Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press, 1897.
1. Propitiation for the creator Ohrmazd and all angels.
2. The first of the twenty-two fargards of the Bag  is the Ahunwar  of the Bagan , about the production by Ohrmazd, before every creation apart from the archangel , and on the solicitation of the archangel, of the form of words (rastako milaya) which is the innermost and most comprehensive encompassment (parvand) and best-congregated embodiment (veh-ramaktum kerpo) of the intelligent omniscience of the religion .
3. The divisions of this germ of germs, and the origin of the other primitive sayings of the good religion, are the divisibility of the portions (bako) of the Ahunwar. 4. The Ahu of the Ahu-vairyo of the Ahunwar is the first creature  which, as regards the first, is specially that creature which is really derived from the creator Ohrmazd, and its adaptation is owing to mankind. 5. The thought (mit)  that exists with the first is with the word that is Vairyo, his 'will,' which is in the second created existence (damih), which, as regards the first, is specially the primitive secondary state (dadigarih) of those who are specially characterized by it, who exist as it were with that character, and have become, in that way, in association with the second creature. 6. The conjunction of the first creature -- whose origin (yehevunishno), which is the liturgy, is a existence whose origin had occurred-is the source for the saying; and the distribution of the portions thereof is the whole saying of a liturgical kind; also its name is Yatha-ahu-vairyo, the spirit through which it is set going is the lore of the religion, needful among the creatures, the creations arose through wisdom for that purpose, and they, too, were produced on the solicitation of the archangel ; besides this, that archangels are wise in speaking, and through wisdom are they archangels.
7. And this, too, about the same words, that the ;statement is the best-worded which is spoken, or to be spoken ; and the obscurity is not about the sound of the word-elements, but about the manifold nature of the actual meaning (kabedih-i sang-icho), which is the character of the statement, in the words of the epitome. 8. This, too, that mankind guard the soul from hell by learning, reciting, and practicing it, and the body from death  by likewise perpetually persevering therein.
9. This, too, that, as to the first apportionment of the Ahunwar, whose name is the Bagan Ahunwar, when, thoroughly accomplishing it (avavidar) unanxiously (asudakiha), one chants it in a ceremonial, the good work is as when one chants a hundred authorities (radih) of the Gathas, thoroughly accomplishing them unanxiously ; and when, accomplishing it (vidar) anxiously, one chants it, such a ceremonial amounts to as much as ten with any other authority . 10. This, too, that, through the same apportionment, while one solemnizes the summing up of the first completion , which is the Stud-yasn, as it becomes the rite of one newly initiated (navak-napar) , on that day they make the soul of the solemnizer pass three times into the supreme heaven .
11. About the grievous sinfulness of imperfectly accomplishing (avidar) the Bagan Ahunwar .
12. This, too, that it is made by him in subjection to Ohrmazd, as the first creature made, who gives the body in service to him who is the ruler, and in discipleship to him who is the high-priest of the religion ; for this reason, because they are suitable for lordship and mastership in the worldly existence. 13. He who is the highest lord and master is the creator Ohrmazd, and, owing to the same reason, when it made their subjection that to the creator Ohrmazd, he has made it as the first creature made.
14. This, too, that it is taught by it to keep the body in the service of the king of kings , whose origin Ohrmazd keeps in his possession; for this reason, because, when his origin is kept in the possession of Ohrmazd, Ohrmazd is over his own if a good ruler is made; him who is thus prepared, when also the worldly existence is necessary for Ohrmazd, he maintains as ruler when the creation is instructed.
15. This, too, that the reward of Vohuman is appropriated (khvesinido) by him who indicates anything which is virtuous, who also utters virtuous recitation, and who likewise teaches perfect abstinence from sin to mankind . 16. For this reason, because the indication of anything virtuous, the utterance of recitation wisely, and abstinence from sin are, as it were, a lodgment materially in good people owing spiritually to the archangels, Vohuman being more particularly the instigator therein; and, owing to the same reason, he in whom there is a like proficiency is of like good works with Vohuman, and adapted to the good works arises the like reward.
17. This, too, that the dominion is given to Ohrmazd by him who may perform those works, manifest from the phrase Tad Mazda tava khshathrem, &c. and its meaning, which is this: 'That, O Ohrmazd! is this dominion of thine, by which benefits (vehagano) are given to him who is justly living and poor .' 18. Which is a deliverance this reason, because Ohrmazd created no dominion for the more particular preservation of the poor and the creatures of the worldly existence from the destroyer; but, for the purpose of control over the dominion of him whose strength of rule is the cause of preservation for the poor -- which is continually the wish of Ohrmazd -- the dominion is given to Ohrmazd.
19. And this, too, that, through preservation from the adversary, he has assisted his poor who have preserved friendship for the Spitaman ; the adversity of the creatures is the advancement of religion, by supporting the religion; and a friend of the Spitaman becomes an assistant of the supporters of religion. 20. About the entrance (den yatundakih) of the destroyer of the creatures from without , and the helplessness of the beneficent spirit thereto.
21. About the girding on of this saying of the religion of Ohrmazd by the three degrees (padman), which are good thoughts, good words, and good deeds; by the four classes, which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship; and by the five chieftainships, which are house-rule, village-rule, tribe-rule, province-rule, and the supreme Zartoshtship [[Zarathushtrotema]]; and the one summing up (hangerdikih) which is the liberality of the good ruler .
22. Righteousness is perfect excellence.
1. The third of the Nasks and fourth of the Gathic division (see Bk. 8, Chap. 1.9, 12). It is an analytical commentary upon the Gathas and the texts associated with them in the two preceding Nasks, devoting a separate fargard to each ha, and selecting very short phrases, or portions (Av. bagha), for explanation and comment; so short that it is usually difficult to identify them in their Pahlavi disguise. The first three fargards are still extant in Yas. 19-21, and a translation of their Pahlavi versions will be found in the Nask Fragments at the end of this volume; but whether the Pahlavi versions, consulted by the writer of the Denkard, were identical with those in the present Yasna is uncertain.
2. The name of the Yatha-ahu-vairyo formula (see Bk. 8, Chap. 1.7). This fargard is still extant in Yas. 19.
3. That is, 'of the apportionments,' or 'of those analyzed.'
4. Possibly the archangel Vohuman, the first of the creatures, may he meant; although the Bundahishn places his creation after the recitation of the Ahunwar (see Bd. 1.21-23). That it was recited before the other creations is clearly stated in Pahl. Yas. 19.2-5, 17-20.
5. See Pahl. Yas. 19.24-27.
6. Ibid. 29.
7. Ibid. Paz. mit = Av. maiti = manas.
8. See Pahl. Yas. 19.20.
9. Ibid. 24.
10. Ibid. 25, i6.
11. Ibid. 6, 7. The MS. has drk instead of drz '100' by mistake.
12. Ibid. 8. The MS. has 'unanxiously' by mistake.
13. Possibly Yas. 59.32-34.
14. Commonly called Nonabar (see Sls. 10.2, 13.2; Dd. 79.4, 11, 12).
15. See Pahl. Yas. 19.9-11.
16. Ibid. 12-15.
17. Ibid. 28, 29.
18. Ibid. 30.
19. Ibid. 31, 32.
20. See Pahl. Yas. 19.35, Yas. 53.9 d, and Chap. 45.10.
21. Ibid. 36.
22. Ibid. 39.
23. Pahl. Yas. 19.44-55.
1. The second fargard is the Ashem  of the Bagan ; it is by that perfect excellence is produced for everyone who produces for anyone else that which is suitable for him ; for this reason, because, for the sake of perfect production, there is much unprofitable production, but profitable production is suitably producing. 2. This, too, that the reward of every good work is given by it to mankind, which keeps mankind in diligence when it instructs ; because, as the business of all good works is that which instructs and keeps mankind in diligence. the reward of good works which mankind can appropriate by diligence is appropriated by it. 3. And this, too, that advancement is given by it to every good work .
4. He who is understanding good works, and yet a suppliant, has thereby made the learned foolish (azan akhanidinido); whoever possesses authority through virtuousness  is more particularly for rewarding the doers of good works; whoever, too, can make true decision  and adjudication is more particularly for causing the bridge judgment of a criminal, and for thrusting him aside owing to the exhaustion of his good works; and whoever, too, can exercise mediation and wisdom is more particularly for the good government of the world.
5. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect.
1. See Chap. 3.1 n; it is here expressed by its Pahl. equivalent aharayih. This fargard is still extant in Yas. 20.
2. see Chap. 47.2
3. See Pahl. Yas. 20.1.
4. Ibid. 2.
5. See Pahl. Yas. 20.3.
6. Ibid. 4.
7. Ibid. 5.
1. The third fargard is the Yenhe-hatam : there is here taught by it the worship of Ohrmazd, which is the law of Ohrmazd, that is, its law is virtuous . 2. This, too, that the worship of Ohrmazd is occasioned by it, which is the asking for life for beings by mankind . 3. And this, too, that the ritual of the males and females of the righteous occurs through it, which is the obeisance for the archangels . 4. And the atonement for crimes (vajagano), because it is a gratification, is all for Ohrmazd personally therefrom; and in connection therewith it amounts to a gratification for Ohrmazd.
5. Here one mentions three particulars  which are in one's worship of Ohrmazd of every description. 6. One is when the design (dado) of the person is virtuous, because it is restrained by some virtuousness of thought; this is that which amounts to worship and obeisance for Ohrmazd personally. 7. One is when it teaches an asking for life for mankind, and its ordinance is the protection, nourishment, and other assistance and gratification of mankind; a friend of the primitive worldly creation of mankind produced it, and it comes into connection with the bridge judgment of mankind, for the worship and gratification of Ohrmazd. 8. And one is when one would celebrate the obeisance for the archangels, which is for the sake of strengthening the archangels, each separately, in their control of the business of preparing and managing the world; because it is declared by revelation that to worship is this, that the ceremonial may reach this bridge  in company with one (padvand), for the worship and gratification of Ohrmazd; the archangel who is to be strengthened by the ceremonial is one, and mankind are developed by the strength of the archangel.
9. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence.
1. See Chap. 4.1 n; it is here written Yanhe-hatam in Pahlavi. This fargard is still extant in Yas. 21.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 21.1.
3. Ibid. 2, 3.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 21.3.
5. The Chinwad bridge (see Chap. 20.3).
1. Propitiation for the creator Ohrmazd, and a scornful dole for the evil spirit.
2. The fourth fargard is the Yanim-mano  of the Bag, about the praise of Zartosht, that is, his jurisdiction, invocation of blessing (yano) and speaking in reply were such as are declared by the sacred text. 3. This, too, that that jurisdiction of his arose before the blessing, that is, this one decision is made by him about his own, that his own person is first made deserving by him through virtue, and then virtue is prayed for by him .
4. This, too, that he has attributed the source and result to Ohrmazd, who gives joy to Ohrmazd; for the source and result of various advantages and various joys are desirable for joy itself, as joy is the acme (roeshman) of every happiness of him whose joy has made an offering (austofrido) to Ohrmazd, because his decision is this, that by him whose joy arises from that thing which is the will of Ohrmazd, its source and result are attributed to Ohrmazd. 5. This, too, that the good work, which is a gratification by lawful gratifiers , becomes appropriated by him who shall perform that which is truly reverent; even for this reason, because he who is a lawful gratifier of others, through true reverence, has intended to gratify through the practice of his reverence, and, when thus the gratifier of those persons, the good work of gratification by lawful gratifiers becomes appropriated. 6. This, too, that the wisdom of Vohuman  is advanced by him who utters a discourse through Vohuman; for this reason, because the wisdom of Vohuman and its advancement are mostly through discourse. 7. This, too, that the plentifulness and satisfaction of cattle  are taught by him who properly maintains the cattle which are in his possession; even for this reason, owing to the multitudes thus belonging to him who properly maintains the cattle which are in his possession, he gains his profit and measure therefrom, and others, who see that gain, are instructed, even as much as he, about the proper maintenance of cattle for their own profit and pleasure.
8. This, too, that benefit  being given for the benefit of the worthy man is taught by him who keeps the benefit that is his as the property of the sacred beings; even for this reason, because he gives the benefit that is his unto the worthy man for the purpose of keeping it for the advantage of the sacred beings, and others are instructed about it. 9. This, too, that prosperity  being given, in both existences , to him who is generous and worthy is taught by him who gives benefit to a worthy man possessing body and life; even for this reason, because a worldly existence and a spiritual one are both his, also his worldly existence is in this existence, and the spiritual one in that existence wherefrom satisfaction for the giving of benefit arrives. 10. This, too, that by him who shall cause reverence  of the good, even this is taught, that the sacred beings gratify him who is practicing their will; even for this reason, because good for him, by whom the reverence is practiced, becomes the reply of satisfaction, and the throne of the sacred beings is certain.
11. This, too, that he who was at first has taught even this to mankind, that supplicants  for the favor of the sacred beings gratify the sacred beings by being contented (padvaz); even for this reason, because the welcome of a sacred being, supplied by command from the religion, is a virtuousness in the world distinct from that, and the production of a course of generosity, from the sacred beings to mankind, arises really through the contentment of the favored; and mankind thereby become freer from doubt, and believe more in the sacred beings.
12. This, too, that his soul is delivered, or will be delivered, into the supreme heaven , who has given something to him who praises the sacred beings and the good ; even for this reason, because even through liberality as to wealth, and the production of a way to the supreme heaven, it is manifest that anything given to the praisers of the sacred beings and the good is a greater liberality. 13. This, too, that the reverence  of those needing reverence is occasioned by him who teaches the sacred word (vachako) to the good; even for this reason, because he who is a good teacher of revelation (deno) can bring if into use for the reverence, advantage, and joy of the sacred beings and the good.
14. This, too, that acquaintance with the religion of Ohrmazd  is disposed to his own by him who loves Vohuman  even for this reason, because true knowledge arises from the discrimination of pure wisdom, and the pure attainment of the most discriminative spiritual lord (ahvo) to the mind, through the purity that constitutes the way within the mind of a spiritual lord, the purity which becomes that way through the lodgment of Vohuman there. 15. This, too, that righteousness is taught  by him who keeps his mind connected with righteousness; even for this reason, because his mind attains to an effort for authority, and, ridden by the effort, attains to its acquisition. 16. This, too, that by him who gives commands about the progress of the concerns of Ohrmazd, this is also taught to mankind, namely, when one sees the throne of Ohrmazd ; even for this reason, because it is possible to see that throne through the complete progress of the will of Ohrmazd in the world; and whoever gives commands about the progress of the concerns of Ohrmazd, the will of Ohrmazd is necessary in him, the progressive share of those concerns for the people of the world being shown, which is seen even through that foundation of completeness that becomes the throne of Ohrmazd for mankind.
17. This, too, that by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in himself , matters only known by even a high-priest are then taught to mankind; even for this reason, because instruction and knowledge are mostly those through a high-priest, and by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in himself, a spiritual lord is then prayed for, who becomes glorious and praised for that which is to be taught, and mankind are taught by him. 18. This, too, that by any one good, who is a servant and pleaser of a good ruler, a good person may be brought forward, to him. who is the ruler, for benefit ; even for this reason, because a good man associates other good people with him in the benefit that happens to him, and his character, temper, and disposition are thus due to that; but when bringing himself forward to rulers, through reverence and gratification of the rulers, other good people may also be brought forward by him for that benefit. 19. This, too, that by him who shall virtuously make an accumulation, the way of prosperity  from the sacred beings is disclosed to his own; even for this reason, because virtuous accumulation is provided through unnumbered (apenavado) grants of a decider, and, when it is so, he becomes the treasurer of the sacred beings.
20. This, too, that by him who produces advantage for the archangels, the gift of him who is suitable for the sovereignty  of the immature (kham) world is solicited; even for this reason, because the advantage which is produced for the archangels being for the sake of his own, the advantage of the immature creation solicited -- the supreme advantage of the primitive good creations -- becomes a virtuous ruler. 21. This, too, that by him who is a praiser of an archangel, the good religion is praised; even for this reason, because the good religion is praise of the archangels, and the praise of the archangels is the good religion. 22. This, too, that the religion of the sacred beings is made progressive  by him who shall make an offering (austofrido) to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because making an offering to the sacred beings strengthens the up-holders of religion, and the progress of religion occurs through upholders of religion.
