Based on translation of Humbach and Jamaspasa, 1969, who observe, "the situation to be supposed for the major part of the chapters of Vn. seems to be similar to that of the Rivayats: some learned Dastur has been consulted by his congregation on religious problems, and in consequence of this he gives his replies quoting religious texts in support of his views. For this purpose he makes, more or less, free use of quotations from the original Avesta. Amongst these, apparently, are those which come from lost portions of the old Avestic canon...."
Notes: Avesta passages are followed by Pahlavi translation/comments which are in parentheses. Vn1-8 = FrB, Vn23-39 = FrD
(In the name of the Creator Ohrmazd)
1. The knowledge of the Mazdayasnian Religion. Ahura Mazda revealed:
(The knowledge of the Mazdayasnian Religion has been revealed by Ohrmazd i.e. the knowledge has been revealed in the good Mazdayasnian Religion.)
2. In this way a man is righteous.
(In this way a man is righteous, i.e. a man is a good man.)
3. First he recites the Frastuye [[creed]].
(First the man recites the Frastuye, i.e. he utters the Frastuye according to the Mazdayasnian religion.)
4. Secondly he [is] a performer of good deeds.
(Thereafter he properly causes to perform superior deeds, [i.e.] he properly performs meritorious deeds.)
5. [When] a man or a woman or a child passes away,
(When a man or a woman or a child passes away, i.e. dies, in the house of a Mazdayasnian,)
6. one shall lead a dog near his feet,
(near the feet of the dead a dog of any species should be made to sit, i.e. a shepherd's dog, a street dog, a bloodhound, a sporting dog, a yellow dog having four eyes, a puppy, an eagle, a fox, a mountain kite, or a weasel,)
7. thereby one smites the Nasu.
(owing to that, [i.e.] therefrom, one smites the Nasu.)
8. Then two men shall place [the dead body] on his own bedding and pillow.
(Then two men shall place the dead body on his own bedding and pillow.)
9. Then they shall carry the dead body to the Dakhma.
(Then they who are the Mazdayasnians shall carry the dead body to the Dakhma, i.e. they shall take it to the place of the cupola [which is the sky.])
10. Then they shall perform the ceremony of purification [in honor] of holy Srosha for three days and three nights.
(For the soul of the dead they shall then perform the ceremony of purification [in honor] of holy Srosh, i.e. one makes clean, i.e. the Khshnuman of holy Srosh, i.e. the worship of holy Srosh should be performed for three days and three nights.)
11. By that [I shall proceed with] his soul [thus]: I shall cause to cross his soul thrice over the Chinwad Bridge towards the Best Existence, I who am Ahura Mazda.
(By that I shall cause to cross his soul over the Ciyan-Vitarg, I shall cause to pass his soul towards the Best Existence, I who am Ohrmazd, [i.e.] I shall make his soul more comfortable.)
12. Thus I shall carry [him] to the Best Existence, to the Best Righteousness, to the Best Lights.
(And him, I shall carry, to the Best Existence, to the Best righteousness, to the Best Lights, i.e. I shall protect [his] soul and life, i.e. he takes the hand of holy Srosh.)
13. One ties the extremities and one ties the midriff; clothes should not be used.
14 - 15. Let not sorcerous heretics thereby tie .....
16. On receipt [of remuneration].
(He receives [after death, i.e.] on this earthly [plain] he does not receive.)
17. Ahura Mazda said unto Spitama Zarathushtra.
(And Ohrmazd said unto Spitaman Zartosht.)
18-21. A man who discerns the words, [i.e.] he perceives the secret revelations, is better than a prudent reciter. - Good renown for the body and long bliss for the soul.
(Speech of men. To teach the poor. One who perceives is better for this perishable body and for the soul than one who is a prudent reciter of the words. They are a help for a long time.)
22. It scorches liver and bile of the evil-minded.
(Who burns up keeping off the action of opposition.)
23. Then Zarathushtra asked Ahura Mazda.
24. If there should be a man of Mazdayasnian Religion,
(If there is a man [in] the Mazdayasnian religion, i.e. the man is a good man in the Mazdayasnian [Religion],)
25. [and if] he discharges semen into a woman of alien faith [ainyo-tkaesha]
([and if] that man discharges semen into a woman of alien faith, i.e. he cohabits with a woman of alien faith, [then] a sin is perpetrated, i.e. the man will have become Druvand,)
26. [and] therefrom a son is born,
(thus therefrom a son is expected to be born, i.e. it becomes manifest,)
27. if that man will have wealth, shall he give it to the son or shall he not give?
