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DENKARD, Book 7

Marvels of Zoroastrianism

Translated by E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1897.

This digital edition copyright © 1995 by Joseph H. Peterson. If you find texts in this archive useful, please do not copy except for private study ("fair use"). Comments in {} added by JHP, mainly to facilitate searches. Punctuation and spelling have also been normalized to conform with other texts in this series.

Contents

1. Descent of the glorious destiny
2. Parentage of Zartosht
3. His birth, childhood, and youth till his conference
4. His missions to the Karaps, and Vishtasp's conversion
5. Events in the last thirty-five years of his life
6. Further events till the death of Vishtasp
7. ... till end of Sasanian monarchy
8. ... till end of Zartosht's millennium
9. Ushedar's millennium
10. Ushedarmah's millennium
11. Soshyant and the renovation

CHAPTER 1. Descent of the glorious destiny

1. For the gratification of the creator Ohrmazd, even through the complete superiority of the Mazda-worshipping religion, adorned by omniscience, in the world.
2. The seventh book is about the marvellousness of the greatest reminder of the Mazda-worshipping religion, Zartosht of the Spitamas; also of the mindfulness of that illustrious one by Ohrmazd, and of his religion, arisen through the word of Ohrmazd, being blessed among those of the region of king Vishtasp; from the Exposition of the Good Religion.
3. But, before that, there is purposely written whatever was the progress of the character and effect of the good religion and its first acceptor in the spiritual and worldly existences; and, after that, the prophets, apostles, and upholders in the period as far as Zartosht, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, and their religion, which is this, due to the utterance and splendor with which they have been blessed with prophecy among mankind.
4. According to the Mazda-worshipping religion and the Exposition of the Good Religion, it is the nature of Ohrmazd's disposition and his knowledge as to the complete obtainment of the first creature, the archangel Vohuman, and the first progress spiritually among the archangels and the other sacred beings of the spiritual and worldly existences, and materially in Gayomard, the first man, through concurrent and complete acceptance from the creator Ohrmazd, and the needful atonement in his own period through meditation, and the smiting thereby of the fiend of that period and the opposition thereof, by thinking of the creator's teaching, that constitute the whole of that first utterance of the religion of Ohrmazd.
5. According to the declaration of the good religion about the production of existence, which is the praise of him who was the causer of existence and creator, the beneficent spirit, the first craving among mankind was this, that 'we be happy and be the creation of Ohrmazd;' and the last, as regards the preservation of a remedy for mankind, is this, that 'the best is this, that the formation of lives be perfect now, though rendered sickly by him; and the spiritual existences of mankind be so now, though the destroyer has come to the creatures.' 6. For human beings of the lineage of Gayomard this is the one thing good, when they shall perform their duty and good works; and one's work is to smite one's own opposing fiend; an instance presentable to any of the lineage, that it is important for every one of you to smite his own opposing fiend, is the freedom from molestation which occurs thereby, and the non-contamination of the creatures by the destroyer; and it is that effect which the creator of creation has produced for it.
7. And this, too, is declared by the good religion, that through a true-spoken statement Gayomard attained to the good spiritual lordship of the archangels (that is, he was fit for the supreme heaven).
8. And after Gayomard, at various periods until the ever-favoring Zartosht of the Spitamas, whose guardian spirit is reverenced; much also was his acquaintance with knowledge, and his work was the preservation of the mankind of that time in which he came into notice; moreover be became requisite for conference with the creator; and because of their superior carrying on of destiny, by command of the creator, it is declared in the good religion, that the combined titles of prophet (vakhshvar), acceptor, and promoter are enumerated of them.
9. As Gayomard passed away, it came to Mashye and Mashyane, the second of worldly beings who were the progeny of Gayomard the first; and it is declared, by the word of Ohrmazd, that he spoke to them, when they had been produced by him, thus: 'You are the men I produce, you are the parents of the parents of all embodied existence; and so do you men not worship the demons, for the possession of complete mindfulness is the best thing produced by me for you, so that you may fully observe duty and ordinances with complete mindfulness.' 10. And the bountifulness of Ohrmazd was extolled by them, and they went on with their own duty; they also performed the will of the creator, enjoyed the advantage of the many duties of the world, and practiced next-of-kin marriage for procreation, union, and the complete progress of the creations in the world, which are the best good works of mankind.
11. The creator showed them the sowing of corn, as declared in the words of Ohrmazd thus: 'This is thine, O Mashye! which is an ox; thine, too, is this corn; and thine those other appliances; henceforth thou shouldst know them well.'
12. This, too, is declared by the good religion, that Ohrmazd spoke to Hadish, one of the sacred beings thoroughly worthy through righteousness, thus: 'O Hadish, who art thoroughly worthy through righteousness! thou shouldst proceed to Mashye and Mashyane, thou shouldst procure thy corn and bread from Mashye and Mashyane, and shouldst bless theirs thus: "This corn comes up owing to you, and, as it came unto you from Ohrmazd and the archangels, may the corn extend from you unto your descendants without disturbance from the. demons;" and two Ahunwars are to be recited for the staying away of the demon and fiend.' 13. And Hadish, the thoroughly worthy through righteousness, went to Mashye and Mashyane, and he procured his corn and bread from Mashye and Mashyane, and it was given by them; he also blessed them thus: 'May this corn come up from you, as from the archangels! as it came unto you from Ohrmazd and the archangels, may it extend from you unto your descendants, without disturbance from the demons;' and two Ahunwars were recited by him, for the staying away of the demon and fiend.
14. And, owing to the explanation of the sacred beings, Mashye and Mashyane attained also to the manufacture of clothing, the tending of sheep, house-building, and primitive carpentry, the agriculture and husbandry of the ancients, and the memory of their original state; and these proceeded from them through their lineage, presenting an example and spreading in the world, to artificers among the plenitude of artificers.
15. And after that, the destiny to be carried on came to Samak, who was their son, and the descent of their collateral descendants was on to each region and each quarter of the world, to that extent which the creator chose for that region and quarter; and thereby there was a completion of the progress and spreading of mankind into the various regions and quarters.
16. At another time it came to Vaegered and Hooshang of the early law (pes-dad), for providing in the world the law of husbandry, or cultivation of the world, and of sovereignty or protection of the world. 17. And through their companionship and united force, given by religion, the sovereignty and cultivation of the world were prepared through progress and a succession of provisions of Ohrmazd's creatures, as well as the religion appointed by Ohrmazd. 18. And through that glory of destiny (gada) two-thirds of the demons of Mazano and the seven evil-instructed ones of Aeshm were destroyed by Hooshang.
19. After that it came to Takhmorup the well-armed, and through that glory the demon and evil mankind, the wizard and witch, were smitten by him; idolatry was also cast out by him, and he propagated in his time the reverence and service of the creator; the evil spirit, converted into the shape of a horse, was also carrying him for thirty winters.
20. And it came, at another time, for the conference with Ohrmazd, to Yim the splendid, the son of Vivangha; and owing to his accepting the four classes of the religion, which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, there are the four classes which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, and thereby the world was improved, extended, and developed; he also rendered even the creatures, in a measure, immortal, undecaying, hungerless, thirstless, plentiful, and fully-settled. 21. And in the good religion it is declared, by the word of the creator Ohrmazd to Yim, thus: 'Then do thou widen my world! (that is, make up its measure more), then do thou extend my world! (that is, make it up larger), and then thou shouldst accept from me the protection, nourishment, and chieftainship of the world; and do thou effect such watchfulness over it, that no one shall be able to occasion the wounding or injury of another.'
22. And this was accepted and done by Yim, as Ohrmazd commanded him; and through the same glory he widened the earth three-thirds larger than that which it was theretofore. 23. And, in that realm of his, the cattle and men of the realm were made immortal by him, and the other creations, water, vegetation, and the various foods, imperishable. 24. And this, too, is declared by the good religion, that the world was made by him like the supreme heaven in pleasantness; also the enclosure made by Yim, constructed by him according to all the commands of the creator, about guarding the creatures from perishing through the winter of Mahrkus, and likewise many other wonders are reported by the good religion.
25. And it came, at another time, by command of the creator, to Faridoon the Aspigan when he was in the pregnant womb, owing to the share of husbandry in the avocations of the religion, through allotment from the glory of Yim, and through its triumphant splendor. 26. And Faridoon, through that triumphant splendor, became a responder to Zohak from the pregnant womb, and that degraded fiend was averted and paralyzed by him; having come to nine years of age, he proceeded about his destruction, and through that victory Zohak was smitten by him, the creatures were saved and relieved thereby, those of Mazandar and Mada were smitten, their ravage and mischief were removed from the region of Khvaniras, and the region of Khvaniras was preserved for his three sons. 27. And owing to his husbandry, which in the third avocation of the religion, pestilence and disease were disturbed by the medical treatment even of pestilence itself, and he exhibited to mankind also many other wonders produced and useful occupation for the world.
28. And, in the lifetime of Faridoon, the same destiny came to Airik, son of Faridoon, owing to introduction by the creator, and was diffused in him, and he practiced humility; the life which is perfect is brought through a prayer from his father Faridoon, and that life came to him from the creator through the blessing of Faridoon.
29. And it came, through his mother, to a descendant of Faridoon and descendant of Airik; it proceeded with the angel Neryosang to Manuschihar, and its entire progress was in the lineage of Airik. 30. And it came to Manuschihar, the monarch of Iran, and through it many wonder-wrought actions were performed by him; he smote Salm and Tuj in revenge for Airik, he was a responder to the superfluities of foreign countries, he arranged the realm of Iran, improved and fertilized the land of Iran, and made the country of Iran victorious over foreigners.
31. At another time it came to Auzobo, son of Tumasp, a descendant of Manuschihar the monarch of Iran; and, through that destiny and glory combined, the new-born came to mature activity and the proportions of a man during childhood, through agriculture; he disclosed his lamenting mother to the countries of Iran, he marched on to the destruction of foreigners, to drive out and make them outcast from the land of Iran; he also defeated the village-terrifier of the country of Iran, the wizard who frightened his father and fellow-immortals, Frangrasiyak of Tur; and he developed and fertilized the country of Iran, and increased the many streams and cultivated lands in the country of Iran.
32. At another time it came to Keresaspo the Saman, owing to the share of warriorship which is the second avocation of the religion, through allotment from the glory of Yim; and, through it, the serpent Srobovar which was swallowing horses and swallowing men, the golden-heeled demon Gandarepo, and much other production of adversity by the demon and the fiend-the murderess of the creatures — were destroyed by him.
33. At another time it came to Kay Kobad, the progenitor of the Kayans; through it he arranged the realm of Iran, he united the sovereignty with himself in the Kayan race, and he thereby occasioned much splendor and actions of advantage to the creatures.
34. And it came to Patakhsrobo, son of Airyefshva, son of Taz, who was king of the Arabs, through the mindfulness of the archangel Ardwahisht, and his inquiry about it from its own tribe - for the demon of greediness (azo), with one similarly destined, had rushed for the destruction of him who was very gentle to that tribe - as he had a full inclination for the ascendancy of the portion whose guidance to the lofty priestly master was owing to the archangel Ardwahisht, just as the fish image of that other portion was for falling into the river; and it is declared that he came to the ceremonial of Zartosht.
35. At another time it came to Kay Arsh and his brothers, the descendants of Kobad; through it they have been all-experienced and powerful, heedful and performing wonders; and the eldest brother of them, Kay Us, seized upon the sovereignty of the seven regions, and became very illustrious and full of glory. 36. At the same time it came to Aoshnar who became fully sagacious (pur-zir), owing to the glory of Yim, when he was in his mother's womb, and many wonders were taught by him to his mother, through speaking from the mother's womb; also at his birth he vanquished the maleficent spirit by uttering answers to the questions of the deadly Frakih the demon-worshipper. 37. He also attained to the chancellorship (farmadarih) of Kay Us, and became administrator (rayinidar) in his realm of the seven regions; the frontier speech (vimand-gobisnih) was also explained and taught by him, and much other learning of advantage to mankind who are unaffected by the utterance of replies of a foreigner; he also advised the Iranian country with the best-instructed counsel.
38. And its coming to Kay Siyavakhsh the illustrious, through the wondrous-formed Kangdez being held by him for the retention of protection for the much splendor and suitable glory of the religion, from which the restoration of time, the rearrangement of the realm of Iran, and the reunion of power and triumph with the religion of Ohrmazd are manifest.
39. It came to Kay Khosraw, son of Siyavakhsh, and through it he smote and vanquished Frangrasiyak of Tur, the wizard, and his fellow-miscreation Kersevazd of those of Vakgir, and many other very evil devastators of the world; he also joined in the destruction of that idol-temple which was on the shore of Lake Chechast, and demolished that fiendishness which was awful. 40. On account of the desirableness of means for the renovation of the universe, he is also on a throne (namiko), which is assuredly selected by that destiny, at a secret place where there is an immortal preserver for his body until the renovation, through the will of the creator.
41. And it came from him, after Zartosht of the Spitamas came to the conference of the creator Ohrmazd, and accepted from the omniscient creator Ohrmazd unmixed freedom from pollution, the comprehensive and also recited acquaintance with the knowledge and work of priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship, and the separate portions of the Mazda-worshipping revelation (deno) brought to king Kay Vishtasp by command of the creator, illuminated by the great splendor in that supreme sovereign of the sacred beings, and propagated by the learned of the region, in the regions which are seven, through the good eloquence which is owing to the succession of creatures until the renovation of the universe. 42. And through its production by those who will be his sons, Ushedar, Ushedarmah, and Soshyant, the renovation in the existence of the creatures of Ohrmazd is immortal; and a more remindful statement of its splendor, glory, and marvellousness is a statement that is written and found below.
43. And there have also been others before Zartosht, the prophet (vakhshvar) of desired fame in the Mazda-worshipping religion; for it is declared that, at times, some came from the spiritual beings to him who was more of a leader, and mankind have become as captivated by the solicitation and interrogation of that affair, as now by the solicitation and interrogation of the religion; the necessity for that period is not now necessary, because all mankind are made acquainted with the religion, and Zartosht of the Spitamas, whose guardian spirit is righteous, is to be reverenced.
44. Now, that which is declared in the world is written, about the splendor, glory, and marvellousness of the prophet of the Mazda-worshipping religion, the best of creations, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, Zartosht of the Spitamas; and ten chapters are published here, as to the information from the Avesta, and in benediction of the religion of Ohrmazd.
45. That of it which is before the birth of that glorious one from his mother in the present world.
46. That of it which is from the birth of that illustrious one onwards, till his coming to a conference with Ohrmazd.
47. That of it which is from the conference onwards, till his pre-eminence over prophecy in the world, and the acceptance of the religion by the exalted Kay Vishtasp.
48. That of it which is onwards from that, till the departure (vikhezo) of that pure soul to the existence which is best.
49. That of it which is also successively after that, in the reign of the obedient king Kay Vishtasp.
50. That of it which is after that, until the collapse (angavisno) of the Sovereignty of Iran.
51. That of it which is also after that, until the end of the millennium of Zartosht and the arrival of Ushedar.
52. That of it which is also after that, until the end of the millennium of Ushedar and the arrival of Ushedarmah.
53. That of it which is also after that, until the end of the millennium of Ushedarmah and the arrival of Soshyant.
54. And that of it from the arrival of the Triumphant Benefiter, until the wonder of the renovation and future existence; a statement of them each separately.