23. This, too, that by him who shall make mankind quite zealous (garemoko) for doing good works, the reward of the good works is also made liberal for mankind; even for this reason, because the producer of the origin is also the producer of the result. 24. This, too, that above the multitude is the praise of the man who is assisting those of virtuous will, who is also the nourishment of the creatures through virtuousness, and whose accumulation is also owing to virtuousness; even for this reason, because whoever is assisting those of virtuous will is an increaser of virtuousness in the world, whoever is the nourishment of the creatures through virtuousness is a producer of the paternity of creatures, and he whose accumulation is owing to virtuousness becomes an improver of the world. 25. This, too, that by him who assists him who is ignorant (khasht), is given and taught to supplicants that which is suitable for them. 26. To assist him who is ignorant is this, such as forming the province, district, domain, and family; maintaining the abode and house of a follower of Vishtasp (Vishtaspano), the fortress and stronghold, and the homestead (khan) of the agricultural peasant; repairing a rugged road; building bridges over rivers; managing a river, aqueduct, or brook; populating desolate places; and doing other things, owing to which any retention (girift-ae) of the comfort and advantage of mankind in the world occurs. 27. And by him who shall do these things, the assistance even of him who is born afterwards, the making of that which is a very advantageous thing suitable for mankind, and also the doing of this for others, are taught.
28. This, too, that it is revealed (chashto) of the spiritual existence that that which is wisdom is for Ohrmazd, for him who is wisdom -- that is, it teaches that acquired wisdom is for him whose innate wisdom is good -- even for this reason, because the spirit, this that has come into his possession, which is acquired wisdom, is given by it to the progeny of Ohrmazd, which is innate wisdom, to increase it; and Ohrmazd is gratified thereby.
29. Of a summary about the continuance that was, the progress of the material existence, and the continuance that will be , there is also this: about the continuance that was, which is the beginning, there are the essential thought and beneficent production of the good and evil material existence of its good goodness, and that of its evil vileness; about the progress of the material existence, which is intermediate, there are the dutiful doing of good works, righteousness, and having reward, the committal of crime, wickedness, and having the bridge penalty; and about the continuance that will be, which is the last, there are the government, with wisdom, of that supremely good one who is the origin of all the multitudinous creatures (vasikan), the triumph of goodness over vileness, the admissibility of the good, the inadmissibility of the bad, and the purity of the restoration of the good creatures.
30. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence.
1. See Chap. 5.1 n.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 28.0.
3. Ibid. 1 a.
4. Ibid. 2 c.
5. See Pahl. Yas. 28.1 c, where Pt4 and Mf4 have Vohuman instead of valman.
6. Ibid. 2 b.
7. Ibid. 2 c.
8. Ibid. 4 b.
9. See Pahl. Yas. 28.4 c.
10. Ibid. 4 a.
11. Ibid. 4 b.
12. See Pahl. Yas. 28.4 c.
13. Ibid. 5 b.
14. Ibid. 6 a.
15. See Pahl. Yas. 28.6 b.
16. Ibid. 7 a.
17. Ibid. 7 c.
18. The three periods of the universe: the past eternity, the present existence, and the future eternity.
1. The fifth fargard, Khshmaibya , is about this, that complaint is made by Goshorun  that there did not exist anyone who properly keeps the cattle that are in his possession; even for this reason, because cattle are increased by such, and others, through design (ahang) and a desire for that increase, act by his example and keep cattle properly; but the complaint of Goshorun is that he does not exist. 2. This, too, that by him who gives orders about the advancement of the concerns of the sacred beings, the care of cattle is produced, and his soul attains to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because the care of cattle is a principal thing in the advancement of the concerns of the sacred beings, and also for the preservation of the soul. 3. This, too, that by him who keeps cattle with a controller (dastobar) who is a cattle-master , even a friend of him who is the creator of cattle is taught to the cattle -- the cattle-master and he who is wise in the nourishment, protection, and multiplication of cattle -- even for this reason, because when his cattle are kept with a controller who is a nourisher, protector, and multiplier of cattle, the friendship of a nourisher for the nourished, of a protector for the protected, and of a multiplier for the multipliable is also exhibited by him; and the design of the creator for the creation, through affection, is that of a nourisher for the nourished, of a protector for the protected, and of a multiplier for the multipliable.
4. This, too, that by him who maintains an animal with propriety, it is presented to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because when it is maintained by him with propriety, the will of the sacred beings drives him on, and when the will of the sacred beings drives him on, it is presented by him to the sacred beings. 5. This, too, that when one shall admit the male of animals at the proper time, the mastery (sardarinidano) of the animal is also taught by him; even for this reason, because the admission of the male of the animals is the essential business in the multiplication of cattle, and he who is a multiplier has also taught the mastery of the animals. 6. This, too, that by him who does not slaughter an animal until it attains to full growth, the formation of a store for cattle is also taught; even for this reason, because, from the increasing cattle produced, the profit of mankind arises, and on account of the liking of mankind for profit, they persevere more fully in cultivating cattle, and provide a store for them.
7. This, too, that it is he who is the more powerful of beings -- that is, strength is what is more in use by him  -- whose proceeding is for him who is his own, so that he supplies that which it is necessary to supply; even for this reason, because needful bountifulness to one's own needy ones arises through lawful thoughts, lawful thoughts are provided by expelling greed, lust, wrath, disgrace, envy, and other fiends from the body, and a man expelling a fiend from his body becomes of efficient strength. 8. This, too, that he is a very powerful person, for invocation , supplication: and attaining to good works, who possesses wealth for the high-priest of the priests, who shall also procure decisions and judgment always justly, and who likewise becomes humble and reverent to the good; even for this reason, because the wealth of multitudes of mankind is for maintaining the desires and pleasure of the body, for procuring decisions and judgment whereto their wishes tend, and for others becoming humble and reverent to them even when their design is vicious; but he who possesses wealth for invocation and connection with the wisdom of the religion, through the high-priest of the religion, and shall procure just decisions and judgment, and becomes humble and reverent to the good, is a putter away of that design and one who, through the putting away of that design, becomes a capable and very powerful person.
9. This, too, that everyone is made to persevere at his proper duty, as to any excellent thing, by him who holds the reward of the diligent, as the sacred beings are proceeding with a pure needy one; for this reason, because the toiling of the body of a person at his proper duty is induced by a desire of reward. 10. This, too, that by him whose mouth (yong)  and its appliances are for virtue, the possession of Vohuman is then explained, through this mode, because the maintenance of the mouth and its appliances as virtuous becomes so, when, through protection and assistance of the good, and defeat and smiting of the vile, the reformation of the world occurs; and this, too, is so, when there is an existence of preparation. of the friend of the good and the enemy of the vile, and of friendship of the good and enmity of the vile, through understanding good and evil; and the understanding of good and evil is through possession of Vohuman, and that possession of Vohuman becomes also an explainer of Vohuman.
11. This, too, that by him who gives commands about the progress of the concerns of the sacred beings, his own knowledge of every kind is also developed; even for this reason, because the command being necessary for the personal duty of the good, they also develop the knowledge of every kind for which that commanding of duty and its auspiciousness are suitable. 12. This, too, that by him who teaches the good, the good work is then appropriated which is also an assistance of Zartosht through speaking of the religion; even for this reason, because, on account of those of the religion of Zartosht who really constitute the renovation of the universe, the speaking connected with Zartosht -- through the teaching of the good and teachers not of the same religion -- and the assistance through speaking of the religion become the good work appropriated.
13. This, too, that by him who gives anything to that person who praises the sacred beings and the good, a throne is appropriated in yonder world  even on the mention of it. 14. This, too, that by him who is teaching that which is for the propitious, the damage that is owing to want of resources  in religion is shut out of the world; even for this reason, because, owing to that, he increases the resources of religion of every kind and the advantage therefrom, in the world. 15. This, too, that by him who is bringing him who is righteous forth to the rulers, for beneficence, the utmost assistance is then afforded; even for this reason, because an expectation of the utmost beneficence is further attached by him to the place of obtainment .
16. This, too, that by him who gives himself in service unto him who is the supreme king of kings, the way of good thinking , of the assistance of pleasure, and of the production of sovereignty by Ohrmazd is disclosed to his own; even for this reason, because the original reason of virtue is the worthiness of mankind owing to the creator and their service unto the creator, and, therefore, as he who is a well-ruling monarch is a creator in the worldly existence, and a recompensing (pado-dahak) leader of the creatures who steadfastly give themselves in service to him, it is then given by him to the creator also; and I teach, besides, that the origin of the virtue of worthiness, which is attached by the creator to his own, is the way that is stated above, and other virtue is also disclosed to his own thereby.
