Details of Nasks 1-3 (The Original Gathic Texts)

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, Oxford University Press, 1897.

Introduction (1)

1. Satisfaction (shnokhar) to the creator Ohrmazd, and obeisance to the Mazda-worshipping religion.

2. The ninth book (baba) is about the Has and Fargards of the various Nasks; the object of procuring the division of those portions which exist being owing to the quantity of what is in each one of the Nasks; also an explanation of a suitable selection therefrom, such as is an epitome (nisangag-1) of the abundant detail therein.

Nask 1: Sudgar (gathic/religious)

fargard 1. Use of various repetitions of the Ahunwar, and the division of the Nasks according to its lines (2)

1. Glorification for the Mazda-worshipping religion which is the ordinance of Ohrmazd opposed to the demons.

2. Of the Sudgar there are twenty-two fargards. and the first fargard is the Yatha-ahu-vairyo, just as the Yatha-ahu-vairyo formula is as it were the beginning (bunih) of the religion, and from it is the formation of the Nasks which, though about the first six sciences (danishno), have also demonstrated the existence of the highest of other sciences in its own place.

3. And here it speaks about the power and success owing to uttering the Yatha-ahu-vairyo formula at the beginning of actions. 4. One utterance when one wishes to say anything to any one; one when he wishes to beg of any one; and one when he goes to work. 5. Two when he wishes to confer his blessing. 6. Four when it is for the homage of the chiefs of creation (rado franamishnih), or the ceremony of a season-festival [Gahambar]. 7. Five when it is for carrying off the fiend. 8. Six when it is for power; and six when it is for the success of a battle. 9. Seven when it is for the ceremonial of the archangels, or when one wishes to perform the ceremonial of the archangels. 10. Eight when it is for the ceremonial of a guardian spirit of the righteous. 11. Nine when one wishes to cast seed; into his land. 12. Ten when one wishes to allow procreation. 13. Eleven when one goes to ask for a wife. 14. Twelve when one expects to go up on a mountain. 15. Thirteen when one wishes to go to an inhabited district (rudastik-1); twelve when he goes out pathless; and one when he wishes to proceed by a ford through the water.

16. About the place where one has to utter the first Yatha-ahu-vairyo for smiting the demons. 17. About the good results (dahishnan) of a suitable recital of the words of the Ahunwar, the summary of everything for Zartosht to utter. 18. And about the fact that, through chanting forth every single word of the Ahunwar with a virtuous intention, a demon is disabled, and there is protection of person and property from the adversary.

19. About the division of the twenty-one Nasks, likewise, according to the first, second, and third lines (gas) of the Ahunwar. 20. About the increase of the creatures owing to the liberal thought, word, and deed of a righteous person; owing to the priests having become numerous, and the reverence of him who is making them numerous, and owing to the perpetual meditation of righteousness and the existence of its recompense.

21. Righteousness is perfect excellence.

fargard 2. The Ashem Vohu (3)

1. The second fargard, Ashem-vohu, is about the praise of righteousness which is the reward of the religion, and the want of praise at the bridge of judgment owing to enmity (patyanih) to righteousness.

2. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence.

fargard 3. Formation, decline, and death of human beings; illiberal opulence (4)

1. The third fargard, Yenghe-hatam, is about the formation of mankind by slow increase, and, when they live on for fifty years, their slowly becoming dust; the coming of death even to him who is very pleasantly living, as regards mankind, at the climax (barino) of his life; and the happiness of the worldly existence is given only to the worthy, on account of their love of righteousness; the rest are passed by. 2. And also this, that he who is produced by the demons, or is proceeding to the demons, or has committed falsehood, is the opulent person who gives nothing to a worthy supplicant.

3. Righteousness is perfect excellence.

fargard 4. Utilizers and misusers of life, defects of Zohak; the vices driven away by Yim [Jamshed], what is to be avoided, the distresser and the distressed, and the mode of relieving the latter (5)

1. The fourth fargard, Yanim-mano [= the first 2 words of the introduction to the first Gatha], is about where a gradual development (der-zahishnih) of that which is for the future existence is best; and, secondly, that which occurs now when the wisdom, instructed eloquence, diligence, and energetic effort, which are the utilizers of life, are with one, and these five misusers of it -- greediness, want of energy, indolence, defilement, and illicit intercourse -- are not with one. 2. This, too, that these five defects existed in Dahak [Zohak], and owing to that, moreover, Faridoon is irritated with him, and smites him in revenge for Yim [Jamshed].