CHAPTER 2. Parentage of Zartosht.

1. About the marvellousness of the manifestations before the birth of that most auspicious of offsprings from his mother.
2. One marvel is this which is declared, that the creator passed on that glory of Zartosht through the material existences of the creatures to Zartosht; when the command arose from Ohrmazd, the coming of that glory from the spiritual existence to the worldly, and to the material substance (madiyato) of Zartosht, is manifested as a great wonder to the multitude (val kabedano).
3. Just as revelation mentions it thus: 'Thereupon, when Ohrmazd had produced the material (dahisno) of Zartosht, the glory then, in the presence of Ohrmazd, fled on towards the material of Zartosht, on to that germ; from that germ it fled on, on to the light which is endless; from the light which is endless it fled on, on to that of the sun; from that of the sun it fled on, on to the moon; from that moon it fled on, on to those stars; from those stars it fled on, on to the fire which was in the house of Zoish; and from that fire it fled on, on to the wife of Frahimrvana-zoish, when she brought forth that girl who became the mother of Zartosht.'
4. Of that splendor, escaped at the same time into the earth and into the sky, the father-in-law's ignorance is declared, so that it is said by those in the village of the more instructed and invoking Zoish, as to the self-combustion which burns the fire, that fuel is not necessary for its use. 5. Then they went on to the governor (kedo), and he explained to them concerning that same (that is, he spoke to them) thus: 'The full glory of embodied existence is the glory of life apart from the body, so that all diligence devoid of this is only movement.'
6. And it is declared that the demons, on account of their defeat by that glory in maintaining adversity for the girl, were bringing on to that district three armaments (heno), winter, the demon of pestilence, and oppressive enemies; and a suspicion was cast by them into the minds of those of the district, that this harm happened to the district owing to the witchcraft of this girl; so that those of the district quarreled dreadfully with the parents, as to the witchcraft of antagonism in the girl, and about putting her out from that district.
7. And the father of that girl spoke even these words to those of the district, with much reason, about the unjust assertion of witchcraft relative to the girl, that is: 'When this girl was brought forth among those of mine, her whole destiny (vakhsh) was afterwards set forth by that manifest radiance of fire, where it brought out radiance from all over her in the dark night. 8. When this girl sits in the interior of the house, wherein there is no fire, and in the chamber (sarai) of fire they increase its intensity (burzo), it is lighter there, where and when this girl sits, than there where they increase the intensity of the fire; one is dazzled by the radiance from her body, and that of a wizard would not have been so glorious.'
9. Even then, owing to the influence (sarinisno) of the demons, and the Kavig and Karap of the district, they did not become satisfied; so the father ordered the girl to go to Padiragtaraspo, the father of a family in the country (mata) of the Spitamas, in the district (rudastak) of Alak; and the girl obeyed the command of her father. 10. That disturbance which the demons caused, with evil intention, for the expatriation of that girl, the sacred beings assiduously made the reason for the coming of the girl for marriage to Pourushasp, the father of Zartosht through her father sending the girl to the dwelling of Padiragtaraspo, the father of Pourushasp.
11. One marvel is this which is declared, that when that girl, in going to that family, stood on the loftiest place in the country of the Spitamas, and it is surveyed by her, a great wonder is manifested to the girl, just as revelation mentions: 'It is their voice is carried away to her from them; "do thou proceed to that village which is theirs; it is very depressed in height and very wide in breadth, in which he who is living and the cattle mostly walk together; besides, for thy assistance that village is divinely fashioned and compassionate."' 12. Thereupon that damsel stopped, and also fully observed that their recital seems to be for the conveyance of this statement, that my action should be such as was ordered me by my father also. 13. Then that damsel thoroughly washed her hands, and proceeded from them to that village which was Padiragtaraspo's, and the glory came to Pourushasp, the son of Padiragtaraspo.
14. One marvel is this which is declared, that the creator Ohrmazd passed on the guardian spirit (farohar) of Zartosht, to the parents of Zartosht, through (le-kadon) Hom, by a marvel produced by cultivation. 15. Again, too, revelation says that, when the separation (burino) of the third millennium occurred, at the end of the ,000 years of spiritual existence without a destroyer, (after the creatures were in spiritual existence, and before the arrival of the fiend); then the archangels framed Zartosht together, and they seated the guardian spirit within, having a mouth, having a tongue, and the proclaimer of the celestial mansions.
16. Then the three millenniums of Zartosht were the number manifest to them through observation by the eye, and it seemed that he became just like an archangel through bodily contact with (hamkerpih) the archangels. 17. And when the separation of the third millennium occurred, after the framing of Zartosht together, and before the conveying of Zartosht down to the worldly state, at the end of the ,000 years of worldly existence with a destroyer, then Ohrmazd argued with Vohuman and Ardwahisht thus: 'Is his mother beheld by you, so that we may produce Zartosht?'
18. And Ardwahisht spoke in reply thus: 'Thou art aware even of that, O propitious one! about the Zartosht we shall produce, and thou and we have produced, thou knowest, O Ohrmazd! and to us who are the other archangels do thou announce the place, because its appearance thou knowest, thou propitious spirit Ohrmazd!'
19. Then Ohrmazd argued with Vohuman and the reminding by Ardawahisht, Shahrewar, Spandarmad, Hordad, and Amurdad, saying: 'The conveying of Zartosht down does not seem to be for me, because, having a mouth and having a tongue, he will be a proclaimer to the world of embodied beings. 20. If we convey Zartosht down on to the world of embodied beings, having a mouth and having a tongue, as a proclaimer of the celestial mansion, this is evident: they will say, concerning the origin of him who is my righteous man, that we frame him together with the water, with the land, with the plants, and with the animals. 21. Therefore we will carry off there, to the village of Pourushasp, him whom they will call Zartosht of good lineage of both natures, both of Neryosang who is of the archangels, and of Yim who is of mankind.'
22. Then the archangels framed together a stem of Hom the height of a man, excellent in color, and juicy where fresh; also to carry off the guardian spirit of Zartosht to that stem of theirs, the archangels made it go forth thither from that endless light, and gave it up there also to the instinctive intellect (asno vir). 23. Likewise their carrying off was manifest around, and a wall was openly displayed round them, but a restless one; the Hom was constantly provided with a mouth, where it was suitable, and sap constantly oozed from the Hom where it was moist.
24. And when thirty years of the ,000 years of well-disturbed worldly existence remained, Vohuman and Ardwahisht then associated their pre-eminence together, and turned off into the embodied existence; there they came up to where two birds had settled in quest of progeny, and seven years before the serpents devoured the inexperienced progeny. 25. For their own designs, Vohuman and Ardwahisht went on, and those birds consulted them thus: 'We have to offer homage, and our want is that Hom.'
26. The circumstances of those associated together in pre-eminence and the request of these for that Hom were a double marvel; Vohuman seized one of those birds by both legs, and the other by one; he also brought them that Hom, and gave it up to them there, on that tree within their nest. 27. And they uncovered above the serpents, that have gone up to the progeny of the birds; then that guardian spirit of Zartosht started up, and the serpents of the tree rushed also from them away towards the demons; but that guardian spirit of Zartosht smote them on the jaws, and the serpents fell down and expired, which events have also occurred among them till now, having been requisite as regards a depriver of life (gan-gir) and any one of that species. 28. And that Hom was connected with that tree; and on the summit of that tree, there where the nest of the birds was, it grew constantly fresh and golden-colored.
29. After the coming of her who bore Zartosht, to Pourushasp for marriage, Vohuman and Ardwahisht, thus associated together in their pre-eminence, came up there to Pourushasp in the cattle-pasture of the Spitamas, and their thoughts were confined to that Hom brought by them. 30. Then Pourushasp walked forth, with spiritual desire, up to the water of the Daiti, because the requirement of the spirits is the spiritual knowledge that spirits are ever-beneficial; and that Hom was also seen by him, when it had grown on that tree, on the inside of the nest. 31. Then Pourushasp thought thus: 'It is for me, really (madam-ik-am) to proceed and, even as there is no reaching by me up to that Hom, that tree must be cut down, for apart from that, O Hom of Ohrmazd! thou seemest fresh, so that the benefit of something from thee will be advantageous.'
32. Then Pourushasp walked on and washed their clothes acquiescently (patasig), and here a great wonder was manifest to Pourushasp. 33. About this it says that, all the while that Pourushasp washed their clothes, Vohuman then proceeded from the uppermost third of the tree unto the middle of it, whereon it was the desire of Pourushasp to be conveyed. 34. Then Pourushasp, having washed the clothes, walked up to it and, thereupon gathering up the whole of that Hom, all of it was then also appropriated by him through assistance like that of that archangel, just as what thou offerest for the food-sustenance of a friend's son of two years or three years of age; and it seemed to him that archangel's joyful payment.
35. Carrying off their Hom, Pourushasp spoke of it to his noble (mas) wife thus: 'So thou, O Dukdaub! shouldst keep their Hom in custody, all the while that their Hom fulfills duty and routine.'
36. One marvel is this which is declared, that the coming of the nature (gohar) of the body of Zartosht, through water and vegetation, to the bodies of his parents, is manifested as a great wonder of the creator to the multitude. 37. As revelation mentions it thus: 'Thereupon, when Ohrmazd had produced the material (dahisno) of Zartosht, the nature of his body then, in the presence of Ohrmazd, fled on towards the material of Zartosht.'
38. About Hordad and Amurdad bringing the cloud-water down in a compassionate manner ever anew, drop by drop, and completely warm, for the delight of sheep and men, and - with as much seed as the roving of two rampant bulls would thereby cast upon the plants which have grown, all of every species - they are casting it upon those other plants at that time, even upon the dry ones; and the nature of Zartosht came from that water to those plants.
39. One marvel is this which is declared, that, in order that the nature of Zartosht shall come unto his parents, after the mounting of the archangels Pourushasp drives six white cows, with yellow ears, up to those plants. 40. And here is manifested a great wonder, such as revelation mentions thus: Two of those cows, unimpregnated, had become full of milk, and the nature of Zartosht came from the plants to those cows, and is mingled with the cows' milk; it is owing thereto that Pourushasp drove those cows back. 41. And Pourushasp spoke to Dukdaub thus: 'O Dukdaub! in two of those cows, which are unimpregnated and have not calved, milk has appeared; do thou milk those cows, which are the splendor and glory of the cows and of any embodied existence whatever.' 42. And Dukdaub arose and, taking that pail of hers which had a four-fold capacity, she also milked from them the milk which was in them, and a great part of what they gave up to her she had to throw away; and the nature of Zartosht was in that milk.
43. One marvel is this which is manifested in the struggle of the adversary for concealing and spoiling that milk, just as revelation mentions thus: Thereupon, at that time, the demons formed themselves unto an assembly, and the demon of demons growled thus: 'You demons become quite unobservant: that food is really supplied fresh, so that the formation is settled which will extend as far as to that man who will be the righteous Zartosht; which of you will undertake his destruction, all the while that he exists for mankind, so as to make him more contemptibly impotent?' 44. Keshmak, astute in evil, growled thus: 'I will undertake his destruction.' 45. Astute in evil, he rushed away with thrice fifty of the demons who are Karaps of Keshmak; and that village was partly uprooted and partly destroyed by him, fellow-workers were ruined, an the number of fellow-eaters of broken victuals, attending the great, was not broken up, among whom was he that had repelled his authority.
46. It is declared that, afterwards, Pourushasp asked again for that Hom from Dukdaub, and he pounded it, and with that cows' milk, into which the nature of the body of Zartosht had come, he here mingled the guardian spirit of Zartosht, and the nature of the body came at once into union with it.
47. One marvel is this which is declared, that Pourushasp and Dukdaub drank up that Hom and milk, when they were mingled together and announced to Ohrmazd; and here occurred a combination of the glory, guardian spirit, and bodily nature of Zartosht into a manchild. 48. And a great wonder is manifested to both of them, through that which revelation mentions thus: Thereupon, both have embraced the first time with desire for a son, and the demons shouted out unto them, in the villainous speech of sinfulness, thus: 'Why shouldst thou act like this, vile Pourushasp?' whereupon they started up like people who are ashamed. 49. A second time they have embraced, and the demons shouted out unto them, in villainous speech; whereupon they started up like people who are ashamed. 50. A third time they have embraced thus, with desire for a son; and the demons shouted out unto them, in villainous speech; whereupon they started up like people who are ashamed. 51. And they spoke with one another about it, and continued at this duty, and accomplished it, saying: 'We will not so stop without accomplishing something, not even though both Rak and Nodar should arrive here together.' 52. Then that manchild who was the righteous Zartosht became complete, and here below there came together the nature of the body, the guardian spirit, and the glory of Zartosht in the womb of his mother.
53. One marvel is this which is declared, that, after the combination of Zartosht in the womb of his mother, the demons strove anew wonderfully to cause the death of Zartosht in his mother's womb, and she who bore him was rendered sickly by them through the sharpest of sharp and afflictive pain, until she wished to ask the wizard physicians for a desirable remedy. 54. And here is manifested a great wonder, just as revelation says: 'It is then a voice of theirs is carried away there to her from the higher region, from Ohrmazd and from the archangels, thus: "Thou damsel who goest! do not proceed thither, because anything of theirs is destruction through wizard medical treatment; for healthfulness wash thy hands thoroughly, and those hands shall take firewood, and upon it thou shalt offer meat for the sake of the infant, thou shalt offer up cows' butter to the fire for his sake; thou shalt likewise heat it at the fire for his sake, and shalt quaff (paimes) it off at the proper time for his sake, and thou wilt become well."' 55. Then at once that damsel washed her hands thoroughly, and she did just as she had heard, and became well.
56. One marvel is this which is manifested to the multitude when three days remained to his coming forth; in the manner of the sun, at the approach of its uprising, when its first advancing twilight is diffused, his body is then announced as revelation says: 'It is then when in those last three nights during which Zartosht was in the womb, where he still subsisted three days till afterwards born, that the village of Pourushasp became all luminous. 57. Then spoke the horse-owners and cattle-owners of the Spitamas, in running away, thus: "It is requisite to be forgiven; the village of Pourushasp, on which that fire is in every crevice, is disturbed by confusion." 58. Then, on running together again, they said: "It is not fully forgiven for the village of Pourushasp; fire is on it in every crevice and it is disturbed by confusion; unto him is born, at his house, a brilliant manchild."'
59. This, too, is one of the wonders, when the report of the marvellousness of the birth of that manchild and of his great glory, is due to statements of Yim and also others, brilliant in carrying on the destiny which had entered them from the sacred beings. 60. Wherein Yim spoke to the demons thus: 'Here below the pure and righteous Zartosht will be born, who will produce for you who are demons that absence of intercession which is prepared for you (that is, he will produce for you a thoroughly-harassed actual inactivity, an absence of intercession so that you are not able to pray on your own account, and no one prays for you).'
61. It is declared that the report about the birth of Zartosht, and concerning his prophesying, is explained (avazandi-hasto) only by the illustrious, such as Yim and Faridoon and many learned people; but the sacred beings are also heard through the tongues of the animals scattered in the world, in order that even that witness shall arise as regards his prophesying. 62. Just like that which is declared, that in the reign of Kay Us there was an ox, and a splendor had come to his body from the sacred beings; and whenever a dispute as to the frontier arose between Iran and Turan, that ox was brought, and the boundary between Iran and Turan was truly shown by him. 63. And because, when an Iranian had to seek a decision as to a Turanian in a dispute and lies occurred, the Turanians were constantly convicted through the showing of the boundary by the ox, and happened to be defeated by the Iranians - and, besides that, their envy also arose as to Kay Us, even of his ownership - therefore, on account of his possession of that wonder, the Turanians proceeded about the smiting and destruction of that ox, and, through their sorcery and witchcraft the mind of Kay Us was disturbed about that ox, and he went to a warrior, whose name was Srito, and ordered him to kill that ox; so that man came to smite the ox. 64. And here is manifested a wonder of importance by that ox, such as revelation mentions thus: 'To him spoke the ox, in grave words, thus: "Thou shouldst not murder me O Srito! thou seventh of those of this race; you will atone for this malice when Zartosht, the most desirous of righteousness among the existences, arrives and proclaims thy bad action in revelation; and the distress in thy soul becomes such as is declared by that passage where it says: 'As death occurs to him, that of Vadak and the like occurs.'"'
65. It is declared that that man, when this wonder was thus seen by him proceeding from the ox, did not kill it, but went back to Kay Us and told him what he had seen. 66. Kay Us then still, on account of the amazing deceitfulness of the demons and wizards ordered the same man to smite that ox; and that man proceeded also again to the ox, and though it was carrying on still much of that talk, he did not lend an ear to it, but killed it.
67. Regarding the sole-created ox, too, it is declared that, on meeting its destruction by the evil spirit, it bellowed thus: 'Though thou thinkest it as to us, O evil spirit, astute in evil! that thou art in every way a winner by destruction, it is not to our destruction thou art even then an attainer in every way (that is, it is not possible for thee so to annihilate that we shall not arise again); even now I proclaim that that man, Zartosht of the Spitamas, will arrive in that last revolution, who will produce distress for the demons, the assistants of the demon, and also the wicked who are bipeds.'
68. Likewise the marvellousness of Zartosht's defeat of the demons, owing to his glory and by means of his sagacity, even before he had come into the world by birth; when Frasiyav the wizard is amazingly distressed through seeking that glory of his by desire of the demons, just as revelation mentions thus: 'Thereupon Frasiyav, the very powerful Turanian, rushed away, O Zartosht of the Spitamas! to the wide-formed ocean a first, a second, and a third time; and he wished to obtain that glory which is specially for those of the countries of Iran, for the born and the unborn, and which is for the righteous one; but he did not attain to that glory.'
69. And this, too, is mentioned, that to all the seven regions the villain Frangrasiyak rushed away, and the glory of Zartosht was sought by him.
70. Here is an enumeration of the worthy lineage of Zartosht: - Zartosht was son of Pourushasp, son of Padiragtaraspo, of Urugadhasp*, of Haekadaspo*, of Kikhshnus*, of Paetrasp*, of Aregadharsn*, of Hardhar*, of Spitam, of Vaedist*, of Nayazem*, of Airik, of Durasrobo, of Manuschihar monarch of Iran, of Manus-khurnar, of Manus-khurnak whom Neroksang implanted in Vizak*, daughter of Airyak*, son of Thritak*, of Bitak*, of Frazusak*, of Zusak*, of Fraguzak*, of Guzak*, daughter of Airik, son of Faridoon monarch of Khvaniras, son of Pur-tora the Aspigan, of Nevak-tora the Aspigan, of Sog-tora the Aspigan, of Bor-tora the Aspigan, of Kardar-tora the Aspigan, of Siyah-tora the Aspigan, of Speto-tora the Aspigan, of Gefar-tora the Aspigan, of Ramak-tora the Aspigan, of Vano-fravisn the Aspigan, of Yim monarch of the seven regions, son of Vivangha, of Ayanghad*, of Ananghad*, son of Hooshang the Peshdadian monarch of the seven regions, son of Fravak, of Siyamak, of Mashye, of Gayomard the first man.