17. Righteousness is excellence that is perfect.
1. See Chap. 6.1 n; it is here written khshmaibe in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 29.1
3. Ibid. 2 a.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 29.3 c.
5. See Pahl. Yas. 29.7 c.
6. See Pahl. Yas. 29.8 c.
7. Ibid. 9 b.
8. See Pahl. Yas. 29.10 c.
9. Ibid. 10 b; we should probably read hu-manishnih, 'pleasant dwelling,' instead of hu-minishnih.
1. The sixth fargard, Ad-ta-vakhshya , is this, that by him who is a wise upholder of the dignity of a priest's leadership, the priestly assembly  wanted for performing religious rites (deno) is enlarged; for this reason, because the nature of the person, whose resources are bounty for the needy, eagerly becomes a causer of exertion for the teaching (amuko) of accomplishments. 2. This, too, that by him whose habits are virtuous the glorification of Ohrmazd  is accomplished and taught; even on this account, for the sake of whatever advantage and pleasure are due to virtue, they, indeed, whose habits are virtuous, glorify him, moreover, who is the creator of those virtuous habits, who is Ohrmazd himself. 3. This, too, that by him who speaks virtuous words the performance even of the worship of Vohuman  is also taught; even on this account, because of the comeliness and desirableness of virtue, the good make it an example and speak virtuous words, and virtuous speaking is the worship of Vohuman. 4. This, too, that the ceremonial which he whose way is virtuous shall accomplish becomes greater  thereby; even for this reason, because the sacred beings come more particularly to the ceremonial of those of pure dispositions and virtuous ways, and accept it.
5. This, too, that he who is a producer of benefit for promoters of good works becomes an extender  of the teaching of religion; even for this reason, because from producing benefit for promoters of good works arises an increase of good works, from an increase of good works arises further progress of the will of the sacred beings, from further progress of the will of the sacred beings arises more progress of the good religion, and from more progress of the good religion arises an extension of the teaching of the good religion in the world. 6. This, too, that by him who possesses authority through virtue, discrimination  as to the regulation of duties is taught to mankind; even for this reason, because the possessor of authority through virtue is a man who becomes a decider and ruler, and mankind learn and practice to exercise the disposition, habits, and custom of rulers.
7. This, too, that he who is a giver of the needful to his own needy ones has given himself to Zartosht; even for this reason, because the needful being given to one's own needy ones is the existence of true liberality, which is a compendium of the religion of Zartosht; by him who is thereby ennobled (vaspu-harakani-aito) the religion of Zartosht is then put on, and whoever has put on the religion of Zartosht [has given himself to Zartosht. 8. This, too, that by him who]  gives the leadership [to him who is suitable for the leadership]  even the wisdom of that man is increased; for this reason, because even the wisdom of the suitable, through which they accomplish that leadership, when the leadership comes to them, grows further with the glory of that duty.
9. This, too, that he who has to select the better of two ways, which are good and bad , is assisted to do so by the benefiters' ordeal of fire and ore; even for this reason, because that is discrimination by the eye of wisdom, which is the way of good intention, and the benefiters are decisive declarers of acquittal and incrimination through fire and metal, the two good discriminators; and when the business is of a different kind, even then both are associates in discriminating, and are powerful connections of one another. 10. This, too, that he who shall do that thing from which advantage of the sacred beings arise is empowered to discriminate truly that which is sagacious  in thought, word, and deed; even for this reason, because from doing anything for the advantage of the sacred beings arises the reign of the will of the sacred beings in the world, from the reign of the will of the sacred beings in the world arises the freedom from danger of the temporal existence of the world, and the freedom from danger of the temporal existence of the world contributes also to the power of him who is sagacious in discriminating truly as to thought, word, and deed.
11. This, too, that by him who thinks of the affairs of Ohrmazd the eternity (hamayikih) of Ohrmazd  and also the consideration of his own eternity by Ohrmazd are thought of; even on this account, because mankind mind and serve Ohrmazd for the sake of even the hope  of eternal benefit from him; and they who think of him, through the eternal benefit due to him, are themselves increasing that benefit which is eternal, and it is thought eternal by him that thinks of that eternal thing his own eternity. 12. This, too, that he who restrains a person from reverence of the demons, has diverted him from making the world sickly; even for this reason, because whoever has restrained a person from reverence of the demons, has diverted a demon from making the world anarchical and from making the world sickly. 13. This, too, that by him who shall practice liberality benefit for the sun is caused, and by him who shall cause benefit for the sun benefit is caused also for the nature of the body of mankind; even for this reason, because it is declared that the sun has progressed through the radiance and glory of the liberal, and the nature of the body of mankind is preserved by the sun.
14. This, too, that by him whose desire is for anything virtuous, and who possesses authority through virtue, mankind are controlled to persist (maninidano) in virtue for receiving a reward ; even for this reason, because he whose desire is virtuous seeks happiness for everyone -- a preeminent desire for the happiness of human existence being the desire of mankind for virtue -- and by him who requires that, and strives for it fully, so far as possible for him, anyone whatever is brought to persist in virtue and to constrain the spirit for reward; and by him who possesses authority through virtue the continuance of mankind in authority and their persistence and instruction in virtue are attached to good works and are brought to reward. 15. This, too, that by him who possesses happiness through appropriation of the sacred beings mankind are attached to the sacred beings for receiving a reward ; even for this reason, because, on account of the possession of happiness through appropriation of the sacred beings, he possesses it through the assistance and gratification of the good, and mankind shall therefore make him an example; it also becomes a good work for them, and they adhere to the sacred beings for receiving a reward.
16. This, too, that by him who produces the benediction of him that is a conductor of investigation and a righteous judge, and who shall also occasion the reverence of the good, the teaching of the advantage of the righteous  is likewise performed; even for this reason, because the essentials (madigan) of the advantage of the world are two -- one owing to justice, and one owing to generosity -- and it is declared that the advantage of him who possesses the blessings of the judges is owing to the justice of the judges, and the advantage of him who is reverent to the good is owing to the generosity of the good in developing the world, and the righteous teach about it.
17. Righteousness is perfect excellence.
1. See Chap. 7.1 n; it is here written at-takhshe in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 30.1 a.
3. Ibid. 1 b.
4. Ibid. 1 c.
5. Ibid. 2 a.
6. See Pahl. Yas. 30.2 b.
7. The words in brackets are the translation of a passage that was inserted in the MS. at the time the folios were patched. The original copyist of the MS. has evidently omitted a passage, but whether the repairer has made the insertion merely by guessing from the context (which is quite possible), or by referring to some other MS., is uncertain.
8. See Pahl. Yas. 30.3 b.
9. See Pahl. Yas. 30.3 c.
10. Ibid. 4 c.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 30.10 b.
12. Ibid. 10 c.
13. See Pahl. Yas. 30.11 c.
1. The seventh fargard, Ta-ve-urvata , is that by him who possesses advantage through virtue, the world of righteousness is freed from  destruction ; even for this reason, because the possession of advantage through virtue arises through the non-participation of the demons and the vile therein, and the participation of the sacred beings and the good; and, when one shall act so, the advantage of spiritual origin becomes more powerful through guarding the advantage from the destroyers. 2. This, too, that, by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in his person, apostates are likewise forced to make the religion of Ohrmazd progressive ; even for this reason, because owing to  the apostasy of apostates being a religion produced by Ahriman, they are only able to make the religion progressive through the appellation of Ohrmazd; apostasy and priesthood, and the apostates and priests, are fraternal opponents, and whenever the priesthood and multitudes of the priesthood are triumphant, multitudes of the apostates of apostasy perish (aoshend), and when the multitudes of the apostates of apostasy are bold, the priests of the priesthood are weak; and the priests are superior in power and success when their priesthood is properly limited, and their properly limited priesthood, too -- which can arise through mankind -- consists in the welcome precedence of Ohrmazd.
3. About the completeness (sporikih) of the priesthood in that quality now, when the priests of the multitude are the habitation (mehono) of Ohrmazd, and the power of the priests of the priesthood has increased, the valor of the apostates of apostasy is smitten, and the apostates are defeated by the abundant splendor of the priests, also their power as regards making the religion of Ahriman progressive through the appellation of Ohrmazd is fettered, and they keep apostasy concealed .