3. About the heinousness of these four vices, which are drunkenness, knavish companionship, apostasy, and selfishness, and the grievous results therefrom. 4. And this, too, that Yim [Jamshed] drove away these four vices from the world, and then was able to prepare immortality. 5. About avoidance of him who, through any statement, is producing a thief as an orator (akhun), and of acquiescence with a hasty unoratorical statement of a companion. 6. And this, too, that he who propagates very evil commands in the world gives stout-heartedness to the fiend.

7. About the clamor of a poor distressed one for a perfect remedy, and the repelling derangement (lakhvar-pafshirishnih), unacceptableness, unblessedness, and want of Gatha lore of the distresser arisen from the clamor of the distressed one. 8. About the connection of satisfying distress on true and reasonable complaint, and the reasonable complaining of true complainers, by him who has been an inferior judge, and gradually up to the highest adjudicator who is Ohrmazd.

9. The excellence of righteousness is perfect.

fargard 5. Forgetfulness of kinsfolk and unforgetfulness of the Gathic spirit, complaint and power of that spirit (6)

1. The fifth fargard, Khshmaibya, is about the forgetfulness of a father for a son, a son for a father, a brother for a brother, a friend for a friend, a husband (manpato) for a wife (narik), and a wife for a husband in a measurable time, through excess and festivity (khang); and the unforgetfulness of the spirit of the Gathas for so many reciters and chanters of the Gathas. 2. About the complaint of the spirit of the Gathas when a high-priest, although priest of the country-folk (dehigano), passes away in an out-district, and the body of that man does not come back to his own land; whatever is relating to that, and, besides that, what is to be born in that land, and the oppressiveness of apostates which arises. 3. About the superior power of the spirit of the Gathas, and also that of liberality, in preserving the soul from hell.

4. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

fargard 6. The five excellences, distribution and acquirement of fortune, grief of an old man, things to be amassed in youth, storeholders of excellence, how one should drink and eat (7)

1. The sixth fargard, Ad-ta-vakhshya, is about the perfection of the five excellences: the first through righteousness, the second through virtuous offspring, the third through land producing vegetation, the fourth through flocks of sheep, and the fifth through training in industry. 2. About the distribution of fortune to the diligent; and of destitution to the indolent. 3. About the acquirement of fortune singly sitting, two-fold even walking, three-fold hastening, four-fold even running, five-fold even carrying on a horse, six-fold even driving on a road, seven-fold by understanding legal proceedings, eight-fold by good protection even of wealth, nine-fold by intelligence and diligence in the cultivation of land, and ten-fold by providing the teaching of the bounteous texts [the liturgy = mansar-spend].

4. About the grievous sorrow of an aged man, owing to the indolence of any one in youth. 5. About the four things through which, when a man has amassed them in his youth, he becomes very pleased in old age: first, virtuous learning; second, productive wealth; third, a good wife; and fourth, a prosperous dwelling. 6. About the five store-holders of perfect excellence: industry, diligence, contentment, guileless understanding (nirikht-hushih), and provision of means.

7. About abstaining from sitting with drunkards. 8. And this, too, that he does not drink varieties of wine (mae-gunagano) with the approval of the sacred beings, who becomes a viciously-disposed assailant and annoyer of others, and a disturber (kepinidar) of duties, through drinking varieties of wine. 9. And this, too, that thou shouldst eat that which is your food where there is a suitable place. 10. And where it is eaten by thee it should be lightly, it should not be heavily, so that, when it is eaten by thee, a good work is performed, and there is abstinence from sin. 11. And, so that what thou eatest shall be immortally joyful to thee, where there are poor, provide them a share, and the poor will bless thee; and, as to a poor man who is righteous, the opinion is that his blessing is best.

12. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness.

fargard 7. The four periods in Zartosht's millennium (8)

1. The seventh fargard, Te-ve-urvata, is about the exhibition to Zartosht of the nature of the four periods in the millennium of Zartosht. 2. First, the golden, that in which Ohrmazd displayed the religion to Zartosht. 3. Second, the silver, that in which Vishtasp received the religion from Zartosht. 4. Third, the steel, the period within which the organizer of righteousness, Adarbad Mahraspandan, was born. 5. Fourth, the period mingled with iron is this, in which is much propagation of the authority of the apostate and other villains, as regards the destruction of the reign of religion, the weakening of every kind of goodness and virtue, and the disappearance of honor and wisdom from the countries of Iran. 6. In the same period is an account of the many perplexities and torments (zakhami-hastano) of the period for that desire of the life of the good which subsists in seemliness.