(if that man does not give)
28. Thereupon replied Ahura Mazda (Ohrmazd)
29. If there is a man of Mazdayasnian Religion.
(If there is a man [in] the Mazdayasnian Religion, i.e. the man is a good man,)
30. [and if] he discharges semen into a woman of alien faith,
([and if] that man discharges semen into a woman of alien faith, i.e. he cohabits,)
31. [and] therefrom a son is expected to be born, one shall not strike his life.
(when therefrom a son is expected to be born to the woman, i.e. a child becomes manifest, one shall not strike that life, i.e. on the contrary it shall be protected.)
32. If [the son] dies through him by intention,
(If he kills that child, i.e. he kills,)
33. then [this evil deed] makes the man guilty as a Peshotanu.
(thus that man becomes guilty as a Tanapuhr, i.e. he becomes worthy of death [because] a second sin has been committed [by him, namely a sin against] life.)
34. Thus that man becomes of alien faith.
(Thus that man becomes of alien faith, i.e. he shall become Druvand.)
35. I shall not guide that [man] across the Chinwad Bridge, I who am Ahura Mazda.
(I shall not cause that man to cross over my Chinwad Vitarg, I who am Ohrmazd, i.e. I don't cause to pass his soul over the Bridge.)
36. If that man will have wealth,
(if that man has wealth, i.e. he has patrimony and drahm,)
37. [suppose] he should give half of the share to the son, [and] he should give half of the share to the woman of alien faith,
(suppose he should give half of the share to the son, and he should give half of the share to the woman of alien faith,)
38. [and] his own people [i.e. family] will not receive [anything],
(and the people who are his own relations will not have received, i.e. his own people: he does not bequeath the drahm for them,)
39. then the man becomes Druvant.
(thereby that man then would become one among the Druvands, then that man is not in the religion, he is among the Druvands and sinners.)
40-41. Nobody who is of the Mazdayasnian Religion, man or woman, [shall] cohabit with a person in the religion or of alien faith.
(Any one whosoever is in the Mazdayasnian Religion, man or woman---. Nobody in the religion or of alien faith [shall] cohabit, i.e. [if] a man unites with every other person. i.e. he cohabits, [then] a sin is committed, the merits do not remain, [i.e.] the meritorious deeds performed [by him, his] destiny becomes worse.)
42. [Supposing the guilt is not detected and the Ratu] does not prescribe [atonement].
(It is not prescribed, i.e. one shall not cohabit with everybody.)
43. then he makes his own body impure up to eternity.
(then he makes his own body impure up to eternity, i.e. unclean.)
44. [In this case the Ratu] is not [able to] prescribe atonement.
(And punishment is not prescribed by him.)
45. Repentance should be [performed] before the Ratu.
(When one says that repentance [should be performed], then it should be performed near the Ratu, i.e. before the Ratu.)
46. They flow over the earth towards [...] or water.
(They will cause that water to flow on the earth.)
47. There are seven [months of summer], five of winter, created by him.
(Seven are summer months and five winter, that created.)
48-49. And even those are cold. - For what period of time the existence of the holy one was produced?
(Such are the sorts, as long as this period of time will last. The existence of the holy one was produced by him.)
50. And if he should carry alone one who is dead.
(And [if] he should carry singly one who is dead.)
51. Not carried by the fly.
(Not that which is carried by the fly.)
52. Who has accepted should carry that libation unto fire. Just as a man of feeble old age.
(One who accepts thus carries those libations unto fire. Just as a man of feeble old age and time.)
53. He himself dies, he who [carries] singly.
54. Who dig in this earth.
(Who will cause to dig up this earth.)
55-56 Who buries into the earth the body of a righteous man who has died.
(He who is the righteous man causes to dig out the dead body from the earth.)
(The catacombs over any man whosoever.)
58. Not sought after. - Of the Turanian ... countries.
(Not that which is ... The keepers of the tombs are from that country.)
59. A span's [length], an ell's [length]. And those men.
(Span [and] ell of those men.)
60. For a year's length. All, of all kinds.
(Of a year's length, the entire of all kinds.)
61. [If one] of those men dies, the dog shall see him with its eyes. Nobody shall carry alone [a dead body].
([If one] of those men dies, first the dog shall see him. And he who is not seen [by the dog] nobody shall carry [him] singly.)
62. Gnawed ... gnawed. - Of the Turanian ... countries. - Of a man who goes with his own shoes (= barefooted). - ... - They were. - Riding on horse, driving a chariot. - On his own bedding and pillow. - Should he suffer injury from the operation. - He selects [a Dakhma], he put down on the Dakhma.'
(As it is said before.)
63. Both of them were real righteous men. - By this he clears away all evil thought and evil word and evil deed. - Just as a righteous one unto the righteous one.