4. And then also they, with the appellation of priests, truly speak and teach the religion of Ohrmazd, and make it progressive, just as it is solemnized and made easy by them, even though the will of the sacred beings be unheard and undesired through apostasy.
5. This, too, that he proclaims the miraculousness of Ohrmazd , who shall appoint for ordeal that which is certainly a doubt; even for this reason, because, through accomplishing an ordeal, that which is doubtful is forcibly rendered visible (venavdahaki-aito) to the eyes, as certain clearness, through the power of the spirit, which is itself a miracle of Ohrmazd. 6. This, too, that by him who shall make a public decision thereon, as to the acquitted and convicted , gratification is afforded to him whose maintenance of the dispute  is righteous; even for this reason, because the needful is delivered by him to its own requirer who thereby becomes even renowned. 7. This, too, that even the rite of ordeal [is produced]  by him [who is an advantage to the righteous; for this reason, because the rite of ordeal is for the advancement of the ordeal, and the religious ordeal] proceeds through sovereignty; these righteous are those of the good religion, and their advantage is that belonging to the multitude, which is the sovereignty now, and everyone who is given for that advantage, to the righteous of those of the good religion, becomes the performer of any rite of ordeal really produced, because the origin of that giving of advantage is even the rite of ordeal. 8. This, too, that by him who gives a priest and righteous man for propagating the religion, the rite of ordeal is also proclaimed; even for this reason, because the teacher and one rightly merciful (hu-amur'zidar) give  the sacred text by which even the rite of ordeal is declared.
9. This, too, that he who recites the revelation of Ohrmazd, and who shall do it with exceeding goodness, becomes an increaser of wisdom; even for this reason, because the wisdom of a man increases in these two ways, either he speaks and teaches himself, or he exemplifies the excellence of a portion to the wise who become speakers and teachers of wisdom. 10. This, too, that his homage is for Ohrmazd, who thoroughly teaches a righteous employer of animals and human beings (kira vavir) that he considers him as their controller (dastobar); because, since the productiveness of the completion of the creatures is produced through the nourishment of the creatures by Ohrmazd through his fulfilling his own productiveness, that righteous employer in the world is intend for the nourishment of his creatures, owing to that outward subjection and propitiation of theirs, and the righteous employer is connected with their subjection and propitiation for the creator.
11. This, too, that by him who gives thought to the religion of Zartosht, the soul is given to Zartosht; even for this reason, because with a man's having given thought to the religion of Zartosht is connected the receiving of his soul by Zartosht for preservation from hell. 12. This, too, that by him who teaches the nature of the sacred beings to mankind, consultation with Ohrmazd is also further taught; even for this reason, because the nature of the sacred beings is consulting a spiritual lord, and becomes also the consulting of Ohrmazd.
13. This, too, that by him who keeps the produce of sheep as the property of Ohrmazd, a sheep is given to him who is diligent and moderate ; even for this reason, because produce kept as the property of Ohrmazd is for being given for good works, being given for good works is being truly kept as a beginning for the possession of produce, and a beginning truly kept is kept even through a sheep, as a beginning of excellence, in the control (dastobarih) of him who is a diligent and moderate shepherd . 14. This, too, that by him who is liberal to the liberal the increase owing to developers is brought into the world; even for this reason, because a liberal man, on account of even that gift given back to the worthy, becomes even for us -- through the development of the world -- him who is first praised therein with the sacred beings. 15. This, too, that whoever shall form a store for sheep, becomes an agent even in the development of sheep by the creator; because, on account of the increase of sheep through the existence of nourishment for them having arisen, whoever has arranged nourishment for sheep, becomes an agent even in the development of sheep by the creator. 16. This, too, that by him who teaches inward prayer (vachako) to the good, it is also taught to eaters; even for this reason, because, everything connected with eating being declared by the religion, when the religion is taught by any one to the good, in which even that information is proclaimed, even eaters are taught about it. 17. This, too, that whoever maintains a sheep, or human being, as our property, is taught to maintain it through the high-priest of Zartosht; even for this reason, because it is so maintained as the property of the sacred beings, when he maintains it as the property of Zartosht.
18. This, too, that by him who gave predominance to those of the nature of Gayomard , the sovereignty also of those of the religion of Zartosht is desired; even for this reason, because the religion of Zartosht is the nature of Gayomard, and the nature of Gayomard is the religion of Zartosht. 19. This, too, that when one is alone among rulers a way of speaking to the rulers such words as are really true is thereby provided; even for this reason, because the utterance of blessings by a solitary person is for advantage. 20. This, too, that by him who keeps the sovereignty which is his within the will of Ohrmazd, the best thing is done unto Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because a sovereignty is so kept within the will of Ohrmazd when he who is the ruler gives to Ohrmazd the individuality in which is the sovereignty, and when its proximity and closeness have given to Ohrmazd that thing which is best and supreme.
21. This, too, that when one teaches the sayings (vachako) of the benefiters, the information which is owing to the religion is illustrated  by him to his own; even for this reason, because the knowledge of religion, which is in its causing liberality by him, is increased even by the repeated inquiry of disciples. 22. This, too, that by him who teaches an applicant the virtuous way and doctrine (pand) the liturgy is then taught; even for this reason, because knowledge arises through the virtuous course of the liturgy . 23. This, too, that by him who thinks of the affairs of virtue, the liturgy is maintained and taught with virtuousness ; even for this reason, because the maintenance of the liturgy with virtuousness arises through virtuous thinking.
24. This, too, that whoever shall provide the nourishment of creatures with propriety, his Vohuman (good thought) is Ohrmazd's progeny ; and whoever properly maintains those which are in his keeping, his position becomes Ohrmazd's fatherhood of Vohuman ; even for this reason, because every proper nourishing is that in which the nourished becomes an offspring such as Vohuman unto Ohrmazd; and every proper protection of the creatures, over those which are protected by it, is a fatherhood such as that of Ohrmazd over Vohuman. 25. This, too, that by him who shall provide nourishment with propriety for the creation which is good, it is taught that the good creation was produced by Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because from the nourishment of the creation with propriety, together with the discriminating action of the nourisher, the goodness of the nourished is also evident, from the goodness of the nourished creation the goodness of him who is its creator is evident, and the creator of the good creation is Ohrmazd himself.
26. This, too, that whoever shall spiritually make Ohrmazd the ruler over his own person becomes a ruler as to actions ; even for this reason, because whoever is making Ohrmazd ruler over his person is a leader of wisdom, a leader of wisdom is a decider taking account of sin and good works, taking account of sin and good works is abstaining from sin and practicing good works, and owing to abstinence from sin and practicing good works one becomes a ruler over actions. 27. This, too, that Spandarmad  is given to Ohrmazd by him who is as reverent unto Ohrmazd as a daughter unto a father; even for this reason, because the Spandarmadic nature (Spandarmadih) is provided by him for Ohrmazd.
28. This, too, that for him who thinks of the care of cattle there arises that wisdom  which the control (patih) of cattle gives; even for this reason, because the nature of the wisdom for a production of cattle is provided in mankind, and, when mankind apply their thoughts to seeking that wisdom, they obtain it. 29. This, too, that by him who is admitting the male to cattle at the proper time, the care of cattle is also thought of; even for this reason, because the admittance of the male becomes productiveness, and whoever  would cause productiveness thinks also of nourishment.
30. This, too, that by him who has prepared himself for the priests the way to yonder  world is taught; even for this reason, because the way to yonder world is declared by the religion, and its indicator is the priest; therefore, by him who is prepared for the priests, through discipleship, that way is known and is made known. 31. This, too, that in him who shall do that which is something that is an assistance to the renovation of the universe, thoughts of the bounty (dahih) of the creator arise; even for this reason, because creativeness is through thinking of the renovation, thinking of the renovation arises through the renovation, the renovation arises through anything which is done that is an assistance of the renovation, the doing of anything that is an assistance of the renovation is through thinking of sagacity, and thinking of sagacity becomes thoughts of the bounty of the creator.