CHAPTER 3. His birth, childhood, and youth till his conference.

1.About the marvellousness which is manifested after the birth of that most auspicious of offsprings from his mother, till his coming to a conference with Ohrmazd.
2.One marvel is this which is declared, that on being born he laughed outright; the seven midwives (dayah), who sat around him, were quite frightened thereby; and those terrified ones spoke thus: 'What was this, on account of grandeur or contempt? when, like the worthy man whose pleasure is due to activity, the man's child so laughs at the birth owing to him.' 3. Pourushasp also spoke thus: 'Bring out this manchild to the sheepskin clothing which is soft; the affair was owing to thee, owing to the virtue of thee who art Dukdaub, that the advent of glory and coming of radiance to this manchild was openly seen when he laughed outright at his birth.'
4.One marvel is this which is declared, that Pourushasp afterwards went to a Karap, Durasrobo by name, who was the most renowned for witchcraft in that district, and informed him of the birth of Zartosht and the wonders which were manifested therein; he also brought him to the house for the purpose of seeing Zartosht. 5. That wizard, owing to the coming on of vexation at that glory in Zartosht, desired with evil intention a really mischievous deceit (shedo), to compress with his paws (gav) the tender head of that full-glorious child, to cause his death. 6. And here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, just as revelation mentions if thus: 'Thereupon the paws of that deadly one (mar) are driven back to behind him (that is, reversed (auskun) backwards); nor ever after did that deadly one become again a devourer of meat with his jaws by means of those paws.' 7. That Karap also, besides that, examined the marks and evil specks on Zartosht; and Pourushasp, in awful alarm as to the dispersion of the emanation of splendour (ap-dihih) from Zartosht, hastened (sarinid) to make Zartosht invisible.
8.One marvel is this which is declared, that the Karap Durasrobo, through witchcraft, cast such fear of Zartosht into the mind of Pourushasp, and so injured the mind of Pourushasp, that, owing only to that very fear as regards himself, he asked the Karap for the death of Zartosht. 9. Also about the mode of putting to death for which Pourushasp, owing to the distraction (vishopisno) by which he becomes helpless, asks Durasrobo; and that Karap is bringing much firewood together, and to shelter (nipayidano) Zartosht amid that firewood, to stir up a fire, and to make if blaze with the wood were the remedy he arranged (virasto); and Pourushasp acted accordingly. 10. And here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, just as revelation mentions it thus: 'Neither was fire among the vegetation on a tree (that is, it does not come on), nor has fire seized upon plants; but on rushed, at dawn, that son-loving mother, and she came forth to him intelligently (hushumond), and seizing him, thereby removed him with her right hand aloft as he sat.'
11.One marvel is this which is declared, that after Pourushasp spoke to the Karap Durasrobo about the fire not burning the child, he asked anew about putting Zartosht to death; then to ensconce (nipayidano) Zartosht in a narrow path, and despatch many oxen on that path, so that he may be trampled on by the feet of the oxen at night, were the remedy that Karap proposed (girayido) to Pourushasp; and Pourushasp acted accordingly. 12. Here also is manifested a wonder of grandeur to the multitude, just as revelation mentions: 'It was that ox walked on which had become sorrowful (that is, its sorrow was great owing to another ox) and it was aged and walked before that one (before the leading ox), it also hastened before that other (that is, it stood up before Zartosht), and he was greatly pitied by it for the whole day, so that it kept away the oxen from him, being the first that walked thither and the last that walked away; on rushed at dawn that son-loving mother, forth to him she came intelligently, and seizing him, thereby removed him with her right hand aloft as he sat.'
13.One marvel is this which is declared, that Pourushasp came a second time (idano) to that Karap also about the oxen not trampling on Zartosht, and asked anew about the mode of putting Zartosht to death; then to ensconce Zartosht near a drinking-pool (avkhur) in the domain (gehan) and to drive many horses to that drinking-pool, so that he may be trampled on by the hoofs of the horses, were the substituted remedy that Karap proposed; and Pourushasp acted accordingly. 14. And here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, just as revelation mentions thus: 'That horse walked on which had become fully-hoofed (that is, its hoofs were very thick); it is yellow-eared and it walks before that one (before the leading horse), and it hastens before that other (that is, it stood up before Zartosht), and was the first that walked on thither, and the last that walked away on rushed at dawn that son-loving mother, forth to him she came intelligently, and seizing him, thereby removed him with her right hand aloft as he sat.'
15.One marvel is this which is declared, that Pourushasp came again to that Karap, spoke also about the horses, too, not trampling on Zartosht, and asked anew as to what may be the mode of putting Zartosht to death; then to have Zartosht carried off into the den (surak) where a wolf's cubs (hunuskan) are slaughtered, so that when the wolf arrives and sees the slaughtered cubs, she will wrathfully growl and mangle Zartosht in revenge for those cubs, was the remedy that Karap proposed; and Pourushasp acted accordingly. 16. And here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, just as revelation mentions: 'It is when that wolf came on, several Yujyasts, towards Zartosht, the wolf was struck dumb by the assistance of the sacred beings, so that its mouth was down at the cubs, one with the other.'
17.One marvel is this which is declared, that Srosh the righteous and Vohuman proceeded to him, and a woolly (kurusak) sheep was brought by them unto him; the nurses (dayagan) also were terrified, apart from him, the whole night. 18. Then on rushed at dawn that son-loving mother, forwards from the position of that woolly sheep she walked, and she, the mistress of the domain (zan-i gehan), spoke thus: 'Thou runnest on violently (utayuto) in excess; 'for she considered in this way, that 'the wolf is so much better to that son than thou art good to me, when I shall show his bone or blood in thy sight.' 19. Forwards to him has she come intelligently and, seizing him, she thereby removed him, through the grace (dahisno) of the sacred beings, aloft as he sat; and she, the mistress of the domain, spoke thus: 'I shall not give thee up again my son, not even though both Rak and Nodar should arrive here together.'
20.And if is declared that, afterwards, the Karap Durasrobo, with a malicious disciple, came to the same district and noticed about the advancement of Zartosht; and they saw no means for injuring or putting him to death, but his condition (mindavam) was a marvel as full of vigour as this which is declared, that Bradrok-resh, the Karap, growled thus: - 21. 'Then I, who am the most far-seeing of the people in that district of ours as to witchcraft, see upon their district that well-directing (that is, he understands good commands) produce of development (that is, the increase which continually becomes more, which has come and which will arrive), with good flocks (that is, he understands to keep good sheep), with good herds (that is, he understands to keep a herd which is better than another's), the well-exerting (that is, he understands to do work which is better than another's), well-fighting (that is, he understands to do battle well), and perfectly liberal (that is, he understands to exercise beneficial liberality) bantling (hunusko) of Pourushasp, in the three nights while he was begotten out of his parents. 22. Unto him will Vohuman come in the embodied world (that is, Vohuman will come unto Zartosht), and conducting him unto a conference, his good religion will extend into the seven regions of the earth; and so I shall not even let him produce in his mind (that is, he will not know) where and how I shall murder him; and a token of this matter, that one speaks truly, is this, that I state it beforehand, promptly after the full hearing of the statement of the matter, when you heard this statement.'
23.Pourushasp advanced, conveyed in a four-in-hand chariot; then, on hearing that statement, and when they had heard that statement, Pourushasp started forth, conveyed in that four-in-hand chariot.
24.And Pourushasp spoke to Bradrok-resh, the Karap, thus: 'Bradroh-resh, thou Karap! whatever men they shall behold, cry out when at birth; even the offspring of that secluded person they behold in death, cry out when at birth; but what was that which they beheld at the birth of my son? 25. When at birth he laughed outright; was that also beheld in thy son, when at birth did he laugh outright?
26.When Vohuman comes unto him, into this embodied existence, it is also said by him on his return: "O Pourushasp! where is thy servant?" So, O Karap! concerning him who is my son, it is beheld that he was seen sagaciously by thee.'
27.And when Pourushasp enquired of him thus: 'What was the matter with thee when, through bringing thee unto that son of mine, he was thereby offered; and thou lookedst long up away from him in height, and thou lookedst long down away from him in depth, and thou lookedst long out away from him in different directions?' 28. The Turanian, Bradrok-resh the Karap, spoke in reply thus: 'When through bringing me unto that son was thy offering of him, and I looked long up away from him in height, then the radiance and glory out of him kept together up to the Sun, and through him I have accompanied them on the boundary of its radiance and glory; so that I saw this, that mankind through speaking to the soul may attain to the firmament of the sun; but this, namely, how the routine (dadistano) is in the supreme heaven, was not seen by me. 29. When through bringing me unto that son of thine was thy offering of him, and I looked long down in depth away from thy offering of him, then the radiance and glory out of him kept together unto the sky which is below this earth, and through him to the boundary of its radiance and glory; but this, namely, how the routine is in that sky, was not seen by me. 30. And when through bringing me unto that son of thine was thy offering of him, and I looked long out away from him in different directions, then the radiance and glory from him kept together for adorning this earth, and through him I have accompanied them on the boundary of its radiance and glory; so that I saw this that only from the action of this one the future existence will arise; but the routine of the future existence was not seen by me. 31. This son of thine thinks thus: "I will make a grander material existence than that of any other;" so he will also make thy spiritual one, where thou goest; and this son of thine will remain in the great protection of Vishtasp, not in thine.'
32.One marvel is this which is declared, that when Zartosht was seven years old, that Durasrobo being joined by Bradrok-resh the Karap at the village of Pourushasp, on account of the little previous seeing of Zartosht by the latter, they saw Zartosht in that neighbourhood when a hut (hadako) was constructed by him with the children; and they sat with evil intention to injure the mind of Zartosht through witchcraft, and for that reason fear and terror were cast by them upon the children. 33. Here a great wonder became manifest to them, owing to the powerful intellect, cautiousness, and practice of Zartosht, just as revelation mentions thus: 'When the other children were excessively terrified at their own silliness of speech, Zartosht did not quite close the eye in his mind as regards them.'
34.One marvel is this which is declared, that when these two Karaps came to the dwelling of Pourushasp he ordered the preparation of food for their eating; and his prepared food is chewed up (fraz khayai-ait), with a gobletful (pur dolako) of mare's milk. 35. He also spoke to Durasrobo thus: 'Thou art the most spirit-worshipping of mankind in our district; do thou worship this of mine.' 36. A great marvel, owing to the sagacity of Zartosht at a childish age, is just as revelation mentions that Zartosht spoke thus: 'I worship this, O father! it is not that which it is necessary for me to worship that he should worship.' 37. And Pourushasp spoke thus: 'It is not that of mine thou worshippest, and it is that of mine he should worship.' 38. As many as three times those persons (gabraan) carried on those assertions; when up stood Zartosht and spoke concerning them, and he broke forth with that eternal statement, namely: 'The righteous I reverence, men or women; the poor I reverence, men or women; not the wicked, men or women; when any one whatever shall join Pourushasp, where he shall be celebrating worship, the worship shall then be suitable to the worshippers, that is, he shall worship that which it is necessary to worship.'
39.One marvel is this which is declared, that afterwards Durasrobo the Karap shouted to Zartosht thus: 'Evil was thy reckoning which, owing to the conduct of fate (bahar), I, the foremost of the existences embodied in Rak and Nodar, bring to thee I am made further worthy where thy fate is carried away from me; now is the joy (parkan) which I convey to him through bringing it on, and this will occur, so that I may observe he will kill thee with the evil eye in the house.' 40. And here is a great wonder which became manifest about Zartosht, in the sagacity of his reply to that deadly one at that childish age, which was just like this which revelation mentions, that Zartosht spoke thus: 'Without the joy of a murderer I observe, with propitiousness and complete mindfulness, that it is thee I notice in that house which is thine.'
41.One marvel is that which, after this reply of Zartosht to Durasrobo, became manifest in that Karap, just as revelation mentions thus: 'The deadly one became disabled and stupefied as long as the milking of ten mares in milk whose milker is only one.'
42.One marvel is this which is declared, that when that wizard emerged from that stupefaction, he then shouted again to Zartosht in the same manner, Zartosht uttered that same reply, and the deadly one became anew disabled and stupefied as long as the milking of twenty mares full of milk whose milker is only one.
43.One marvel is this which is declared, that again when that wizard emerged from that stupefaction; he then shouted to Zartosht in the same manner, Zartosht uttered that same reply, and the deadly one becomes anew disabled and stupefied as long as the milking of thirty mares full of milk whose milker is only one.
44.One marvel is this which is declared, that when that wizard emerged from that stupefaction, he then grumbled thus: 'Do ye have the horse driven for us, and turn round the chariot wherein you harness it; for really this smiting one (ganak) will destroy me through the arrival of the sacred text and through his possession of authority.' So they had the horse driven, and it was harnessed to the chariot by them.
45.And here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, just as revelation mentions thus: 'When he had proceeded several Yujyasts in driving, he stopped in his distress through being terrified, and this occurred which I mention for a warning, his semen was expelled, so that it arose in his skin and burst it, and his loin thereby broke from his thigh; he then died outright, then his progeny, and then the offspring of this progeny.'
46.One marvel is this which is declared that, even before the coming of Zartosht to a conference, there is manifested in him a mind which is more capacious than the whole world, and more exalted than every worldly possession, with an understanding whose strength is perfectly selected, an intellect of all-acquiring power, and a sagacity of all-deciding ability; also with the much heedfulness of the kingly glory, and the full desire for righteousness, the efficacious diligence and authority, and even the superiority in mightiness and grandeur of the priestly glory. 47. Also the handsomeness of body and completeness of strength which are in the character of these four classes of his, which are priesthood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship; besides a perfect friendship for the sacred beings and the good, and an awful enmity for the demons and the vile. 48. That is the nature by which the habits (dadoih) of mankind and bipeds, the perfection and completeness of the sacred beings through the creativeness of Ohrmazd, and its own commemoration of them are provided. 49. So that the sacred beings shall bring a report, as to his superiority, from every one of those who are and were and will be, and of his coming for reminding us of Ohrmazd and of the lord-and-mastership (ahu-va-radih) of the world, also of the preservation of the creations therein (ayipo-dahisnan), from the destroyer, by the tongue of the many-mannered (kabed-saradaho) sage, the fully-virtuous one of the age producing no harm (avazand-dahig) in the world. 50. And the demons on this account, that this is he whom many Kigs and Karaps have to influence the good to confound and destroy, then also kept their promise and practiced friendship.
51.And on the completion of thirty years beyond his birth, the archangel Vohuman came on in commemoration of Ohrmazd, when he was bringing his Hom-water (maya-i Homigan) from the river Aevatak, just as this which revelation mentions thus: 'When Zartosht came forth to the third effluent (bara-tagisnih), that of the good Daiti he further proceeded through that; and when he marched onwards from that, a man was seen by him, who marched from the southern quarter. 52. That was Vohuman, and it seemed to him that Vohuman was of early form (so that he is more discerning as to a person) and foreseeing (that is, he was beforehand in everything); it seemed to him that Vohuman was as much in height as three men's spears; and it seemed to him, as to Vohuman that a glossy twig (arus tak) was brought by him in his hand, through carrying off which branch the plant was not injured by him; that became the spiritual twig of the religion, and this was indicated by it, that it is necessary to proceed as uninjuriously by the religion.
53.There is some one who says that it became a reminder of the spiritual existence, and this was indicated by it, that it is necessary to proceed as uninjuriously in the world, so that peace may exist with every one.
54.When he came onward to the fourth effluent, as far as the Aushan-rud of the good Daiti (which was the name of it) and he was in it, Zartosht was bringing the Hom-water from the middle of it; and on the ascent Zartosht, bringing his right foot out of the Aushan-rud, covered himself with his clothes, and upon that Vohuman, advancing, joined him in front.
55.And that man enquired of him thus: 'Who art thou; from whom of them art thou?' He replied: 'I am Zartosht of the Spitamas.'
56.The words of Vohuman were: 'O Zartosht of the Spitamas! about what is thy foremost distress (that is, for what is thy need when thou becomest quite distressed); about what is thy foremost endeavour; and for what is the tendency of thy desire (lak kamako-dahisnih)?' 57. The reply of Zartosht was thus: 'About righteousness, I consider my foremost distress; about righteousness my foremost endeavour; and for righteousness the tendency of my desire (that is, my need is for that thing, and I am a distressed seeker of righteousness).'
58.The words of Vohuman were: 'O Zartosht of the Spitamas! that which is righteousness is existing (that is, a real thing is, as it were, that which is righteousness), so that whatever is that which is righteousness is thus what is one's own.' 59. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'That which is righteousness exists, and concerning that I am completely clear and aware; but where and how is that radiance which is that whose arrival is through Vohuman,'
60.And Vohuman spoke to him thus: 'O Zartosht of the Spitamas! deposit this one garment1 which thou carriest, so that we may confer with him by whom thou art produced and by whom I am produced, who is the most propitious of spirits, who is the most beneficent of existences, and who is he that I, who am Vohuman, am testifying (that is I am a reminder of him). 1. M. Molé 1993: vessel.
61.Thereupon, Zartosht thought thus: 'Good is he who is the creator, who is better than this reminder.' 62. Then they proceeded in company, Vohuman and Zartosht; Vohuman first and Zartosht after.