(Evidently he becomes holy. - Thus it removes all evil thought, evil word and evil deed, [i.e.] they will remove. - Just as the holy man he became holy.'
64-65. Such will be the man who thinks righteousness, who seeks righteousness [but] retards righteousness, who comes forth [with] water meant for libation, polluted by a carcass.
(Such is the man who thinks of righteousness in [his] person, to whom that [righteousness] appears in [his] person whereby he drives away, he who comes forth [with] Ap-zohr polluted by a carcass.)
66. Thus by his action [he is] Peshotanu, unclean upto eternity.
(Thus from that action [he is] Tanapuhr, i.e. worthy of death. Up to eternity he becomes impure, [i.e.] he himself becomes a sinner, the merits do not remain, [his] destiny becomes worse.)
67. ??? (The progress becomes grievous.)
69. ... remuneration, - Through them he shall not kill the man, through them he shall not kill the dog.'
(He shall not kill those men, he shall not kill those dogs.)
70. Daevic Druj, produced [by the Daevas], do thou perish.
(Perish thou that which has been created by Devs and Druj.)
71-72. In the house of a Mazdayasnian, on the fourth day, one offers Myazda which contains milk products and wine. One prepares [such Myazd].
(When one passes away in the house of a Mazdayasnian, then, on his fourth day, in that house one shall offer Myazd, one shall prepare flesh and wine, i.e. it should be properly prepared.)
73. As many kinds of fruits exist [together with] Myazda and [Gaush] Hudah. - He shall do what is to be done, He shall perform farmers duty.
(So much Myazd, [Gaush] Hudah, various kinds of fruits, i.e., grains, is consecrated and one consecrates also farm products.
74-75. One carries the Baresman with libations, one offers the Yasna, one offers [unto Ahura Mazda,] the glorious among the Amesha Spentas, one offers unto good Ashi, [one offers] with good thought, with good word, and with good deeds.
(One carries the Barsom with libations, i.e. one offers the Yasna. - One offers [unto] the glorious Amahraspands and one offers [unto] good Ashishwang and [one offers] one's good thought, one's good word and one's good deeds.)
76. [One offers] unto the Mazdayasnian Religion and unto Mithra with wide pastures and unto holy Sraosha and unto Verethraghna created by Ahura [and] unto powerful Parendi and unto the entire Mazdayasnian Religion.
([One offers unto] Mihr with wide pastures [and unto] the Mazdayasnian Religion, unto Srosh who is the holy one, victorious, created by Ohrmazd, [and] unto powerful Parand and the entire Mazdayasnian Religion.)
77. Zarathushtra asked Ahura Mazda,
(Zartosht asked of Ohrmazd, i.e. of him who is holy,)
78. if there should be a man of alien faith, i.e. a Druvant,
(if there should be a man of alien faith, i.e. a Druvand,)
79. and if that man aspires to the good Mazdayasnian Religion,
([and if] unto that man the good Religion appears agreeable,)
80. shall [the Zarathushtrians], the opponents of the Daevas, the followers of the Law of Ahura, admit him or shall they not admit him?
(shall [the Zoroastrians], the opponents of the Devs, i.e. the followers of the Law of Ohrmazd, admit him or shall they not admit him, i.e. does he enter into the religion, i.e. he who does not belong to it?)
81. Then Ahura Mazda (Ohrmazd) said,
82. if there should be a man of alien faith, [i.e.] a Druvant,
(if there should be a man of alien faith, i.e. [if] there should be a Druvand,)
83. that man to whom the good Mazdayasnian Religion appears agreeable,
([and if] that man agrees to the good Mazdayasnian Religion,)
84. [Then the Zarathushtrians], the opponents of the Daevas, the followers of the law of Ahura, shall admit him to those who have taken the vow.
([The Zoroastrians] who are separated from the Devs and belong to the religion of Ohrmazd, the faithful ones, shall admit [him], i.e. one shall fulfill the desire for the Good Religion.)
85. [Thus] such men shall accept good thought, good word, and good deeds.
([Thus] such men shall accept the superior good thought, good word, and good deeds.)
86. [Such man] invokes [by] the chanting of the Gahs.
(He invokes by chanting of the Gahs, i.e., he invokes [with] the holy word,)
87. He does not practice evil speech.
(That man does not act in compliance with evil speech.)
88. [If] it should be the case that [one] of such men before has committed any evil deeds,
([If] it should be the case [that] one of such men before has committed any evil deeds, i.e., every sin [which] has been committed before,)
89. [then] the good Mazdayasnian Religion casts off any evil deed.
([then] regarding that sin the good Mazdayasnian Religion casts off all evil deeds, i.e., it regards sin lightly.)