32. This, too, that by him who loves the affairs of the archangels a heart and mind , for not being misled from the way of the sacred beings, are recommended to mankind; even for this reason, because from the religion of the sacred beings being loved arises increasing power of the sacred beings, from the increasing power of the sacred beings arises their greater authority among mankind, and from the greater authority of the sacred beings among mankind arises the resistance of heart and mind of mankind, even in their not being misled by the very demons. 33. This, too, that whoever shall act with reverence to Vohuman sees the sin which is concealed in him mingled with good works thereby ; even for this reason, because reverence for Vohuman becomes submission (herih) in virtuousness, with virtuous submission are connected freedom from Kikship and from Karbship , and with freedom from Kikship and from Karbship is connected one sound of life and eye, whereby he is an observant decider, and atonement for sin arises from good works.
34. This, too, that by him who shall provide liberality for the liberal, the giving of a loan  to mankind is also taught; even for this reason, because liberal giving by anyone is accounting for his own debt, and he endeavors to repay it fully observantly and with complete gratification; besides that, the power of liberality becomes extendible among mankind, and through loans and other gifts  of generosity (dahishnikih) they become ardent. 35. This, too, that by him who pays homage (franamedo) to the affairs of Ohrmazd, as much as he is able, the non-injury of the innocent is also taught; even for this reason, because to intervene further (frovaftano) with the affairs of Ohrmazd, as much as possible, is first to commit no sin and to perform as many good works as possible, and abstaining from the essentials of sin is non-injury of the innocent. 36. This, too, that by him who possesses a ruler and high-priest Ohrmazd is spiritually made ruler over his person ; even for this reason, because, through the requirement of Ohrmazd, the angels are lord and master of the worldly existence of that man.
37. This, too, that whoever decides duty and opinion becomes also an informer of others; even for this reason, because it informs others that he is possessing wisdom, and this is what is said, that 'the wisdom of a man is evident from his deciding as to affairs.' 38. This, too, that whoever shall provide nurture with propriety becomes also an indicator (dakhshakinidar)  for others; even for this reason, because the happiness of the nurturer becomes also a happy indicator even for thee; and this, too, is what one says, that 'always good, happy, and free from serfs  is he who is not a master of vagabonds (pado-i puan).'
39. This, too, that by him who is a ruler who, by a command given, appoints him who is liturgical (mansarik), and gives anything to him which it is desirable to give, the necessary demeanor for true and virtuous statements  is taught; even for this reason, because the uttering of true and virtuous statements, in fearlessness  of rulers, is owing to a well established sovereignty, and their well-established sovereignty is more particularly through these two things, good commanding and helpfulness; when they establish that liturgical one by a command given it is good commanding, and when they give anything to him which it is desirable to give the helpfulness is provided; also, owing to their good commanding, the helpfulness is a good establishment of the sovereignty, owing to a well established sovereignty there is fearlessness also in uttering true and virtuous statements, and, owing to freedom from concealment in uttering true and virtuous statements, the necessary demeanor for true and virtuous statements arises. 40. This, too, that he who gives personal service unto the king of kings, and who considers the product (bar) as the property of Ohrmazd, is empowered for indicating the acquitted and convicted  by the spirits, his indicators of the acquitted and convicted; even for this reason, because the person being given in service to the king of kings is the preparation (nivarishno) of subjection, and the product being considered as the property of Ohrmazd is to consider the innocence of its origin (bun) and to make the product well-selecting (hu-chinako) through virtuousness; owing to the progress of these two, the virtuousness in the world becomes great and increasing productiveness for all the good spiritual and worldly existences which are in it, even those who are angels indicating the acquitted and convicted.
41. This, too, that by him who becomes immortal progress  for him who is immortally progressive, complete progress  is given to him who is completely progressive; and its routine (dadistan), too, is even this, that by him who wishes  to make that which is his own soul immortal, and would afford it assistance, every benefit is given to him who is a supplicant for every benefit and becomes a giver of every benefit which he begs, which becomes an assistance to him whom he asks in attaining thereto. 42. This, too, that whoever gratifies that which is enjoyment renders his soul immortal; even for this reason, because the soul subsists through good works, and good works are all those which gratify enjoyment. 43. This, too, that whoever keeps himself always in good works  has produced perfection and happiness by any goodness and worthiness of his; even for this reason, because keeping oneself always in good works becomes perfect diligence in industry, within perfect diligence in industry is also comprised opposition to any harm whatever, and it is opposite to harm and perfect goodness that are worthy of every happiness.
44. This, too, that by him who possesses wealth as high-priest of the priests, predominance as their high-priest is maintained  and taught; even for this reason, because the provision of sovereignty and its progress are really through wealth. 45. This, too, that by him who would act for the pleasure of others, owing to virtue, the growth and increase owing to Vohuman  are produced; even for this reason, because that which has given virtuous pleasure is the nourishment of the creatures by the producer of increase and growth.
46. This, too, that by him who welcomes Ohrmazd in himself , and teaches good works to mankind, every virtuous instruction is taught; even for this reason, because the welcoming of Ohrmazd in oneself is the non-committal of sin, and the teaching of good works to mankind is more particularly the performance of good works oneself; innocence and the practicing of good works are the end of every instruction, and he in whom they exist becomes a teacher of every goodness. 47. This, too, that by him who shall occasion benefit through him who is a propagator of good works, the evidence of him who is well-informed  is taught through one well-informed; even for this reason, because the chief evidence as to sagacity is to occasion benefit for the good. 48. This, too, that by him who gives commands as to the affairs of Ohrmazd, Ohrmazd is made welcome in his person ; even for this reason, because the throne of Ohrmazd in the worldly existence is more particularly in a ruler of well-commanding person.
49. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.
1. See Chap. 8.1 n.
2. Assuming that mun, 'which,' stands for min.
3. See Pahl. Yas. 31.1 b.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 31.1 c.
5. Assuming that la, 'not,' stands for rai.
6. The passage in the Pahlavi commentary on this Nask, which is here described, must evidently have been written shortly after some great triumph of the priesthood over some heresy, probably either that of Mani, or that of Mazdak.
7. See Pahl. Yas. 31.2 b.
8. Ibid. 3 a.
9. Ibid. 3 b. The words in brackets translate a passage inserted in the MS. at the time the folios were patched, like that in Chap. 52.7, 8.
10. Assuming that yehevund, 'they are,' stands for yehabund.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 31.10 a.
12. Ibid. 10 b.
13. See Pahl. Yas. 31.11 b, and Bk. 8, Chap. 13.1.
14. See Pahl. Yas. 31.6 a.
15. Ibid. 6 b.
16. Ibid. 8 a.
17. Ibid. 8 b.
18. See Pahl. Yas. 31.8 c.
19. Ibid. 9 a, and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.
20. Ibid. 9 a.
21. Assuming that min,' from,' stands for mun.
22. See Pahl. Yas. 31.9 b.
23. Ibid. 12 b.
24. See Pahl. Yas. 31.13 c, where, after homanih, J2, Pt4, and Mf4 insert the following words: vinas den avo kirfako gumikhto yekavimunedo, madam aharayih ac sardar homanih.
25. Pahl. akikih va-akarapih; see Bk. 8, Chap. 35.13 n for the two idolatrous priestly tribes here alluded to. On its second occurrence the first word is corrupted into akas which closely resembles akigih in Pahlavi letters.
26. See Pahl. Yas. 31.14 b.
27. See Pahl. Yas. 31.16 a.
28. Ibid. 17 c.
29. Pahl. avaruno; but, as freedom from servants is not exactly an Oriental idea of happiness, the word may also he read analono, a possible variant of analano, 'unlamenting.'
30. See Pahl. Yas. 31.19 b.
31. See Pahl. Yas. 31.19 c.
32. Ibid. 21 a; amarg-rubishnih and hamak-rabishnih are Pahlavi translations of Av. Ameretat and Haurvatat, as may be seen in Ibid. 6 b.
33. Written yetibuned with mu above it as a partial correction into yezbemuned which is evidently the proper word.
34. See Pahl. Yas. 31.21 a.
35. Ibid. 21 b.
36. Ibid. 21 c.
1. The eighth fargard, Hvaetumaiti , is that by him who teaches wisdom to others the not being deceived by an apostate into confusing a righteous one (aharubo-barishih) is also taught ; even for this reason, because he who has taught is not deceived.