CHAPTER 4. His missions to the Karaps, and Vishtasp's conversion

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested from the first conference onwards till the end of the seventh conference which occurred within the duration of ten years, also his pre-eminence in prophecy in the world, and the acceptance of the religion by the exalted Kay Vishtasp, as happened after the ten years of conference.
2. In the first two years, one marvel is this which is declared, that when he was back from the first conference, he then, by the first command of the lord and creator Ohrmazd, recited the unique formula (ayino) in an assemblage (ram) of Kigs and Karaps, the prophecy of his Mazda-worshipping religion and commemoration of Ohrmazd, as he chanted with a loud voice, and invited mankind to the religion of Ohrmazd. 3. Just as this passage of revelation mentions thus: 'Thereupon, the thorough inspection for this material existence of those with a sacred girdle [[kusti]], provided with dwellings and provided with cattle, was altogether arranged by Zartosht.'
4. And when their announcement (nivedisno) for speaking to be heard was issued, then Zartosht, on becoming exalted, called out unto the embodied world of righteousness to extol righteousness and to scorn the demons. 5. 'The homage of the Mazda-worship of Zartosht, and the ceremonial and obeisance for the archangels are the best for you I assert; and of deprecation (ayazisnih) for the demons next-of-kin marriage is really the best intimation, so that, from the information which is given as to the trustworthiness of a good work, the greatest are the most intimate of them, those of father and daughter, son and she who bore him, and brother and sister.'
6. It is declared that, upon those words, innumerable demon-worshipping Kigs and Karaps have rushed upon Zartosht and strove for his death, just like this which revelation states: - 'It is then a number (mar) have run away who have sat in the vicinity of Tur's progeny (hunusko), the arbitrator; and the shame of the brother of Tur arose, like that of a person whose shame was that they spoke of his next-of-kin marriage so that he might contract it.'
7. This Tur was Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver, who was like a great sovereign of that quarter; many troops and much power were also maintained by him, and the multitude (mar) told him they would seize the great one from him who is little.
8. But the progeny of Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver, spoke thus: 'Should we for that speech destroy him, this great one who mingles together those propitious words for us - where we are thus without doubt as to one thing therein, such as next-of-kin marriage, that it is not necessary to contract it - it would make us ever doubtful whether it might be necessary to contract it.'
9. And Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver, spoke thus: 'Thou shalt not destroy that man whom mine eyes have seen as the most loving-eyed of the whole embodied existence; he will attain strength, for it has not seemed to me, when thou destroyest him on this account, that wisdom has arisen for a long time; so that no rule (ahanko) of wisdom will arise, in this earth, which is so counseling (hangamanig) as this one is (that is, when they destroy a man who is counseling, wisdom will not arise for a long while).'
10. Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver to his own people, also spoke thus: 'For me thou art a pure man who is counseling.'
11. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'I shall not always be that quiet speaker, by whom that I have mentioned is the most propitious thing to be obtained; and of interfering speaking and managing the temper there is a next-of-kin marriage, and the high-priest who has contracted it is to perform the ceremonial.'
12. And here the good Spiritual lordship and mightiness of glory of Zartosht, those which are provided for commemoration of the supreme lord and creator Ohrmazd, are manifested as a great wonder to the multitude, and there is rendered visible the great pre-eminence which is in him as a prophet of the creatures, which for the baseness (nankih) of the deceitful Agash, the secret-moving and deceiving-natured, is the concealed control of a good disposition. 13. Then idleness, like even the habit of fear and nature of apostasy, is an attractor of every one of the multitude, when it extends to much length; little by little, too, that guide and combatant becomes a petitioner for greatness, and it is manifest through that compassion (tang-libbemaih) and superior mindfulness of his, and through the glory of that stout champion, there are much fame and treasure.
14. The nobles of Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the ruler of the land, were angry and clamored for Zartosht's death; but he invited the Kigs and Karaps to the religion of Ohrmazd, just as this passage of revelation states that Zartosht also spoke thus: 'Worldly righteousness, O Aurvaita-dang, thou Tur and scanty giver! is the whole of the worship of the demons and the termination of the Mazda-worship of Zartosht.' 15. And Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver spoke thus: 'O Zartosht of the Spitamas! thou shalt not attract me to this evil in which thou really art.'
16. Zartosht also spoke thus: 'Ohrmazd inquired of me thus: "O Zartosht! when thou hast come away to us, among the spiritual lords, who of the people in thy material existence was the protector of the powerful men who are warriors, that was most seeking benefit, most seeking cattle, most extensively associating, most fully-supplying (that is, he gives out most things), and most hospitable (that is, one saw the door of a prince's (khidivo) treasury)?" I replied to him thus: "Aurvaita-dang the Tur, the scanty giver."'
17. 'And he spoke in reply to me thus: " Him, O Zartosht! thou shalt attract, first of the men who are warriors, to thinking about, speaking about, and acting about this religion which is Ohrmazd's and Zartosht's. 18. If you attract him, O Zartosht! and he believes in it and also gives currency to this religion of thine, and sits before thee in discipleship, this that one calls discipleship of thine he shall undertake, and the religion he hears fully he shall propagate (rubak vabidunyen); he is also ever after, O Zartosht! the first of the men who are warriors, the one most seeking benefit, most seeking cattle, most extensively associating, and most hospitable of those who have yet been born and who will henceforth be born. 19. And if thou do not attract him, O Zartosht! and he does not believe in it, nor gives currency to this religion of thine, nor hears it, nor even sits before thee, nor would sit before thee, so that it obvious to me that he is not attracted, thou shalt speak unto him thus, O Zartosht: 'Thou art a stricken supplicant for righteousness, and a producer of lamentation for the souls of Tanapuhr sinners worthy of death;' for even so it is, and for this reason he becomes worthy of death, because the existence of the religion is known to him." 20. What I tell thee, O Aurvaita-dang, thou Tur and scanty giver! is that thou art a stricken supplicant for righteousness, a producer of lamentation for the souls of Tanapuhr sinners worthy of death.'
21. One prodigy of the demons is specified, who was the enemy of whatever sacred beings there are, a Karap, Vaedvoist by name, of those unsanctified (ayastan) by Ohrmazd. 22. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'I so befriend that man, O Zartosht! who is put forward by me over the creatures, whom thou shalt invite (khvanes), I who am Ohrmazd, because I am through righteousness opposed to harm (that is, through virtue I keep harm away from the creatures), and the archangels are opposed to harm.
23. Therefore do thou proceed, O Zartosht! and thou shalt demand from him for me (that is, keep as my property) a hundred youths of vigor (tosh tal), girls, and teams of four horses; so do thou speak to him thus: "O Vedvoist! Ohrmazd demands from thee a hundred youths of vigor, girls, and teams of four horses; if thou givest them to him, splendor and glory are thine through that giving; and if thou dost not give to him, evil destiny is thine through that not-giving."'
24. Then Zartosht walked on to that Vedvoist of those unsanctified, and spoke to him thus: 'O Vedvoist of the unsanctified! that which Ohrmazd demands from thee is a hundred youths of vigor, girls and teams of four horses; if thou givest them to him, splendor and glory are thine through that giving; and if thou dost not give to him, evil destiny is thine through that not-giving.' 25. And that Karap shouted in reply to Zartosht thus: 'For me there is no more from thee (that is, there is no opulence for me from thy action), nor from Ohrmazd; I am more of a divinity (bagtar) and am more forward in opulence than even Ohrmazd; many droves of a thousand swine are also acquired by me.'
26. On went Zartosht, up to Ohrmazd and up to the archangels, and Zartosht spoke thus: 'O Ohrmazd, propitious spirit, creator of the world of embodied beings, thou righteous one! thus spoke he in reply, to me: "For me there is no more from thee, nor from Ohrmazd; I am more of a divinity than thee or even Ohrmazd, and many droves of a thousand swine are acquired by me."'
27. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Owing to the splendor and glory of those which are ours, O Zartosht! that man has acquired arrogance (that is, the cattle we produced are the many cattle of his arrogance). 28. This will be his retribution for it then, however, when he does not reach further alive at the end of the third night; in that third night they will have stood aloof from alongside his life (that is, they will have stood away from assisting it); those seven of them who are radiant and bright-eyed (spedo doisar) make him rush up on high, and up there on high he shall be fed upon moldy bread (parnan).'
29. One marvel is the great healthfulness owing to the Hom-water and the bringing of this by Zartosht from the river Daiti, which is manifested when Vohuman was conveying him to the conference.
30. Just as is declared in the words of Ohrmazd to Zartosht thus: 'For them is the Hom-water which thou bringest, O Zartosht! not for those demon-worshipping people who worship the demons, or for a satisfier of courtesans (geh-vigar); they shall sprinkle it on to that bull thou shalt bring forward, who is a four-year-old of exhausted vigor, black-haired and useful; on drinking up the water, that bull will become quite sound from that infirmity.'
31. Thereupon, Zartosht went on first into the embodied existence, on which dwelt, at the end of Sagastan, that same Parshad whose title was Tora (the Bull). 32. Parshad-tora also spoke to him thus: 'O Zartosht of the Spitamas! give me this Hom-water which thou bringest' 33. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'Do thou praise righteousness, O Parshad-tora! and scorn the demons; also utter the profession of the Mazda-worship of Zartosht among the iniquitous.' 34. It was praised by Parshad-tora, and the demons were scorned by him; yet he did not speak among the iniquitous as to his accepting the Mazda-worship of Zartosht. 35. Forward to him came Zartosht at that praise of righteousness, for him was that Hom-water which Zartosht brought; not for those demon-worshipping people who have worshipped the demons, but for that bull of his which Zartosht brought forward, a four-year-old of exhausted vigor, black-haired and useful; owing to that bringing forward of the water, the bull became quite sound from that infirmity.
36. One marvel is that which is declared regarding the rushing of the evil spirit for the slaughter of Zartosht, just as revelation mentions thus: 'From the northern quarter forth rushed the deadly evil spirit, and thus shouted he, astute in evil, the deadly evil spirit: "Rush on, O fiend! and destroy the righteous Zartosht." 37. On to him they rushed, the fiend, the demon Bud, and secret-moving Pestilence, the deceiver. 38. Zartosht chanted aloud the Ahunwar; the fiend was confounded at that, and away they rushed, the demon Bud and secret-moving Pestilence, the deceiver. 39. And the fiends shouted thus: "Thou art scornfully observing, O evil spirit! (that is, anything to the purpose thou dost not thoroughly observe, and what thou orderest us to do is not possible); the death of him who is Zartosht of the Spitamas is not contemplated by us." 40. Owing to the full glory of the righteous Zartosht, he perceived in his mind thus: "The wicked demons, astute in evil, consult together about my death;" and up stood Zartosht, forth went Zartosht.' 41. Here is manifested a great wonder to the multitude, in that which is mentioned thus: 'And a stone was put forth by the righteous Zartosht, that was held in his hand, and the size of a hut, and which was obtained by him from the creator Ohrmazd, the spiritual Yatha-ahu-vairyo.'
42. And one marvel is this which is manifested not only in the country of Iran to Iranians, but in every land and to every race: the shattering of the demons' bodies through the chanting of the Ahunwar aloud by Zartosht. 43. Just as that which a passage mentions thus: 'I worship the resources of the Kayan glory, with which the righteous Zartosht was associated in thinking about, speaking about, and acting about the religion which was of all embodied existences, the most righteous in righteousness, the most lordly in sovereignty, the most radiant in radiance, and the most glorious in glory. 44. At his appearance the demons have fallen before him, at his appearance their semen (mayagan) also drops, at his appearance the courtesan is also withdrawn by them from mankind; on hearing him they lamented, very violently is it lamented by the demons. 45. By the Ahunwar, which the righteous Zartosht chanted aloud to them, all the demons are seized and buried in the earth, where the complete shattering of their bodies is manifest.' 46. So that, after the shattering of their bodies, it became evident to those in the world that they were not able to do mischief in the bodily form of a demon, and they have been declared of the nature of sacred beings to mankind, but mankind fully understood that they are not sacred beings, but demons.
47. Zartosht revealed (gushufto) to mankind by the word of Ohrmazd, how in this religion the latter tells in words to Zartosht where and how, in the embodied existence, mankind consider a demon as exalted or as a high-priest, because they are where they say that they must consider some one as high-priest. 48. So Ohrmazd spoke to Zartosht thus: 'How do they who are good people, O Zartosht! consider a demon as exalted? and how are they that even tell a demon thus: "We should accept you," because the demons speak thus: "It will happen to you"?'
49. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'Only for the reason, O Ohrmazd! that people hasten on to that which is a jungly plain without dwellings, where no one resides from the departure of light until sunrise arrives, when it is two Hasars of night, and again silently (agop) from sunset until their returning together when the two Hasars of night are gone, they hear that no work, no men, and no voices of dogs are there. 50. Then they say as to that, on arriving back, thus: "We have consulted with the demons there; when we request (zaem) monarchy (sastarih) and leadership from them, they give them to us; when we request the possession of flocks and opulence from them, they give them to us."'
51. Then Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'How can they do such a thing for them, O Zartosht! (that is, how does it happen that it is continually given by them for those that speak thus: " It happened to us")?'
52. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'They speak variously, O Ohrmazd! as to that generosity; there is one who speaks thus: "I have ever after been possessing more flocks, so long as I am in consultation with the demons;" and there is another who speaks thus: "I have ever after been worse and more ill-fated, so long as we are in consultation with those demons;" according as they possess a full subsistence for themselves from the demons (that is, when they diversely subsist fully on whatever they bespeak from the demons).' 53. Zartosht also spoke thus: 'So they speak about it, O Ohrmazd! thus: "Observe further, where any one of us returns he is either shrunk together (that is, he holds his head down to his chest), or shrunk away (that is, he looks quite aside), or is only pleasantly cast down and, owing to acquiescence in him, the demons tempt (nes,hund) him away out of mankind."'
54. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'According to thy wish, do thou, O Zartosht! fully observe thy existence, upwards from the head, downwards from the sole of the foot, and afar on various sides; and thou shouldst beseech before and behind and in every direction, for we are not as to thee as the demons are as to mankind, we give away everything only in invisibility; but the demons, through close connection, when they rush out, tempt only with pleasantness. 55. Even unto thee, O Zartosht! a fiend will rush, a female, golden-bodied and full-bosomed (so that she wears a bodice), and she rushes to request companionship from thee; a female, golden-bodied and full-bosomed, to request conversation from thee, to request cooperation from thee. 56. But thou shouldst not grant her companionship, nor conversation, nor shalt thou prescribe any conduct for her; afterwards, to revert her downwards, thou shalt utter aloud that triumphant saying the Yatha-ahu-vairyo.'
57. Zartosht proceeded to the habitable and friendly world, for the purpose of fully observing that beaten track (khapisno) of the embodied existence; then that fiend came forward when he sat in the vicinity of a garment - that garment which when Vohuman was conveying him to the conference, was deposited by him - a female, golden-bodied and full-bosomed, and companionship, conversation, and cooperation were requested by her from him; she also whined (dandido): 'I am Spandarmad.'
58. And Zartosht spoke thus: 'She who is Spandarmad was fully observed by me in the light of a cloudless day, and that Spandarmad appeared to me fine behind and fine before and fine all round (that is, in all positions she was handsome); do thou turn thy back, and I shall know if thou art Spandarmad.'
59. And the fiend spoke to him thus: 'O Zartosht of the Spitamas! where we are, those who are females are handsome in front, but frightfully hideous behind; so do not make a demand for my back.' 60. After she had protested a third time, the fiend turned her back, and she was seen by Zartosht behind in the groin; and when matter was exuded, it was full of serpents, toads, lizards, centipedes, and frogs.
61. And that triumphant saying, the Yatha-ahu-vairyo, was uttered aloud by Zartosht; then that fiend was annihilated, and Keshmak the Karap rushed forth. 62. And he grumbled in leaving, thus: 'The misery which is here below is such as I have obtained, because, owing to thee, I thought that thy sacred beings were more joyful than any heroes who through defeat go to hell; I proceed more joyfully than the sacred beings, as regards the life in the body, so that I fully deceive the life in thy body, and thou art fully deceived by me as regards thine.'
63. Zartosht also revealed (gushufto) this secret to mankind, and their knowledge how to test a demon is manifested therein, even by a great wonder of the same nature to mankind: the visible rushing of the demons into the world before Zartosht, and their bodies being afterwards shattered by the loud chanting of revelation by Zartosht from the Avesta announced, which was the acceptance of its truth by the ruler Vishtasp and the people of that time; and if this had not been so, and Vishtasp and those of his time were not accepting the Avesta which was announced by Zartosht in this fashion, through their considering it false, it would not have reached unto us.
64. One marvel is this, with which, too, he who was Zartosht became aware from revelation, about the vileness and perverted religion of Zak of the deadly Karaps of Vishtasp and many other Kays and Karaps who were at the residence of Vishtasp, their combination for the death of Zartosht, the preparation for severe abuse of him to Vishtasp, and influencing Vishtasp for his death by command of Vishtasp, which extends to awful imprisonment and punishment. 65. Afterwards, too, his knowledge about his preservation therefrom, the manifestation of his wondrousness, and the evidence concerning his attainment unto prophesying; also after the continuance of the last questioning of the ten years of conference, his departure alone, by the advice and command of Ohrmazd, to the residence of Vishtasp and the precinct (var) of that terrible conflict. 66. His uttering, on the horse-course (aspanvar) of Vishtasp, a reminder of the power and triumph of Ohrmazd over himself, as he invited Vishtasp to the religion of Ohrmazd; and with great wisdom Vishtasp heard the words of Zartosht, on account of his own complete mindfulness and spiritual knowledge of ritual, and would have asked for an outpouring of prophecy.
67. But thereupon, too - before the words of Zartosht were fully heard by him, and he could have understood the character of Zartosht - owing to the demonizing of the deadly Zak and the rest of those Kigs and Karaps, spoken out with slanderous knowledge and perverse actions to Vishtasp about Zartosht, there then occurred his consignment of Zartosht to that confinement and punishment as stated in the words of Zartosht thus: 'I have spoken about their three inquiries, and I am bound by thirty of them, I with thirty-three fetters of murderers, wicked ones, and demon-worshippers. 68. But the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the strength of my legs, but the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the force of my arms, but the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the hearing of my ears, but the hunger of manhood's inclination violently affected the sight of my eyes, and it would force away my bosom up to my back (so that it would stay behind at my back) through the continuance of that deadly hunger of manhood's inclination.'
69. And here, through the mightiness of Zartosht - who proceeded alone to the terrible combat with evil, where there became manifest, in the mode which is written, the descent of his life into so much punishment, due to hunger and thirst, heavy fetters, and other misery unto which the strength of human nature is attaining, but unto which if is not destined - is manifested a great wonder to king Vishtasp and his officials, when his full-glorious person was found by them alive in awfulness, imprisonment, and those other transformations (padgastakih) of long-continued starvation.
70. One marvel is this, that the sacred beings contrived, for the sake of (val vahan-i) his preservation from that awfulness, a body possessing life, and on his account it became lifeless and imperceptible; afterwards, in the great session of Vishtasp and the assembly of the world, Zartosht, through the strength and blessedness of the true word, restored the same body anew, like that which is issuing in the statement of the wonder about the splendid horse of Vishtasp.
71. One marvel is his telling and disclosing the thoughts of king Vishtasp and of those of the realm, and many other concealed matters, through spiritual perception.
72. One marvel is several matters of evil deceit (vad gamas) which Zohak had done in Bapel though witchcraft, and mankind had come to idol-worship through that seduction, and its increase was the destruction of the world; but through the triumphant words of the religion, which Zartosht proclaimed opposing it, that witchcraft is all dissipated and disabled.
73. One marvel is this which is manifested, with wonders owing to Zartosht, in controversy about the religion with the famous learned of the realm, among whom, known for learning in the world, are the investigators (girayagano) of the words of speech; and among those things which are more surprisingly controversial are those later (sibastar) words which are to save their creatures by a later religion. 74. Also to proclaim its truth intelligibly, and to make king Vishtasp and those Previously learned men without doubt as to the truth of the religion, the creator Ohrmazd sends some spirits, Vohuman, Ardwahisht, and the propitious fire, as a reminder to Vishtasp about the true prophesying of Zartosht, and the desire of Ohrmazd for the acceptance of the religion of Mazda-worship by Vishtasp and for its propagation in the world.
75. The wondrousness which is manifested to Vishtasp and those of the realm - both through the traveling (vazidano) of those archangels down from the sky to the earth, and in their traveling to the abode of Vishtasp - was like this which revelation mentions thus: 'Then he who is the creator Ohrmazd spoke to them, to Vohuman, Ardwahisht, and also the fire of Ohrmazd, the propitious, thus: "Proceed! you who are archangels, unto the abode of Vishtasp, whose resources (ofzar) are cattle and who is far and widely famed, with a view to his reliance upon this religion (that is, till he shall stand up for this religion); and, as regards the answering words of the righteous Zartosht of the Spitamas, to approve the nature (zag san) of those words." 76. The archangels proceeded unto the abode of Vishtasp, whose resources are cattle and who is far and widely famed; their radiance, in that lofty residence, seemed to him, that Vishtasp, a heaven of complete light, owing to their great power and triumph; this was so that, when he thus looked upon it, the exalted Kay Vishtasp trembled, all his courtiers (pesako) trembled, all his chieftains (pado) were confused, and he of the superior class was like the driver of a chariot-horse.
77. 'And the fire of Ohrmazd spoke, in the words of heroes, thus: "Fear not, for there is no fearing for thee, thou exalted Kay Vishtasp! they have not come for alarming thy abode, as a reminder of the deputed envoys of Arjasp; there have not come, for alarming thy abode, the two Khyons of Arjasp who demand tribute and revenue (sak vabazo); and there has not come, for alarming thy abode, the all-overpowering thief who is an injurer, or the dog who is a highwayman. 78. We are three who have come over (taristo) to thy abode, Vohuman, Ardwahisht, and also the fire of the propitious lord; of these thy knowledge is most wisely most just. 79. If thou helpest vision, so that it becomes wisdom for thee, the worldly existence requires the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, which proceeds purely through the recitation which Zartosht of the Spitamas teaches. 80. Do thou chant the Ahunwar, do thou praise perfect righteousness, and utter no worship for the demons! because the desire of Ohrmazd, as regards thee, is for thy reliance upon this religion; it is also the desire of the archangels, and the desire, as regards thee, of the other sacred beings who are beneficent (sapir-dahako) and righteous.
81. '"And as the recompense in this life, if you praise the good and pure religion of the righteous Zartosht of the Spitamas, we will give unto thee a long reign and sovereignty, and the long lifetime of a life of 150 years; we will give unto thee Good Integrity and Rectitude which is long-continued in desire for constantly assisting, good for assistance through constantly assisting, and not passing away and we will give unto thee a son, Peshyotan is his name, he is immortal, and so is undecaying, hungerless, and thirstless, living and predominant in both existences, those of the embodied beings and of the spirits. 82. But, as the recompense in this life, if you do not praise the good and pure religion of the righteous Zartosht of the Spitamas, we will not convey thee up on high, and we will order thine end; the vultures which are mindful of decay will see and eat up those and these of thine, thy blood will reach the ground, and the waters will not reach thy body."'
83. One marvel is that connected with the confidence (vavari-hastano) of Vishtasp in the religion, even through that occurrence of the speech of the archangels; and, afterwards, the obedience (patyasai?) of his thoughts in the case of the delays through the bloodshed owing to Arjasp the Khyon and his attendant heroes (pas-gurdano) throughout the same Khyons, because of the acceptance of the religion. 84. Also, for the sake of daily and visibly showing to Vishtasp the certified victory over Arjasp and the Khyons, and his own superior position, unceasing rule, splendor, and glory, the creator Ohrmazd sends, at the same time, the angel Neryosang to the abode of Vishtasp, as a reminder for the archangel Ardwahisht to give to Vishtasp to drink of that fountain of life, for looking into the existence of the spirits, the enlightening food by means of which great glory and beauty are seen by Vishtasp.
85. Just as this passage of revelation mentions thus: 'And he who is the creator Ohrmazd spoke to the angel Neryosang thus: "Proceed and travel, O Neryosang the assembler! unto the abode of Vishtasp, whose resources are cattle and who is far and widely famed, and thou shalt say this to Ardwahisht, thus: 'O Ardwahisht! do thou authoritatively take this fine saucer (tasto), which is fully finer than the other saucers that are made (that is, the cup (gam) is as fine as is possible to make for royalty), and carry up to Vishtasp the Hom and Vars (mui) which are for us; and do thou give it unto the ruler Vishtasp to drink up, by whose word it is accepted.'" 86. Ardwahisht authoritatively taking the fine saucer from him, also, thereupon, gave it unto the exalted ruler Kay Vishtasp to drink from; and the ruler of the country (dih), the exalted Kay Vishtasp, lay down when divested of his robes, and he spoke to Hutos thus: "You, O Hutos! are she whom the prompt ability (tezo hunar) of Zartosht of the Spitamas should reach; and through the diligence of the prompt ability of Zartosht of the Spitamas, you would expound the religion of Ohrmazd and Zartosht."'
87. One marvel is this which is declared, that when Vishtasp, accepting the religion, praises righteousness, the demons in hell are disabled, and the demon Aeshm rushes to the country of the Khyons and to Arjasp, the deadly one of the Khyons, because he was the mightiest of the tyrants at that time; and the most hideous of all, of so many of them in the country of the Khyons, are poured out by him for war.
88. And here, too, is manifested a great wonder also to the host (ram) of Iran who have been coming there, unto the residence of Arjasp the Khyon, like this which revelation mentions thus: 'Then, just at the time his legion is separately displayed, Aeshm the unredeemable (tanapuhrak) adheres (gerevedo) to him, as being himself without escort (aguroh), and quite opposes (bara sperezedo) him because: " You, who are a Khyon, have become unlucky through want of success after you engage in conflict."' 89. Henceforth, it is not that the victory of Iran has come over foreigners and Khyons - through companionship at the abode of that man who is mightier by the birth of Zartosht of the Spitamas - when that hideous sovereignty of Arjasp, the deadly Khyon, is swallowed up by him (Vishtasp), for the confusion of the deadly species (that is, they are further smitten by him, one through the other; and are swallowed together by him, mutually struggling and through mutually devouring). 90. And apart from him, that bitter and well-hardened Khyon that is quite disabled by him the good Vishtasp, that deadly fiend is disturbed about him of eloquent abilities (Zartosht); and so he grumbled at the hideous sovereignty thus: 'Prompt ability comes into existence and the Khyon came; thereupon prompt ability comes into existence and the Iranian has come.' . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 5. Events in the last thirty-five years of his life

