too, is declared, that Faridoon wished to slay Azi Zohak,
but Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Do not slay him now, for the earth will
become full of noxious creatures.'
- I write the indication of the midday shadow; may it be fortunate!
- Should the sun come into Cancer the shadow is one foot of
the man, at the fifteenth degree of Cancer it is one foot; when
the sun is at Leo it is one foot and a half, at the fifteenth
of Leo it is two feet; when the sun is at Virgo it is two feet
and a half, at the fifteenth of Virgo it is three feet and a half;
at Libra it is four feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Libra
it is five feet and a half; at Scorpio it is six feet and a half,
at the fifteenth of Scorpio is seven feet and a half; at Sagittarius
it is eight feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Sagittarius it
is nine feet and a half; at Capricorn it is ten feet, at the fifteenth
of Capricorn it is nine feet and a half; at Aquarius it is eight
feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Aquarius it is seven feet
and a half; at Pisces it is six feet and a half, at the fifteenth
of Pisces it is five feet and a half; at Aries it is four feet
and a half, at the fifteenth of Aries it is three feet and a half;
at Taurus it is two feet and a half, at the fifteenth of Taurus
it is two feet; at Gemini it is one foot and a half, at the fifteenth
of Gemini it is one foot.
- The midday shadow is written, may its end be good!
- I write the indication of the Uzerin (afternoon) period of
the day; may it be well and fortunate by the help of God (yazdan)!
- When the day is at a maximum (pavan afzuno), and the sun comes
unto the head of Cancer, and one's shadow becomes six feet and
two parts, he makes it the Uzerin period (gas). 6. Every thirty
days it always increases one foot and one-third, therefore about
every ten days the reckoning is always half a foot, and when the
sun is at the head of Leo the shadow is seven feet and a half.
7. In this series every zodiacal constellation is treated alike,
and the months alike, until the sun comes unto the head of Capricorn,
and the shadow becomes fourteen feet and two parts. 8. In Capricorn
it diminishes again a foot and one-third; and from there where
it turns back, because of the decrease of the night and increase
of the day, it always diminishes one foot and one-third every
one of the months, and about every ten days the reckoning is always
half a foot, until it comes back to six feet and two parts; every
zodiacal constellation being treated alike, and the months alike.
- May Ohrmazd give thee the august rank and throne of a champion!
- May Vohuman give thee wisdom! may the benefit of knowing Vohuman
be good thought, and mayest thou be acting well, that is, saving
- May Ardwahisht, the beautiful, give thee understanding and
- May Shahrewar grant thee wealth from every generous one!
- May Spandarmad grant thee praise through the seed of thy body!
may she give thee as wife a woman from the race of the great!
- May Hordad grant thee plenty and prosperity!
- May Amurdad grant thee herds of four-footed beasts!
- May Den [i.e. Day-pa-Adar] always secure thee the support
of the creator Ohrmazd!
- May the light of the sublime Adar hold thy throne in heaven!
- May Aban grant thee wealth from every generous one!
- May Khwar [Khwarshed] hold thee without mystery and doubt
among the great and thy compeers (hambutikan)!
- May Mah give thee an assistant, who is the assistant of champions!
- May Tishtar hold thee a traveler in the countries of the seven
- Goshorun the archangel is the protection of four-footed beasts.
- May Den [i.e. Day-pa-Mihr] always remain for thee as the support
of the creator Ohrmazd!
- May Mihr be thy judge, who shall wish thy existence to be
- May Srosh the righteous, the smiter of demons, keep greed,
wrath, and want far from thee! may he destroy them, and may he
not seize thee as unjust!
- May Rashn be thy conductor to the resplendent heaven!
- May Frawardin give thee offspring, which may bear the name
of thy race!
- Warharan the victorious is the stimulator of the warlike.
- May Ram, applauding the life of a praiser of the persistent
lord, keep-thee perfect (aspar), that is, living three hundred
years a, undying and undecaying unto the end of thy days!
- May Wad bring thee peace from the resplendent heaven!
- May Den [i.e. Day-pa-Den] always secure thee the support of
the creator Ohrmazd!
- May Den become thy guest in thy home and dwelling!
- Ashishwangh [Ard] the beautiful, is the resplendent glory
of the Kayanians.
- May Ashtad be thy helper, who is the assistant of champions!
- May Asman bless thee with all skill and wealth!
- May Zamyad [Zam] destroy for thee the demon and fiend out
of thy dwelling!
- May Mahraspand hold thee a throne in the resplendent heaven!
- May Anagran the immortal, with every kind of all wealth, become
thy desire! the horses of God (yazdan) who shall come that he
may go, and thou mayest obtain a victory.
- May destiny give thee a helper he is the guardian of the celestial
sphere for all these archangels whose names I have brought forward,
may he be thy helper at all times, in every good work and duty!
- Homage to Srit the teacher! may he live long! may he be prosperous
in the land! may his be every pleasure and joy, and every glory
of the Kayanians, through the will of the persistent Ohrmazd!
- In the name of God and the good creation be health!
- Ohrmazd is more creative, Vohuman is more embellished, Ardwahisht
is more brilliant, Shahrewar is more exalted, Spandarmad is more
fruitful, Hordad is moister, Amurdad is fatter. 2. Den-pa-Adar
is just like Ohrmazd, Adar is hotter, Aban is more golden, Khwar
[Khwarshed] is more observant, Mah is more protective, Tir [Tishtar]
is more liberal, Gosh is swifter. 3. Den-pa-Mihr is just like
Ohrmazd, Mihr is more judicial, Srosh is more vigorous, Rashn
is more just, Frawardin is more powerful, Warharan is more victorious,
Ram is more pleasing, Wad is more fragrant. 4. Day-pa-Den is just
like Ohrmazd, Den is more valuable, Ard is more beautiful, Ashtad
is purer, Asman is more lofty, Zamyad [Zam] is more conclusive,
Mahraspand is more conveying the religion, Anagran is the extreme
of exertion and listening.
- May it be completed in peace and pleasure!