7. Perfect righteousness is excellence.

fargard 8. Abstinence from sins due to reverence for the arch-demons, meals, want of a priest, proper times for ceremonials (9)

1. The eighth fargard, Hvaetumaiti, is about the abstinence of mankind, for special propitiation, from being unreliant upon religion, on account of reverence for the evil spirit; that from the habit of being ungirdled [[i.e. without kusti]], on account of reverence for Andar [=Indra] and that for Shovar [Av. Sauru]; that from walking with one boot, on account of reverence for Taurvo [Av. Tauru] and Zaricho [Av. Zairicha]; that from being fully inquisitorial, on account of reverence for Akatash [Av. Akatasha]; and that from the habit of being without a serpent-scourge, on account of reverence for all the demons.

2. About the hungry intention (gushnako-minishnih) of him who eats and drinks chattering; the delight of the demons on that account; and advice as regards not speaking a word during eating and drinking. 3. As to the praise and gratification of the sacred beings before eating and drinking, and also on finishing; and the purity of the mouth owing to its praise of righteousness. 4. About him whose ownership of any good work, that they may perform, does not attain to the best existence, on account of not possessing a high-priest by habit.

5. About the period of the ceremonial of Srosh, the righteous, being mostly on the passing away of the first half of the night, and the announcement of him who is the celebrator (yashtar) is for his protection from the fiend spirit. 6. The period of the ceremonial of Rashn and Ashtad is mostly after that, in the jurisdiction (radih) of the Ushahin, and the announcement of him who is the celebrator is abundance of grain. 7. The period of the ceremonial of Mihr of the wide cattle-pastures, and of Rama Hvastra [West: 'the spirit of the pleasure of eating'], is mostly in the jurisdiction of the Havan, and the announcement of him who is the celebrator is a flock of sheep. 8. The period of the ceremonial of Ardwahisht, and also of the fire of Ohrmazd, is mostly in the jurisdiction of the Rapithwin, and the announcement of him who is the celebrator is an assemblage of righteousness. 9. The period of the ceremonial of the lofty lord of females, the descendant of waters [Ahura Berezant Apam Napat], and also of the water created by Ohrmazd is mostly in the jurisdiction of the Uzerin, and the announcement of him who is the celebrator is a troop of heroes (viran ramako). And the period of the ceremonial of the guardian spirits of the righteous [Arda Frawash], of the females with troops of heroes and years of pleasant dwelling, of the might which is well-formed and handsome, as well as victorious and created by Ohrmazd, and of the fighting which is in the ascendant, is mostly in the jurisdiction of the Aiwisruthrem, and the announcement of him who is the celebrator is the origin of all excellence, and the produce of all manifestation of righteousness.

11. Righteousness is perfect excellence.

fargard 9. Heinous sinfulness of sodomy (10)

1. The ninth fargard, Yathaish, is about the devilry, the blighted destiny, the complete pollution, the grievous stench, the heinous sinfulness, and the annoyance to all spiritual and worldly virtue of the sodomite. 2. The atonement for grievous sinfulness and the appropriation of great good works by him who is a molester, and the awful sinfulness of him who is a propitiator, of that sinner. 3. Of the seven one mentions as evil, who are accounted equal to the evil spirit in vileness -- such as Az-i Dahak [Zohak] in witchcraft, the serpent Srobar in violence, Vadak in producing evil progeny, Tur-i Bradar-vakhsh in destroying a righteous man, and an apostate in grievous sinfulness -- the permitter and performer of unnatural intercourse are unique in heinous sinfulness.

4. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness.

fargard 10. Complaint of fire against people who injure it; (§10) proper and improper fire, its wish to leave the world resisted, attention to it is the best worship, the righteous are to be pleased (11)

1. The tenth fargard, Ya-shyaothana, is about the complaint of the spirit of fires to Ohrmazd owing to seven descriptions of people. 2. First, owing to domestics considering it as contemptible and in an unresisting state (ajangih), molesting it immoderately, and making use of it with unwashed hands; also the damsel who has introduced fire into the sole of her foot, and the bursting of the blister (avilag); and a weapon brought out into its splendor. 3. Second, the complaint owing to the carriers of fire from that abode [where the provision of care for fire is as a law to them, to that abode] where the provision of care for fire is not as a law to them. 4. And there, owing to the arrival and preparation of the demons, it lay stupefied, like a powerful youth who is feverish and in a languid state; and its cure from that sickness (ayoyakih) was by bringing forward to it their pure sandalwood, or benzoin, or aloe-wood, or pomegranate, or whatever there was of the most odoriferous of plants. 5. Third, the complaint owing to the hussy [jeh] unto whom it happens, through menstruation, that the stench and filth owing to the menstruation is brought to it (the fire); and its sickness and stupefaction owing thereto are as written above. 6. Fourth, the complaint owing to the hussy who, dropping her knee on to the fire-stand, arranged her curls; the falling of damp and moisture from her head, with the hair and filth therefrom, into the fire; the consumption of it discontentedly, and the sickness and stupefaction owing thereto. 7. Fifth, the complaint owing to the father, or guardian, of a child for not keeping the child away from the fire; and the bodily refuse and other unlawfulness that come upon it from such children. 8. Sixth, the complaint owing to the adversity which the unpurified infidel (agdeno) may bring upon it, by blowing the breath of his mouth upon it in directing its use, and it becomes incalculable. 9. Seventh, the complaint -- which, one says, is more awful and more grievous -- owing to those who use it as an ordeal for a falsehood, and, when it is made evident thereby as to the acquitted and convicted, they become of a different opinion about it.

10. At the place of complaint that which is polluted is put forward together with that which is pure, and the increase of it (the fire) is through lawful and unlawful operation, its burning alone and increasing are such as when both would be as a necessity for it, and undesired and rapid burning and increasing are those which are polluted by burning and insatiably consuming; and in that which is an operation unlawfully -- the burning alone and increasing being [such as when] both would be as a necessity [for it] -- the increase is troubled.

11. This, too, he says: 'I am not of the world here, and from here I will extricate myself, from the earth up to the sky; I am also thy son, more to thee than any of the other creatures.' 12. And Ohrmazd spoke to him thus: 'So thou shouldst stand over the fire, in thy proper duty as [a spirit], carrying that club; [it is a substantial means, because I produce it, through which] thou turnest off [the whole bodily existence], some to the endless light, and some to the endless darkness.'

13. This, too, that he who shall provide care for fire has paid the greatest reverence unto Ohrmazd. 14. The propitiation of the righteous is the best thing, and their vexation is the worst; when pleased they favor one, and it is the law of the sacred beings that they promote; [when vexed they wound, and it is the demon that they restrict.

15. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.]

fargard 11. Petition of fire for removal to the sky or to Eranvej, the propitious fire Gushnasp; reward of the promoters of fire, and sin of its injurers; (§10) evil of maintaining fire by extortion, and of neglecting it; all good to be consecrated, opposition of the fiend to worship, three grades of ceremonial, sin of not reciting the Gathas, coming of the demon of death, disbelief of the wicked; (§20) mourning the dead prohibited, different desires of body and soul, self-injury of a liar, sin of employing or being an improper Zot, controllers of sin; (§30) wounders to be brought before four priests, promises not to be broken (12)

1. The eleventh fargard, the Yasna [Haptanghaiti], is about the assembly of the angels of the spiritual existences on account of the complaint of fire, and the complaint of fire in the assembly, with its statement of this, too: 'I am not of the world here, and from here I will extricate myself, from the earth up to the sky, and there I will shine on to the earth of seven regions, like the moon and sun and even the divinely-produced stars when they shine with their own light.' 2. The words of Ohrmazd about the just complaining of fire as regards the contamination of the creatures, the impossibility of keeping the fire undisturbed, and satisfying the fire concerning the creation of the creatures for the worldly existence, along with the disturbed condition of fire, too, owing to the impossibility of maintaining the uncreated state which, with the freedom from disturbance of fire also, was better; likewise proclaiming the care of it. 3. And the speech of the fire was thus: 'If there be not that one mode whereby I may thus shine, owing to those that have acted according to my request, thou art aware, O Ohrmazd! there are some among the creatures that I cannot grant so much to; therefore carry me away, O Ohrmazd! then give me away there! and be thou carrying me away into the midst of Eranvej [1]!'