90. Thus the man becomes of the Good Religion in the sane degree
(Thus that man becomes of the Good Religion in the same degree)
91. as that man [who] before had been of [Good] Religion,
(as he [who] before had been of the Good Religion, i.e. [who] from the beginning had made current the religion.)
92. In the same manner as those men [who before had been of good Religion] he becomes holy, O Spitama Zarathushtra.
(In the same manner as those men [who before had been of Good Religion] he will have become holy, O Spitaman Zartosht, i.e., he will have entered the Good Religion.)
93. Thus such men [like he] enter the good M[azdayasnian] Religion.
(Thus he who [belongs to those] men will have entered the Good Religion.)
94. Thus he recites the Gahs.
(Thus that man [shall] recite the words of the Gahs, i.e. he shall utter.)
95. Thus one accepts all Yazatas.
(Thus one shall accept all Yazads, i.e. one shall celebrate.)
96. Then, [when] one eats cooked food, [it is prescribed] that one shall shut one's mouth.
(Thereafter one [shall] eat cooked food and one [shall] eat cooked meat, i.e. one shall eat.)
97. After having eaten the food, one shall consecrate the Gathas , so that one releases one's mouth.
(Thus that man after he [has] eaten, i.e. the meal has finished, consecrates the Gathas, so that he releases his mouth, i.e. he shall open.)
98. Thus that man becomes of Good Religion.
(Thus that man will have become Behdin, i.e. Mazdayasnian.)
99. At the five watches of the day one invokes [by] the chanting of the Gahs.
(Everyday at the five watches one [should] recite the Gahs, i.e. [one should] utter the recitation of the Gahs.
100. The divisions of the day, The Lords of Holiness. - At the tine of Hawani one worships Mithra of wide pastures.
(The divisions of the day, the Lords of Holiness. At the time of Hawan one [shall] worship Mihr of wide pastures, i.e. one shall recite the Gah of Mihr,)
101. one pays homage to the Sun and to Mithra.
(At the proper time one shall pay homage to Khwarshed and Mihr, i.e. one shall perform one's duty of homage.)
102. At the time of Rapithwin one worships Asha Vahishta,
(At the time of Rapithwin [one shall worship] Best Holiness, i.e. one [shall] recite the Gah of Ardwahisht,)
103. one pays homage to the Sun and to Mithra,
(and then one [shall] pay homage to Khwarshed and Mihr, i.e. one shall perform one's duty of homage.)
104. At the time of Uzayeirina one worships Berezant [i.e. Apam Napat],
(At the time of Uzerin one [shall] worship the Yazad Burz, i.e. one shall recite the Gah of Uzerin,)
105. one pays homage to the Sun and to Mithra.
(thereafter one shall pay homage to Khwarshed and to Mihr, i.e. one shall perform one's duty of homage.)
106. At the time of Aiwisruthrima Aibigaya one worships the Fravashis of the holy.
(At the time of Aiwisruthem Aibigayik one [shall] worship the Farohars of the holy, i.e. one shall recite the Aiwisruthrem Gah,)
107. and one worships the good holy Sraosha.
(and one [shall] worship the good holy Srosh.)
108. At the time of Ushahina one recites Sraoshahe Ashyehe together with any other [prayer].
(At the time of Ushahin one [shall] recite Srosh Ahlav together with any other [prayer], i.e. one [shall] recount.)
109. Nobody shall recite [in honor of the Daevas, [since thus] one calls them up for help onto the Daeva worshippers.)
(Nobody shall mention the Devs. Everybody who is a Dev worshipper invokes [them].
110. I who am Ahura Mazda cause to cross such men to the [im]perishable world.
'( throw such man to the destructible world, I who am Ohrmazd, i.e. he goes to the gate of hell, he goes on account of his sinfulness.)
111. [When] those men [intend to] pass urine,
([When] those men intend to pass urine, i.e. make urine,
112. [then they recite:] The evil spirit, the Druvant shall be smitten.
([then they recite:] Do ye smite the destructive spirit, the Druvand. [Thus] one smites the Devs.)
113. One shall recite one Ahuna Vairyas, then one shall shut one's mouth.
(That man shall recite one Ahunwar, i.e. one shall recite, [then] one shall bind one's tongue, i.e. one shall bind.)
114. After having made urine
(After having made urine, i.e. it will have been done)
115. one recites the Humatascha of the Gathas.
(thereafter one shall recite the Humat of the Gathas.)
116. One shall recite three Ashem Vohu, two Humatanam, three Hukhtanam, three Hukhshathrotemai and four Ahuna Vairya.
(One [shall] recite three Ashemvohuk, two Humatanam, three Hukhshathrotemai and four Ahunwars, i.e. one shall recite.)
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