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested from the acceptance of the religion by Vishtasp onwards till the departure (vikhezo) of Zartosht, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, to the best existence, when seventy-seven years had elapsed onwards from his birth, forty-seven onwards from his conference, and thirty-five years onwards from the acceptance of the religion by Vishtasp.
2. One marvel is this which is declared that when Zartosht chanted revelation in the abode of Vishtasp, it was manifest to the eye that it is danced to with joyfulness, both by the cattle and beasts of burden, and by the spirit of the fires which are in the abode. 3. By which, too, a great wonder is proclaimed, like this which revelation mentions thus: 'There seemed a righteous joyfulness of all the cattle, beasts of burden, and fires of the place, and there seemed a powerfulness of every kind of well-prepared spirits and of those quitting the abode (man-hishano), "that will make us henceforth powerful through religion," when they fully heard those words which were spoken by the righteous Zartosht of the Spitamas.'
4. And one marvel is the provision, by Zartosht, of the achievement of ordeal, that indicator of the acquitted and incriminated for sentence by the judge, in obscure legal proceedings; of which it is said in revelation there are about (kigun) thirty-three kinds. 5. These, too, the disciples of Zartosht kept in use, after that time, until the collapse of the monarchy of Iran; and the custom of one of them is that of pouring melted metal on the breast, as in the achievement of the saintly (hu-fravardo) Aturpad son of Maraspend, through whose preservation a knowledge about the religion was diffused in the world; and of the manifestation, too, through that great wonder, this is also said, on the same subject, in the good religion, that of those many, when they behold that rite of ordeal, it convinces the wicked ones.
6. One marvel is that which is afterwards manifested, after the former captivity of Zartosht and his speaking about the religion to Vishtasp and those of the realm, such as the acceptance of the religion by Vishtasp and that which Zartosht said to him at his original arrival, as regards the declaration of a ruler's religion, thus: 'Thine is this disposition, and this religion which is calling (khrosako) is a property of that description which thou puttest together, O Kay Vishtasp! so that if thou wilt accept this disposition of thine, thou wilt possess this religion which exists (that is, the learning of learnings), and be the ruler that shall cause its progress; thou wilt possess in this disposition of thine, as it were, a new support (stunako), and any one will uphold thee by upholding it, as thou art the possessor of the support of this religion.' 7. Also the victory of Vishtasp over Arjasp the Khyon and other foreigners in that awful battle, just as Zartosht explained unto Vishtasp in revelation; and much which is declared by revelation.
8. One marvel is the disclosure by Zartosht, in complete beneficence, medical knowledge, acquaintance with character, and other professional retentiveness (pishako-girukih), secretly and completely of what is necessary for legal knowledge and spiritual perception; also the indication, by revelation, of the rites for driving out pestilence (sego), overpowering the demon and witch, and disabling sorcery and witchcraft. 9. The curing of disease, the counteraction of wolves and noxious creatures, the liberating of rain, and the confining of hail, spiders, locusts, and other terrors of corn and plants and adversaries of animals, by the marvellous rites which are also relating to the worship of Hordad and Amurdad, and many other rites which were kept in use until the collapse of the monarchy of Iran; and there are some which have remained even till now , and are manifested with a trifle of marvellousness by the sacred fires. 10. And the disclosure to mankind of many running waters from marvellous streams (ardaya), and remedies for sickness which are mixed (fargardako) by well-considering physicians; many are spiritual and celestial, gaseous (vayig) and earthy; and the worldly advantage of others, too, is the praise (lafo) which ought to come to one for angelic wisdom.
11. One is the marvel of the Avesta itself, which, according to all the best reports of the world, is a compendium of all the supremest statements of wisdom.
12. One marvel is the coming of this also to Vishtasp, which the archangels announced as a recompense for accepting the religion, as he saw Peshyotan the happy ruler, that immortal and undecaying son, not wanting food, large-bodied, completely strong, fully glorious, mighty, victorious, and resembling the sacred beings; the unique splendour of Peshyotan for the sovereignty of Kangdez in yonder world, as allotted to him by the creator Ohrmazd, is manifested even through that great wonder to the multitude.

CHAPTER 6. Further events till the death of Vishtasp.

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested after the departure (vikhezo) of Zartosht, whose guardian spirit is reverenced, to the best existence, and in the lifetime of Vishtasp.
2. One marvel is this which is declared by revelation, about the provision of a chariot by Srito of the Visraps; this is through a famous wonder and the coming of a report about the marvellousness of that chariot to Vishtasp, Vishtasp's begging that chariot from Srito, and Srito saying in reply to Vishtasp : 'That chariot is for a righteous man, in which the soul of Srito in the lifetime of Srito's body, and that of that man in the lifetime of his body, come visibly together once in the worldly existence.' 3. And the soul of Srito, through the generosity of that Srito, presents that chariot to the eyesight of that man of righteousness; thereby it becomes evident he had seen it, and is told not to act in another manner. 4. The exalted Kay Vishtasp, as becoming from revelation more particularly aware of this marvel about the future at that time, and for the sake of this marvel being published to the worldly existence (gehanigih), and of his becoming more invoking for the supremacy of the Mazda-worshipping religion, became discernible by those of the realm, is sought for, and is most attended.
5. A great wonder became manifest to Vishtasp and those of the world, just as revelation mentions thus: 'Thereupon the archangels are letting forth the soul of that Srito from the light of the supreme heaven, from the light on to the earth created by Ohrmazd; and the soul of Vishtasp proceeded from him into the light to meet it. 6. Vishtasp proceeded on to the propitious south (rapitvino); he was producing more gain than the gainers, and he was more inquisitive than the inquisitive; to all whom he saw he spoke, and unto such as spoke he listened; when he gazed at them looking simultaneously they stood up, and obeisance was offered by them unto the soul and person of Vishtasp.'
7. Immediately upon that no delay occurred until there came on at a run - besides the soul of Srito of the Visraps - the most horrid (agrandtum) of demons, from the horrid northern quarter of the horrid destroyer (zadar), that was himself black, and his deeds, too, were very black. 8. And as he comes himself, so also he grumbles to the soul of Srito thus: 'Give a maintenance (khvarag) to Vishtasp who is thy driver, for the sake of good fellowship and service, and for that, righteousness is suitable unto a pure one; do not give it as a thing which is protective (that is, do not give it for the sake of worldly gratuity), but for love of the righteousness which is owing to the perfect existences.'
9. When those words were fully heard by Srito of the Visraps, the early bestower (levino-vakhsh), he stood still and so he spoke in words thus: 'For righteousness I give thee, O mighty Kay Vishtasp! this chariot which is without a driver, only for love of the righteousness which is owing to the perfect existences.' 10. As much for righteousness as is best for righteousness, and as much for the soul as is best for the soul, the gift of the whole was secured (that is, its acceptance was announced as often as three times).
11. Then that chariot became two chariots, one spiritual and the other worldly; in the worldly one the exalted Kay Vishtasp traveled forth unto the village of the Nodars in the joyfulness of good thoughts, and in the spiritual one the soul of Srito of the Visraps traveled forth unto the best existence.
12. One marvel is this which is declared that in fifty-seven years onwards from the acceptance of the religion by Zartosht, the arrival of the religion is published in the seven regions; and within the lifetime of Vishtasp, the circumstance (aedunoih) is manifested by the coming of some from other regions to Frashostar of the Hvobas for enquiry about the religion, even as revelation mentions thus: 'Two whose names are thus, Spitois and Arezraspo, who have hastened unto Frashostar of the Hvobas in search of wisdom.'
13. Thus much splendour and wonder of Vishtasp and those of the realm regarding Zartosht, and thus much due to the coming of the archangels from the sky to the earth before Vishtasp, as evidence about the true prophesying of Zartosht; and that, too, about Peshyotan, the chariot of Srito, and other subjects seen written above, are declared by the Avesta, which is the same that they accepted from Zartosht, as the culmination (avariganih) of Ohrmazd's words. 14. And if this splendour, glory, and wonder that are written above as regards what those learned men of the realm saw - which are in the statement revealed by the Avesta - had not occurred, king Vishtasp and those learned men of the realm Would not have seen what this Avesta had revealed to them - which was thus much splendour and wonder reported by it to them - and not one word about leaving its preservation to us would be annexed.