4. The propitious [2] fire is from the creator Ohrmazd, and it is produced by him in a dwelling, without being handled (bara sudako) [3], by aid of bringing together [4]. 5. And so he spoke in words thus: 'Such is thine own growth, thou who art my fire! in every dwelling where thou comest, and in every village, every community, and every province; and as exalted as thou are the water and plants, and he, too, who is a guardian spirit of the righteous, when they shall bring forward holy-water for delivering up to thee [5]; and, when they shall bring forward to thee firewood which is dry, a person -- through the light which he observes -- has spoken of it thus: "This is the Gushnasp [6] fire."'

6. About so much reward of the hewer and inspector and kindler of the firewood -- when all three shall do it for the sake of affection -- as they are possessing righteousness. 7. About the character and reward of the washer (asnotar) and the producer of the purity and cleansing of that which the fire has dropped [7], of the introducer of the firewood and the washer upwards [8], of the stirrer of the fire and the carrier-away of the firewood, who are strictly directed; the lawful work done with a cooking-pot and such-like, and the sin of him who is a disturber of it. 8. About the destroyer of that which the fire has dropped, and the introducer of damp firewood into it. 9. About the blessing of fire for people by whom it is satisfied.

10. About advice as regards not bringing to the fire that which is due to theft, or the power of extortion, and the grievous bridge-judgment [9] of him who is bringing it; also the defilement (aludan) and hurting of the fire from that which occurs when he likewise consecrates his hoard (hanbarishno), owing to the corruption by the demons [10] thus arisen. 11. This, too, that it is owing to want of attention to fire when it is not at every menstrual excitement they produce, in a woman assisted by a propensity for a son (pus radih), that the progeny is a son. 12. And about the penalty for [11] the progress of other impropriety which occurs to fire; also about the person who has attained to the guardianship of fire and does not lawfully control it.

13. About an admonition to Zartosht as to consecrating to the sacred beings anything whatever which one eats, and not eating what is unconsecrated. 14. About the wish of' the evil spirit that no one shall be performing (vadidunan-ado) worship and obeisance to the sacred beings, and that the people shall possess no ruler and high-priest, so that no desire of theirs shall arise for any virtuousness. 15. About an admonition as to indispensably worshipping the sacred beings with the best ceremonial, that of a priest (asruko) without sin; or with an average one of a priest whose sin is not more than one Aredush [12] without a basis (a-bun); or with the lowest one, that of a priest whose sin is not more than one Khor [13] on a basis (pavan bun). 16. Whoever, in a village of Mazda-worshippers, has not chanted the sacred hymns after fifteen years of age, through sinfulness, is as a dog they have thrown provisions to, and it has occurred for a basis of the sin of unseasonable chattering [14]; also the inadmissibility of his soul by Mahraspand [15].

17. About the coming of Astwihad [16], at all to mortals whom death has reached [17], and also whom it has not 18. About the ideas of the wicked, that the best existence does not exist, that the production of the renovation of the universe does not occur, that there are no dead whom they raise up thereby, and it is not that change one attains. .19. This, too, that is false, for the same reason they observe, being wicked; because the best existence exists, there occurs a production of the renovation which is good, they raise up the dead thereby, and thus one attains that change.

20. About an admonition as to not making lamentation and weeping over those passed away; and, after the passing away of every righteous one of the religion to the spirits, one is not to augment the distress of the very spirit of life by making lamentation and weeping over the departed. 21. And this, too, that the guardian spirits of the righteous claim no lamentation and weeping after their own ceremonial and the blessing of righteous men. 22. This, too, that the body of every one is not of like will with the soul; food is the desire of the body, and also a store of wealth; righteous action is the desire of the soul, and also the gifts which they give away.

23. About an inquiry of the righteous Zartosht as to who it is who has banished (aparinido) all goodness and perfection from his own self, but thinks them not banished, and does not complain of that loss [18]. 24. And the reply of Ohrmazd, that it is he who is deceived [19] by his own tongue through the utterance of words, so that, through speaking falsely, he has become worthy of death. 25. This, too, that for him it is the weapon of the evil spirit; even so complete mindfulness is the reign of Spandarmad [20], and thus a liar is more a power for the religion a man, when a man, on account of dullness of thought, gives no reply, so that he may not speak falsely through dullness of thought.