2. This, too, that by him who is as reverent unto Ohrmazd as a daughter unto a father, and who is also a gratifier of virtuous doers, Spandarmad  is made one of the archangels, and one is also made to love her; even for this reason, because through that Spandarmadic one being reverent unto Ohrmazd, and the gratification of the good by him, the archangels love and preserve her Spandarmadic nature (Spandarmadigih). 3. This, too, that he who is loving Vohuman is taught by his wisdom not to destroy (nasaninidano)  the religion of Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because wisdom maintains the religion in virtue, and others are taught about it.
4. This, too, that by him who gives himself in discipleship unto the priests, and who asks again that which he does not understand, learning (amuko) is taught; even for this reason, because the asking for knowledge again by him who has given himself in discipleship to a wise priest, increases knowledge; and the friends of knowledge, therefore, make him an example, and shall practice asking again, that which they do not understand, from the disciples of the priests.
5. This, too, that whoever is in accordance with Zartosht, through pure affection, becomes, in like manner, him who is giving strength to the will of the archangels and the commands of the good; even for this reason, because these two capabilities are of the special nature of Zartosht. 6. This, too, that through the discrimination of him who loves  Vohuman, Ohrmazd is gratified; even for this reason, because one loving Vohuman is loving wisdom and has taught wisdom, wisdom taught is discrimination, and the discriminator becomes a gratifier of Ohrmazd.
7. This, too, that whoever gives thought to the religion of Zartosht is taught wisdom; even for this reason, because all the wisdom of the good religion is taught to him by giving thought. 8. This, too, that whoever has kept wealth in the control  of Zartosht becomes taught, and is one who is reverent to the benefiters; even for this reason, because whoever is reverent to the supporters of religion keeps wealth in the control of the supporters of religion, and, when kept by him in their control, it is kept by him in that of Zartosht.
9. This, too, that his destiny is connected with himself who practices industry. 10. This, too, that his good works for arranging the creation become his own who has fully prepared his own person.
11. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.
1. See Chap. 9.1 n; it is here written khvamaito in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 32.1-4.
3. See Pahl. Yas. 32.2 c, and Bk. 8, Chap. 9.3.
4. Ibid. 4 c.
5. Ibid. 8 c. It is possible to read the verbal stem gosh, 'here,' instead of dosh (Av. zush); but this is hardly possible in § 2, and goshidano is not the usual Pahlavi for 'to hear.'
6. See Pahl. Yas. 32.9 b.
1. The ninth fargard, Yathaish , is that by him who praises Ohrmazd his work in the Gathic lore  is taught; even for this reason, because the reason of the praise even of Ohrmazd is for his works, and by him who extols any work the performance of that work is also taught; moreover the work of Ohrmazd, which is the Gathic lore, is pure goodness. 2. This, too, that by him who increases the propagators of good works priestly-controlled action (radik-kunishnih)  is taught; even for this reason, because the advancement of merit and the action of priestly chieftainship are the two maxims (vachako) of one who, when there is reason, exalts progressive merit when he increases the propagators of good works; and when progressive merit is exalted priestly-controlled action is praised and also taught.
3. This, too, that what is worthy, and what is coveted for every worthy man, is produced by him for whom the command of the liturgy is the reckoning for him who is habitually sagacious; and this statement also indicates the explanation of rulers and all who are needing those of the world for one combined effort, who, in the immature world, have to trust a command that is at one time sagacious. 4. This, too, that personal assistance is liberally given (radinido) to the creatures of the good beings by him whose deeds are an assistance of the renovation of the universe; and this statement, too, also indicates the great power of any good work whatever, because every good work, being an assistance of the renovation, becomes liberality to the immature (kham) creation.
5. This, too, that whoever teaches to a son reverence unto his father has also appropriated the reward for reverence unto the creator for teaching that person; even for this reason, because express reverence unto parents and service to them are connected with reverence unto the creator and service to him.
6. This, too, that whoever is personally progress for him who is his own  -- that is, for any one whatever among those who are needing him -- becomes the happiness of the. creator who is the maker of the original good creations; and this statement also indicates as to whom it is, when, through him whose decision is progress -- which arises through that which occurs when the decision is given that becomes for every one that which is needful for him -- there is happiness that is concentrated. 7. This, too, that by him who is causing benefit for him who is a cultivator cattle  are multiplied; even for this reason, because a gratifier of the performers of tillage is multiplying tillage, and cattle are the chief tillage of the world.
8. This, too, that the religion which is the way of righteousness is made his own  by him who is a good thinker about the religion of righteousness.; and this statement, too, also indicates the limit of reliance (astishno) upon the good religion; because whoever is not a good thinker about the good religion, even though he be a reciter of revelation, becomes really an apostate; whoever is a good thinker, but not about the good religion, become really an infidel; and whoever thinks truly becomes a good thinker about religious righteousness and the statements in the good religion. 9. And about three statements, the bringer forward for all mankind is your submission to the sacred beings; one is of the produce (bar), one of the origin (bun), and one of the body and life; that of the produce is the exertion from which there is produce, that of the origin is the advantage for which the origin is requisite, and that of the body and life is the thought of the proposer (rayinidar), which considered both as submission to the sacred beings. 10. This, too, that connected with the sitting-place of the sage is the excessiveness of the pleasure  for those causing pleasure, for the upper classes (avarigano) of Iran, and for the energy (patukih)  of the diligent.
11. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.
1. See Chap. 10.1 n; it is here written yatayish in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 33.1 a.
3. See Pahl. Yas. 33.1 b.
4. See Pahl. Yas. 33.3 a.
5. Ibid. 3 b, c.
6. Ibid. 5 c.
7. See Pahl. Yas. 33.13 a.
1. The tenth fargard, Ya-shyaothana , is that for him who is practicing good works  as much as it is possible for him to do, an efficacious reason for the renovation of the universe is afforded assistance; even for this reason, when every good work is an assistance to the renovation, then -- according to the declaration that whoever does much more good work is more assisting the renovation -- by him who is practicing good works as much as it is possible for him to do, an efficacious reason for the renovation is afforded assistance. 2. This, too, that the apostate , who is the seduction of mankind, is injured by him who devotes himself to Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because he is dislodged and is elucidated (adivagi-aito roshani-aito), and there arises a class of mankind who see the admission (parva-nakih) of the apostate into hell, and he is disabled when it is seen by them.
3. This, too, that by him who is eager  for knowledge, knowledge is grasped and taught; even for this reason, because knowledge is taught through that which is the instruction of every science and the original desire for it, and mankind shall extol his knowledge; it is also coveted by them for being taught, and they mount and grasp it. 4. This, too, that to slay  an apostate is taught by the good one who is united (hami-ait) with a good man; even for this reason, because the destruction (aosh) of Ahriman arises from the union of the good. 5. This, too, that by him who is a disturber (vishuftar) as to Vohuman the production of development through Vohumanic rule  is taught; sinners lawfully subjected to the bridge judgment (puhalinido) for Vohumanic disturbance, and the command for it by rulers and high-priests, being a preparation for the development of the world.
6. This, too, that a great ordinance  is taught by him whose ceremonial  is for Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because a comprehension of Ohrmazd and serving him are the foundation of joy (parkan bun), and the ownership and concentration (hangerdikih) of all good works are themselves the great ordinance of the faithful whose preparation is through the ownership, and their welcome is more particularly in the ceremonial; owing to the same reason, the original possession of the great ordinance of the ceremonial which is Ohrmazd's own, and of other good works -- even though relating to the ceremonial of Ohrmazd of every kind owing thereto -- is necessary for the manifestation of the great ordinance, and is incorporated (ham-tanu) with it when it becomes manifest as a great ordinance, or as more than a great ordinance; even then its extent (valishno) is over this joy. 7. This, too, that the performance (sakhtarih) of a ceremonial  of the needy is a gift to the worthy of the creation, and a gift to the worthy of the creation is the attraction (hakhtarih) of a ceremonial of the needy.
8. This, too, that the way of righteousness , also that through which that way is seen, and likewise the reward of those lonely-laboring (aevar'zikan) therein are taught by him whose deeds are an advantage to the sacred beings; even for this reason, because the advantage of the sacred beings is the advantage of the multitude, and the advantage of the multitude, which is itself the religion of the sacred beings that is a guide, is the way of righteousness and also that through which is the reward of those lonely-laboring. 9. This, too, that even the reward of a teacher of professionals, which is the profit of the profession, is liberally given and appropriated for the professionals taught; even for this reason, because the business of the sacred beings has profited by the instruction (amuko).
10. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.
1. See Chap. 11.1 n; it is here written ya-shaotno in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 34.1 a.
3. Ibid. 8 a.
4. see Pahl. Yas. 34.9 a.
5. Ibid. 10 c.
6. Ibid. 11 b.
7. Ibid. 12 a, b.
8. Ibid. 12 a.
9. See Pahl. Yas. 34.12 a.
10. Ibid. 12 c.
1. The eleventh fargard, the Yasna , is that the whole of the good works which are to accomplish, and those, too, which are accomplished , are appropriated by the righteous man who teaches virtue  to the righteous; even for this reason, of the good works which one accomplishes, and those, too, which are accomplished, there is all one store (anbar), from the work (var'zo) of the original good creation even to the renovation of the universe, and ever afresh the teaching of virtue by those who are righteous comes to the accumulation of the righteous and the accomplishment of that store, and they, too, are in possession of that store, in partnership with the other righteous. 2. This, too, that it is because he would do the best for his own , whose meditation of the liturgy is for those who are archangels, and who also maintains, for the assistance of the good, the strength which is his for the existences. 3. And this statement indicates the great participation of any one in that store, because when that store is really an accumulation of work on the way, for the partners in that store who have done more, and also those who have accomplished less, and remains, moreover, in the possession of them all, then, as to those accomplishing more of it, through the original possession of most of that work, and also through that which occurs when the accomplishers have attained to that plenty more particularly owing to their more labor, and likewise through the property. liberally, largely, and lordlily, of those accomplishing more, and the indigence, unafflictedly , scantily, and subordinately, of those accomplishing less, it is reasonable to speak of that store as in their possession, and of their superiority as greatly over those accomplishing less. 4. This too that his work is good work whose liberality is for the archangels; even for this reason, because through a little labor for the sacred beings, which is itself that liberality, he contributes duty and good works.
5. This, too, that it becomes best for him, in both existences , who teaches a wishing for living in diligence to mankind; even for this reason, because he is a preserver of them through the wishing for living, and his soul, through the diligence owing to him attains perfection, here from mankind and in yonder world from the sacred beings. 6. This, too that the ceremonial and obeisance of Ohrmazd  are performed by him who is in the way of like thinking and like praising of the law of Ohrmazd with all the worshippers of Ohrmazd. 7. This, too, that he is in the leadership of his religion  who makes the knowledge of religion ever afresh; even for this reason, because every item of knowledge which he provides increases some greatness of it. 8. This, too, that he is in the service of his religion  who demands the knowledge of religion ever afresh; even for this reason, because so long as he demands more, he becomes nearer to a knowledge of religion.
9. This, too, that mankind's wishing for life is authorized (dastovarinido) by him who authorizes the production of anything for mankind; even for this reason, because authority (dastobarih) over the production of anything is conjoined with that which is for the wishing for life; so that whosever production of anything is authorizedly, their life is free from any discomfort; and whosever wishing for lire is authorizedly, his production of anything is also authorizedly. 10. This, too, that acceptance, hints, and words are given  to Ohrmazd by him who asks again, that which he does not understand of the religion, from him who does understand; even for this reason, because knowledge is completed through these three things: obtainment, hints, and speaking, and all three are asked again by him who does not understand. 11. This, too, that the words of Ohrmazd  are taught by him who teaches the acceptance, remembrance, and speaking of the religion; even for this reason, because this is the recital of that compendium (hangerdikih).
12. This, too, that the care  and reverence of fire are provided by him who is liberal to a fire as regards anything he supplies for the care and reverence which others shall provide for the fire, and he becomes equally rewarded for it 13. This, too, that by him who teaches the religion of Ohrmazd with joyfulness , the care and reverence of fire are provided as declared by the religion; even for this reason, because even that which is taught by him combines with the action due to that teaching. 14. This, too, that the obeisance  to those requiring obeisance is arranged by him who loves Vohuman. 15. This, too, that fire is strengthened -- for that work, achieved in the future existence, which is the greatest  that exists -- by him who invokes fire with the title of fire; even for this reason, because the title is put by him upon a nature that is laudable, and when invoked by him with that title the praised one is then strengthened by him.
16. This, too, that he becomes informed as to the religion of Ohrmazd , who teaches the religion of Ohrmazd with pleasure; even for this reason, because every knowledge is exercised and increased by teaching. 17. This, too, that Ohrmazd is propitiated by the excellent sagacity of him who teaches virtuous words and actions ; even for this reason, because sagacity has two parts, the speakable and the workable. 18. This, too, that the bodily form (kerpo) of Ohrmazd is praised as perfection (nevakotumih)  by him who elevates (balistinedo) his own soul  to the station of the sun ; even for this reason, because that bodily form of Ohrmazd exists, and becomes the loftiest and most perfect in the station of the sun.
19. This, too, that all excellence is purely produced for Ohrmazd by him who has root in the possession of Ohrmazd; even for this reason, because, when a root is given to him, fruit is also produced by him, and all excellence is both root and fruit . 20. This, too, that Ohrmazd is invoked with the title 'lord'  by him whom Ohrmazd calls; even for this reason, because the interpretation of 'Ohrmazd' is really with the words 'greatly wise lord' (mas danak khudai). 21. This, too, that the names of the sacred beings which are invoked  are the praise glorified by any one, and by him who glorifies them they are named; even for this reason, because the names of the sacred beings are the glorification due to their names of praise. 22. This, too, that among those of the same class (ham-goharan), when he shall do it for one race , benefit is produced by him for other races within that class; among those of the same races (ham-tokhmakanan), when he shall produce benefit for one species, it is done by him also for other species within that race; and among the same species (ham saradako), when he shall produce benefit for one individual (kerpo), it is done by him for other individuals within that species.
23. This, too, that his personality (khudih) is the sacred beings' own , who maintains the rites  with the assistance of the righteous. 24. This, too, that his own is in the guardianship  of the sacred beings, whose vehemence is through Good Thought; even for this reason, because his bravery is for the law. 25. This, too, that life is given to mankind by him who shall do that which is able to remain good for them. 26. This, too, that the friendship of Ohrmazd is appropriated by him who has Ohrmazd as a guardian, and perpetual guardianship is appropriated by him who teaches to mankind that thing which becomes their perpetual guardianship in yonder world.
27. This, too; that he causes righteousness  who thinks of anything which is virtuous. 28. This, too, that he has caused the good commands and propitiousness  of Ohrmazd, who gives his body and life  to the sacred beings; and body and life are given to the sacred beings by him who affords friendship to the religion of Zartosht. 29. And this, too, that to him who affords friendship to Ohrmazd it occurs owing to the guardianship of Ohrmazd; and that guardianship is perpetually  connected with him who teaches to others that thing which always constitutes their companionship with the sacred beings.
30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.
1. See Chap. 12.1 n; it is here written yasto in Pahlavi.
2. See Pahl. Yas. 35.5.
3. Ibid. 4.
4. Ibid. 6.
5. Pahl. abeshiha, but it should perhaps be aveshiha, 'unabundantly.'
6. See Pahl. Yas. 35.9.
7. Ibid. 19.
8. Ibid. 22.
9. See Pahl. Yas. 35.25.
10. Ibid. 27.
11. See Pahl. Yas. 36.1. This section implies that the attendant who feeds a fire with fuel supplied by others, obtains an equal share of merit with them.
12. Ibid. 4, 5.
13. See Pahl. Yas. 36.5.
14. Ibid. 6.
15. Ibid. 7.
16. Ibid. 11.
17. Ibid. 14.
18. Ibid. 15.
19. Ibid. 16; the highest grade of heaven below the supreme heaven, which latter is called Garothman (see Sls. 6.3 n).
20. See Pahl. Yas. 37.2 (= 5.2).
21. Ibid. 6.
22. See Pahl. Yas. 38.10-12.
23. Ibid. 13-15.
24. See Pahl. Yas. 39.13.
25. Assuming that atan stands for ayinan, as mun atan is ungrammatical.
26. See Pahl. Yas. 39.15.
27. See Pahl. Yas. 40.7.
28. See Pahl. Yas. 41.6.
29. Ibid. 7.
30. Ibid. 17.
Go to [Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives
| Denkard, Book 9: Contents