CHAPTER 7. Further events till end of Sasanian monarchy

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested after the time of Vishtasp until the collapse (hangaftano) of the sovereignty of Iran.
2. There is marvellousness which is manifested after Vishtasp until the collapse of the sovereignty of Iran, apart from the blessedness of ordeal, the accomplishment of other Avestic rites, the great power over the sacred fires, and many other religious observances which were connected with the disciples of Zartosht.
3. Even after the devastation which happened owing to Alexander, those who were rulers after him brought back much to the collection from a scattered state; and there are some who have ordered the keeping of it in the treasury of Shapan.
4. Likewise there is to be brought forward what there is concerning the names of rulers and high-priests, such as arrive for it at times and period which are each consecutive, as organizers of the religion and the world; also of the tyrant or apostate, who is manifest at various periods, for the disturbance of the religion and monarchy and the penance of the world, with the coming of the penitential one.
5. Such as Vohuman, son of Spend-dad, of the rulers, about whom it says even this in the Avesta, that he is Vohuman, the just, who is the most efficient of the assembly of Mazda-worshippers. 6. And Senov of the high-priests, as about him it says even this: ' The religion becomes a hundred years old when Senov is born, and two hundred years when he passes away; he was also the first Mazda-worshipper with a life of a hundred years, and who walks forth upon this earth with a hundred disciples.'
7. Also Alexander of the devastators, as it says even this of him in revelation, that in those three winters, which are of like purpose (ham-ayazako), that Aeshm would set up a deadly king in the impenitent world, who is the evil-destined Alexander.
8. And of the high-priests are Arezvak, the interpretation of whose name is 'the pure word; Srutvok-spadak, the interpretation of whose name is 'the propitious recitation;' Zrayang,hau, the interpretation of whose name is 'the ocean existence;' and Spento-khratvau, the interpretation of whose name is 'the propitious wisdom.' 9. Because it says even this about them, namely: 'I mention thy manifestation, and also the tokens of its publicity when this religion of thy Mazda-worshippers becomes four hundred years old; in this law benightedness (lelyaih) arises, and the embodied existences see the manifestation through calculation of the planets and also the stars; and whoever, too, are mine are so for a century, through the average opinion of thirty medium winters for a man; and the righteous Arezvak and those three others are they of the most righteous existences, over whom they are the most masterly and most authoritative in that time.' 10. And this, too, that they who glorify the religion of the Mazda-worshippers in the fifth and sixth centuries are they; and no persons save their souls, except those who remain for the arrival of the four interpretations that arise through the authority of these four individuals, Arezvak, Sruto-spadhau, Zrayang,hau, and Spento-khratvau who, all four of them, seek their thoughts, words, and deeds in the sacred text (mansar).
11. Also Rashn-resh is the apostate of that time, as some one says unto Rashn, one of the sacred beings, and about many besides this one, thus: 'All who are creatures of the beneficent spirit are distressed by their persecution, but put trust in those men, Arezvak and those three others.'
12. And of the organizers of the period is Artakhshatar, son of Papak, as it says even this about him, namely: 'Which is that ruler who is powerful, more striving than the Kayans, and mighty, an embodiment of the sacred commandments and awfully armed; in whose abode Aharisvang, the virtuous and radiant, walks forth in maiden form, beneficent and very strong, well-formed, high-girded, and truthful, of illustrious race and noble? 13. Whoever it is that, on the occurrence of strife, seeks prosperity for himself with his own arm; whoever it is that, on the occurrence of strife, encounters the enemies with his own arm.'
14. Tanvasar is also for his assistance, as it says this, too, about them: 'Zartosht asked again thus: "Who is he who is the most salutary for a country, which the demons have exhausted of everything virtuous, over which his authority is brought and which is wicked and teaching falsehood?" 15. Ohrmazd spoke thus: "An autocrat (sastar), to cure a country, who has not gone mad (that is, he does not annoy the good) and is well-directing (that is, he gives virtuous commands), who is also of noble race, and likewise a priest who is acquainted with war, of a famous province, and righteous, are most salutary for that country. 16. And I tell thee this, that the apostasy of destruction is just like the four-legged wolf which the world gives up to running astray (vardah-takhshishnih) (that is, owing to its action they are leading it off as astray; which is so that even he who is not opulent is rendered sickly, that they (the apostates) may take away his things by the hand of the assassin (khunyan); and they shall lead the world, the dwelling for his residence, into wandering. 17. But that wicked (avaruno) strife descended upon that country, besides that wicked demon-worship, besides that wicked slander; and not even that wicked strife, nor that wicked demon-worship, nor that wicked slander, is dissipated from that country until the time when they attach the grant of approval to him, the spiritual leader, the eloquent (pur-guftar), truthful-speaking, and righteous Tanvasar. 18. And it is when they grant approval to the spiritual leader, the truthful speaker of eloquence, the righteous Tanvasar, that those of the country obtain redress (beshazaganih) when they seek it, and no deviation (anayuinakoih) from the religion of Zartosht."'
19. As to the nature of the questions and statements of the organizer of the religion, Aturpad son of Maraspend, about the connection of the glory with the race, it also says this, that 'though righteousness may arise from the statements and prosperity of the Turanians when extracted by questions, it is said that its acceptance occurs there through complete mindfulness; they benefit the embodied world of righteousness, and produce distress for the fiend; in like manner, they rely upon Vohuman, and Zartosht is their delight through the report of the birth of Zartosht from us who are archangels. 20. This liberality for thee is from us who are archangels, and Aturpad, the very best well-destined man arose; and this, too, do thou say about him, that it is the steel age in which that man, the organizer of development and organizer of righteousness, Aturpad son of Maraspend, of the convocation, begets Avarethrabau.'
21. This Avarethrabau, too, is an organizer whose righteous guardian spirit we reverence, and in memory of Manuschihar, the well-destined, and a progenitor of Aturpad, it says that 'only from him comes Avarethrabau;' and then also arises this one of the adversaries of the religion, the apostate of apostates, whom they have even called the Mazdak-like (Mazdagig-ich). 22. As it says this, too, about them, namely: 'This religion of mine thou dost survey with thoughts of spiritual life, thou dost very thoroughly inspect it, O Zartosht! when many, aware of apostates, call the performance of righteousness and even the priesthood innocence, and few are frank and practising it.' 23. In the revelation of the Mazda-worshippers is this, namely: 'Thoroughly look into revelation, and seek a remedy for them and any whatever of them who have become disturbing in the embodied existence, and uncaptivated by the orthodox (ayin-aumond) righteousness which is owing to the perfect existences; and so they divide the religion of the Mazda-worshippers through division of race, they speak regarding the action of their own followers, and give the endowment to their own. 24. They grant supplies of food, so that they may say the food is proportional to the hunger; they speak of procreation, and say that they say lineage is through the mothers; and they approve of wolfishness, so that they would act something like wolves in the performance of gratifying their desires, like that of the wolf's progeny behind the mother. 25. Moreover, they form their lineage through the mothers; buying their women as sheep, they shall carry off for profit even that son or brother who is the progeny, those that we have produced for your companionship; you are not predominant, but have remained in companionship; you do not even believe them, but you do not establish an ordeal, although it is evident that you will be acquitted; they lie even to their children, so that the advance of the promise-breaker is through them, and even in their own persons.'
26. Here it speaks about the organization of the religion by the glorified Khosraw, son of Kayad, thus: 'Upon their lingering behind, a man is produced who is righteous, the Glorified one, an approver (khenidar) of speech who is wise, whom the convocation, on hearing the words that he utters, speaks of as a high-priest; that is when he gives out penance (sroshigih), so that he may effect the punishment of sinners. 27. The constant outpouring of perplexity (pech sharidan) by the perverters is the fear of that hero, as regards that convocation, when he casts them forth by expulsion from the vicinity, so that he may make them extinguished very quickly; owing to that, they, whose producer is even he who is a person destroying the righteous man, become gloomy on account of the Glorified one, through his smiting the spiritual life of apostasy; just as now, when he who is gloomy, and of scattered intellect, is gloomy owing to you of the Spitamas.' 28. This, too, it states, namely: 'In every way, I tell thee, O Zartosht of the Spitamas! that their time is mistrustful (avavar) as to him who is an open friend, and most deceitful both to the wicked and the righteous; the Glorified one is a controller (ayukhtar) exalting the creatures, and whoever is possessing the creatures of the righteous ones, so that he remains again at work in the doings of the Glorified one, is he who is a combiner of the actions and an utterer of the true replies of that Glorified one.'
29. And about the occurrence of a symptom of the devastators of the sovereignty and religion of the country of Iran one wonder, which is associated with the religion, is even this which it mentions thus: 'Thereupon, when the first symptom of a ravager of the country occurs, O righteous Zartosht! then the more aggressive and more unmerciful in malice becomes the tyrant of the country, and through him, too, they ravage (reshend) the house, through him the village, through him the community, through him the province, and through him even the whole of that manifestation in the country of any teaching whatever that occurs through the ravager of the country; and so the country should keep a man who is observant and learned on the watch, because information is in his mind. 30. Thereupon, when the second symptom of a ravager of the country occurs, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 31. Thereupon, when the third symptom of a ravager of the country occurs, the priestly people are disturbing the tradition, so that they speak nothing wisely; it is even on this account they do not accept them, and it is not when one speaks truly that the ravager of the country believes them, and through him, too, they ravage the house, through him the village, through him the community, through him the province, and through him even the whole of that manifestation in the country of any teaching whatever that occurs through the ravager of the country; and so, too, the country should keep a man who is observant and learned on the watch, because information is in his mind. 32. Thereupon, when the fourth symptom of a ravager of the country occurs, it upsets the replenishment of the fires, and upsets those men of the righteous, so that they shall not undertake the care of them; and thus they shall not convey the holy-water to him who is a priestly authority, so that they may not produce the seizing upon the stipend of the priestly authorities by him who is the ravager of the country; through him, too, they ravage the house, through him the village, through him the community, through him the province, and through him even the whole of that manifestation in the country of any teaching whatever that occurs through the ravager of the country; and so, too, the country should keep a man who is observant and learned on the watch, because information is in his mind,'
33. About the collapse of the sovereignty of Iran, it also states this, namely: 'That very villain (mar), O Zartosht! brings those provinces on to running astray, so that he may make those quite dissevered which constitute the existence of that powerful sovereignty; and then he is a thorough assailant of the righteous, then he is an assailant of the righteous with eagerness. 34. That same deadly one (mar), O Zartosht! does not continue living long afterwards; moreover his offspring disappear (that is, they perish utterly); but his soul falls to the bottom of the gloomy existence which is horrible hell, and upon their bodies every kind of unseemly unhappiness comes from themselves, owing to their own actions when they give approval to the imprisonment of a guardian of spiritual affairs who is eloquent, true-speaking, and righteous. 35. Against that deadly one he contends, O Zartosht! for the spiritual lordship and priestly authority that I approve as good for the whole embodied existence; also against the preparation of a decree to produce evil decisions, and against the dismissal of litigants, whether heterodox or orthodox, who are of a family of serfs of a far-situated village and are making petitions.'
36. 'And as to the land, too, over which he wanders, the evil spirit utterly devastates their country through pestilence and other misery; and, moreover, strife which is tormenting falls upon that country, besides demon-worship which is iniquitous, and besides slander which is iniquitous. 37. And the strife which is iniquitous is not to be dissipated (apasi-aitano) from that country, nor the demon-worshippers who are iniquitous, nor the slander which is iniquitous, before the time when they give approval to him, to the priest who is a guardian of spiritual affairs, who is eloquent, true-speaking, and righteous; and it is when they give him approval, that they obtain healthfulness for their country when they pray for it, and not irregularly from him, O Zartosht!'
38. And this which is recounted is a statement that is execrated (nafrig-aito) by many, details from the Avesta as to occurrences that will arise after Vishtasp until the dispersion (angavishno) of the sovereignty of Iran from the country of Iran; it is also declared that this which is written happened to the knowledge of those of the world. 39. This, too, is about the evidence of the above:- 'And if this which is declared from the Avesta, as to what happens after Kay Vishtasp until the end of the sovereignty of Iran, should not have happened, and it being the pre-eminence of the Avesta which really became this present treasure, it thereby ensues, owing to its position in that former, and the manifest absence of the destruction of those rulers and high-priests from Vishtasp onwards in this latter, that it could not be connected with us.'

CHAPTER 8. Further events till end of Zartosht's millennium.