26. This, too, that he worships the demons with thousand-fold holy-water, who establishes him who is not a member of the community [21] in the Zoti duty [22], sooner than him who is a wise Zoti. 27. And this, too, that thou shouldst fetch him who is a member of the community for the Zoti duty, not him who is not a member of the community, for thus thy advance is to the supreme heaven (Garothman). 28. Also this, that a bad Zoti is worse from the Zoti duty.

29. This, too, that that which is the earliest controller (ayukhtar) of sin is thought which is subdued [23], then forgiveness, then shame, and then listening; and afterwards, through the sinfulness of the fiend [24], one becomes a promise-breaker. 30. This, too, that they shall bring every man who is a wounder before the convocation composed of any priest who is a controller of recitation (srayishno ayukhtar), any priest who is of the district (adehik), any priest who is of an out-district (auzdehik), and any priest who is the man's own kinsman.

31. 'Thus say I unto thee, O Spitaman! let there no breach of promise; neither when the conversation, that they would make a support, was with the wicked, and there is no great judiciousness in it; nor when it was with those of thine own religion, the righteous, as to anything of great judiciousness; because both of them are promises, both with the wicked and the righteous [25].'

32. It is the excellence of righteousness that is perfect.


1. The primeval home of Mazda-worship, the abode of Yim, and the scene of Zartosht's first promulgation of the religion, the Airyanem vaeja of the Avesta (see Vd1.1,3 Vd2.21, Bd20.32, Bd32.3).

2. Pahl. afzunik; the spenishta ('most bounteous') fire of Y17.11, Y36.3. According to Pahl. Yas. 17.67 it 'stands in heaven before Ohrmazd in a spiritual state.'

3. Or it may mean 'being rubbed out,' that is,' by friction; but compare the use of the word sudakih in Dk8, Chap.37.19.

4. Referring probably to the establishment of a sacred fire by bringing together every possible variety of fire that can be obtained.

5. Merely as a formal offering, or for purifying the fire-stand, not for mingling with the fire itself.

6. One of the three original sacred fires, which is said to have been established, in the time of king Kay Khusraw, upon the Asnavand mountain in Atur-patakan, not far from Lake Chechast (see Bd17.7; Zs11.8-10).

7. B srakhto, K srakhto, both here and in #8; compare Av. srasc.

8. Pahl. fraz asnatar must mean one who washes in the mode defined by the Av. frasnaiti, as distinguished from upasnaiti, in Vd8.98, 99, Ep. II, 3.2; this mode is explained as lalaik, 'upwards,' and distinguished from the frodguno, 'downward mode,' in Ep. II, 4.2.

9. B inserts 'thus arisen through the demons,' the same phrase as concludes the section.

10. K has 'owing to a single word of the demons,' substituting aevak gobishno for ahukinishno.

11. Assuming that pa stands for pavan.

12. See Bk. 8, Chaps. 20.64, 31.39.

13. A sin twice as great as an Aredush (see Bk. 8, Chap. 31.39)

14. The sin of talking while eating, praying, or any other occasion when a prayer (vaj) has been taken inwardly, as a spell, and is not yet spoken out.

15. A personification of the liturgy, Av. mãthra spenta, 'the bounteous text.' [Holy Word]

16. Av. Asto-vidhotu, one of the demons of death (see Bd28.35; Dd37.44).

17. Those who have attained old age, the natural time of death.

18. B has 'and there is no complaint of the loss.'

19. K zivinido.

20. The female archangel who has special charge of the earth and virtuous women (see Sls. 15.20-24); she is a personification of Av. Av. Spenta Armaiti, 'bountiful devotion,' of which phrase the latter word is translated by Pahl. bundak-minishnih, 'complete mindfulness.' See also Bk 8, Chap. 9.3, and S.B.E., vol. xviii, pp.393, 396.

21. K adahm; B has kheshm, 'wrath,' here, but not so in § 27.

22. See Bk. 8, Chap. 7, 5, 9.

23. B has 'he who is a controller of sin is Vohuman, owing to thinking of the spirits, which is subdued.'

24. K has only through sinfulness.'

25. This admonition occurs repeatedly (see Chap. 20.5; Yt10.2; AV52.7)

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