1. About the marvellousness which is manifested and is openly specified after the collapsing of the sovereignty of Iran and the country of Iran; also the end of the millennium of Zartosht and the arrival of Ushedar the descendant of Zartosht.
2. There is this marvellousness, really overthrowing the blessedness of the knowledge of former government, revealed by the Avesta about the ninth and tenth centuries, that which is an indicator of circumstances (aedunoih) now visible, such as the dispersion of the sovereignty of Iran from the country of Iran, the disturbance of just law and custom, the predominance of those with dishevelled hair, and the haughty profession of ecclesiastics. 3. Also the collection and even connection of all their four systems of belief (vavari-hastano) together for the upper rank; the coming of one working with the sacred beings to the inferior, the transient, and the captive of the period; and the dispersion and downfall of dependent and public men in their time.
4. The disappearance of a disposition for wisdom from the foreigners in the countries of Iran, which is an indication of shame at the truth of the religion and at the praise, peace, liberality, and other goodness whose provision has lodgement in a disposition for wisdom. 5. Also the abundance of the decisions of apostasy, the falsehood, deceit, slander, quarrelsomeness, fraudulence, ingratitude, discord, stinginess, and other vileness whose real connection is a disposition to devour, neglecting heedfulness for the archangels of fire, water, and worldly existence. 6. The oppressiveness of infidelity and idol-worship, the scarcity of freedom, the extreme predominance of avarice in the individuals (tano) of mankind, the plenitude of different opinions about witchcraft, and the much inclination of many for paralyzing the religion of the sacred beings.
7. The annihilation of the sovereignty of mankind one over the other, the desolation, of localities and settlements by severe actual distress, and the evil foreign potentates who are, one after the other, scattering the valiant; the destruction among cattle arid the defilement of the spirit of enjoyment, owing to the lodgement of lamentation and weeping in the countries of Iran, the clamour of the demon-worshipper in the country, and the unobtainable stature, nonexistent strength, blighted destiny, and short life of mankind. 8. Also the abundance of ordinances (ayino) of various descriptions, the approval of the apostate among tyrants and the non-approval of the Zoti who is well-disposed and wise, the coming of the Zoti to want, and all the other adversity, disruption, and running astray which are overpowering even in districts and localities of the countries of Iran.
9. The maintenance of no ritual (apandih) of the religion of the sacred beings; the weakness, suffering, and evil habits of those of the good religion; the lamentation and recantation (khustukih) of the upholders of the religion; and the wickedness and extermination of good works in most of the countries of Iran. 10. Also much other misery in these two centuries is recounted in the Avesta, which passed away with them and is also now so visible therein, and manifestly occurs in them.
10. This, too, is a statement (nisang-1) as to them, which revelation mentions thus: 'That is the age mingled with iron (that is, from every side they perceive it is of iron) in which they bring forth into life him who is a sturdy praying apostate. 12. This is their sturdiness, that their approval is unobservant of both doctrines (ainako); and this is their praying, that whenever it is possible for them they shall cause misery to others; also when an old man publicly advances into a crowd (galako) of youths, owing to the evil times in which that man who is learned is born, they are unfriendly to him (that is, they are no friends of the high-priests of the priestly assembly). 13. They are freely speaking (that is, they utter phrases smoothly), they are wicked and are fully maliciously talking, so that they shall make the statements of priests and high-priests useless; they also tear asunder the spiritual lordship and priestly authority, and shall bring the ruler and priestly authority into evil behaviour as vicious, but they bring together those who are singular. 14. Anything they say is always mischief (agih), and that district which had a judge they cast into the smiting precinct, into hell; it is misery without any intermission they shall inflict therein, till they attain unto damnation (darvandih) through the recitation they persevere in, both he who is the evil progeny disseminated by the apostate and he who is the villainous wolf full of disaster and full of depravity.'
15. 'Here below they fight, the friend with him who is a friend, they also defraud (zivend) him of his own work (that is, whenever it is possible for them, they shall seize upon his property), and they give it to him from whom they obtain prosperity in return; if not, they seek him who is acting as a confederate (nishin-gun), and they make that other one defraud the poor man (so that they shall seize upon his property); they also cheat him when he shall make complaint. 16. I shall not again produce such for thee, no friend here for him who is a friend, no brother for him who is a brother, no son for him who is a father, nor yet a father for him who is a son; admonished, but not convinced, they become the abode of the will of the place, so that they subsist in every single place where it is necessary for them to be, in each that is necessary for them they march on together, and on the way they reflect upon the path of blessedness and the manifold learning they utter owing to knowledge of me.'
17. 'These three, our increase, learning, and reward, we fully understand through the ascendancy of him who is ignoble, and through the downfall of him who is noble and superior to him of little thorough instruction who, in every thing, will be at the foot of the tyrant. 18. Thinking of a priest one becomes spiritual, thinking of a tyrant one becomes a Kavig; a demon in disposition is an incipient demon, a Kavig in disposition is himself attracted towards a youth.'
19. Then, when character and wisdom recede from the countries of Iran (that is, they depart), so that destitution and also winter, produced by demons who are worshipping the demon, rush together from the vicinity of disaster (voighn) on to the countries of Iran, where even rain becomes scanty and pestilence is secretly advancing and deceiving, so that deaths become numerous; thus even he of perverted wisdom, who is wicked, and the apostate also, who is unrighteous, rush together in companionship. 20. As what one says they all exclaim thus: 'Consume and destroy, O ruler! for it is to be consumed and destroyed by thee; destroy even the fire, consume even as food those who are the protection of the association enforcing religious obedience, and those leading on the poor man of the righteous dispensation by their guidance.' 21. So that they shall make him thoroughly detached and smite him; likewise wisdom is the wealth they bring him, and it is when property is being carried off by them, that the wisdom conveyed by them arises.
22. 'And in that age, O righteous one of the Spitamas! the coming of my desire is not purely for thee, nor is a thorough belief of the departure of life, so that the bringing and conducting of a speaker of promises (mitragov) is not necessary; those of the perfect apostate injure this discourse of thine, the Avesta and Zand, so that they shall make it thoroughly weak; and those of the perfect apostate harass their own souls, for love of the wealth which he produced.'
23. And about the ninth and tenth centuries this also it says, that, 'as that age proceeds, this is what occurs, O Zartosht of the Spitamas! when many apostates utter the righteousness of priestly instruction and authority, which is wickedness towards me, they cause begging for water, they wither vegetation, and they put down all excellence which is due to the manifestation of righteousness.'
24. Again Zartosht enquired of him thus: 'What do they so produce by that, O Ohrmazd! when they cause begging for water, they wither vegetation, and they put down all excellence due to the manifestation of righteousness?' 25. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'They so produce those things among them, O Zartosht! when they mention a greater reward for bantlings and relations than that of their own souls (that is, they talk more concerning their allowance, where it is that for their own). 26. Moreover they give to the Kigs and Karaps, for some repute with the shepherd people of the husbandman, and with the swift-horsed people of the warrior, as though they would provide us here below with a large share of meat, that they would make our privilege, just as we here supply him with meal whom we render greatly precious. 27. The property of even a wicked man here below, O Zartosht! in the average opinion among the disorganized (anarastano) is a dignified provision (that is, we form a strong opinion, the approval of which is more to be asserted as being the opinion of a poor righteous man, about a worthy righteous man whose manifest righteousness is a homage (franamishno) to duty and good works).'
28. Again he enquired of him thus: 'Is there so perfect a manifestation here below, in the age of the worldly existence of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers (that is, is there a lodgement of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers in any one)?' 29. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'It is so, among those men of mine, O Zartosht! for here below there are priests who are eloquent, and they, too, are men voluble and requisite in the embodied existence, all-beneficent and producing the destruction of harm and the wizard; the people of the wicked tyrant say also regarding them, that, excepting thee, O Zartosht they rightly practise righteousness more largely more powerfully, and more volubly. 30. Blind are those of the fiend, who are consulting with thee and are unaware of the tyrant; and observant are also those of the fiend who consult with them and think of their intelligence, and oppose the imbecile (anakasih-aumond) apostate who is near them, so that they say this, namely: "As to this which thou tellest us, it is evidently not so as thou sayest," of which they speak thus: "This duty of thy man is not mine (that is, it is not necessary for me to perform) nor thine (that is, it is not necessary even for thee to perform), because it is not this which is righteousness (that is, not a good work)." 31. For this one is produced for these words and thoughts of thine, of whom thou, too, art aware, he who is whatever is here below of Ushedar of thoughtful controversy, O Zartosht of the Spitamas! for he brings into notice, through the intermingling of his own soul, him who is righteous, or has not become so.'
32. This, too, he says, namely: 'Of those, O Zartosht of the Spitamas! who come in the ninth and tenth centuries, I tell thee that they are of the fiend of Greed (Azi); it is in her womb that they are to be fashioned, they who assist those who would be vicious, through pre-eminence in leadership, or through excellence in subserviency.'
33. And this, too, it says about them: 'Those men are much to be destroyed;' so it is said by Ohrmazd that 'these who are righteous, who carry away a corpse in this world, distress their fire, according to every high-priest, and even long-flowing water; their bodies, which are really cesspools of a terrible character, become very assisting for the tormentors whose corpses are grievously wicked. 34. Concerning them I tell thee, O Zartosht of the Spitamas! that, in the ninth and tenth centuries, there come those who are the brood of the fiend and the wound-producer (reshgar) of the evil spirit; even one of them is more to be destroyed than ten demon-worshippers; they also produce extermination for these who are mine, for these of my religion, whom they call a provision for destruction (that is, when it is possible to live in our way, and ours are wicked, they diminish in superiority). 35. Even the iniquity that they shall commit in leadership and subserviency, the sin which is smiting thee, they call a trifle (khalaho), O pure one of the Spitamas! and the smiter, they say, is he whom these of thy religion of Mazda-worshippers smite. 36. Besides thee, O Zartosht! they distress those duties, too, which are to be acquired by thy people (lagano); they think scornfully of this ceremonial of thine, scornfully of thy worship, O Zartosht! and they think scornfully of both the two blessed utterances, the Avesta and Zand, which were proclaimed to thee by me who am the most propitious of spirits. 37. They foster villainous outrage, and they say the best work for mankind is immoderate fighting whose joyfulness is due to actions that are villainous; those, too, that they exterminate are the existences due to the spirits, they exterminate their own souls, they exterminate the embodied existences of the world; and they produce lamentation for the soul, and even the religion, as regards what is the mode of controlling orthodox people together with the iniquitous of the same period.'
38. And this, too, it says, that Zartosht enquired of Ohrmazd thus: 'So what shall we prescribe for those who are not capable, through being poor (that is, they have no means), nor have they troops, nor a protector over them, and they have many persecutors?' 39. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The strong-minded man, through understanding, is a token of the development of those who, not being in the army, are capable; their persecutors also are many, and the passing over of authority is owing to the iniquitous of the same period.'
40. This, too, it says, that Zartosht enquired thus: 'Is he, O Ohrmazd! who is a Kay or a Karap, or he who is a most evil ruler in authority, mingled again with the good?' 41. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Even he.'
42. Zartosht also enquired thus: 'Is he, too, O Ohrmazd! who is one of those of the good sovereignty, mingled again with the good; or these, such as the Kaisar and Khakan?' 43. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'Even that former, O Zartosht!'
44. About the same iniquitous this, too, he says, namely: 'When they are aware and understand about the sayings (galimako) due to righteousness, they are pleased, so that a bribe seems better to them than duty and good works; they love the darkness rather than light, the existence they love is the worst existence rather than the best existence, and they promote difficulty. 45. Concerning them, too, I tell thee that they are more to be destroyed than the leaping (shaspo) serpent which is like a wolf or a lion, and they ever advance in malice and persecution from that time till when that man arrives who is Chitro-mehono the righteous, with the victorious club. 46. He has marched with fifty triplets of men who are disciples, powerful and tall, looking after duties and ordinances, wide-shouldered, stout-armed, and very hairy (kabed-milih), so that their appearance is rough and of a black colour, wherefore the demon and the iniquity proceeding from him fear them. 47. He also smites the evil spirit, together with his creatures; and those three manifest branches, that worship the fiend with simultaneous worship, are really these who march for eminent service on horses, even the Turkish demons with dishevelled hair, the Arab, and also Shedaspo the ecclesiastical Aruman.
48. 'And he has then to attract men, contented and discontented, mostly through the incentive of duty; he who is not contented (that is, not agreeing with what he says) contentedly pays respect to him, O Zartosht! (so that he brings him into the religion). 49. Likewise, through that club, he makes one press in the same manner; so that one is distressed by his hand to hold others in contempt, through the valiant arm and through the youthful bodily organs. 50. And he attaches power and triumph to his religion of Ohrmazd, and through that power and triumph they become ever respected thenceforth, when those arrive who are the sons of Zartosht, who shall produce the renovation in an existence undecaying and immortal, hungerless and thirstless, the long-continued perpetuity including all.'
51. And about the separation (burinako) of the ten centuries in the one millennium of Zartosht, and the tidings of Ushedar, son of Zartosht, it says also this, namely: 'When that century fully elapses which is the first of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, from the time when Zartosht came forward to his conference, what is the separation of this first century?' 52. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.' 53. 'What is the separation after the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth century?' 54. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.'
55. Then, when thirty winters of the tenth century are unelapsed (that is, thirty winters are remaining) a maiden, who is Shemig-abu, walks up to the water; she that is the mother of that famous Ushedar, and her former lineage is from Vohu-roko-i Frahanyan in the family of Isadvastar, the son of Zartosht that is brought forth by Arang. 56. Then she sits in that water and drinks it, and she kindles in a high degree those germs which were the third of the last that the righteous Zartosht was dropping forth originally, and they introduce that son whose name is the Developer of Righteousness. 57. Though she is fifteen years old, the girl (kanig) has not before that associated with men; nor afterwards, when she becomes pregnant, has she done so before the time when she gives birth.
58. When that man becomes thirty years old, the sun stands still in the zenith (balisto) of the sky for the duration of ten days and ten nights, and it arrives again at that place where it was first appointed by allotment, where it occupies one finger-breadth out of the four finger-breadths, and it shines over all the regions which are seven. 59. So, too, O Zartosht! of them themselves, their declaration is thus, that they know that the separation of the millennium, which this religion has heard about by listening, is thus; and of those who do not even then know, that it is something which is different.
60. Then, when that man becomes thirty years old, he confers with the archangels, the good rulers and good providers; on the morrow, in the daylight of the day, it is moreover manifest, when the embodied existence is thus undistressed - without a Kay and without a Karap (that is, not deaf and blind to the affairs of the sacred beings), and is to be appropriated (that is, has not made its own self apart from the affairs of the sacred beings), and is produced full of life - that it has become extending (valan), and remains again great in various places in Eranvej where the good Daiti is.
61. These are the characteristics as regards the two centuries which are the ninth and tenth; the accuracy of what was to come has continued and this has happened, and both are declared as regards the accuracy which is stated on evidence as to what will happen.

CHAPTER 9. Ushedar's millennium.

1. About the marvellousness which is after the end of the millennium of Zartosht and the arrival of Ushedar, until the end of the millennium of Ushedar and the arrival of Ushedarmah; and as to tidings of the same period.
2. The marvellousness of Ushedar as to birth, glory of person, sayings and actions; the standing of the sun ten days amid the sky; the perishing of the fiend of the four-legged race; the production of a three-spring cloudless influence for vegetation; the weakening of superfluity and destitution; the extreme strengthening of alliance; the gratification due to the good friendship of foreigners; the great increase of the wisdom of religion; and the praise of Ushedar's smiting with a serpent-scourge of several kinds in the religion of the Mazda-worshippers.
3. The mightiness of the resources in the fifth century of the same millennium; the manifestation of the wizard Mahrkus for seven years, in the year which is reported in all the regions which are seven; the coming on and arrival of the winter of Mahrkus, the perishing of most of mankind and animals within three winters and in the fourth, through the awfulness of those winters and the witchcraft of Mahrkus; and the dying away of Mahrkus of scanty progeny (gasuko-zahishno), during the fourth winter, through the Dahman Afrin. 4. The opening of the enclosure made by Yim, the coming of mankind and animals therefrom, and the complete progress of mankind and animals again, arising specially from them.
5. After those winters, the abundant and great increase in the milk of cattle, and the abundant nourishment of mankind by milk; the less distress of body in cattle, the fullness and prosperity of the world, the celebrity of assembled mankind, and the great increase of liberality. 6. Also the feebleness of poverty among mankind, just like what revelation mentions thus: 'Even so he, O Zartosht! though he be more unfortunate than he who is accepting from him, is like the creator whose bounty of permanent liberality does thus, in the embodied existence, remain in his dwelling.'
7. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that winter passes away, of which it is said that it is boisterous and destructive, then a wild beast, black and wide-travelling, walks up to the Mazda-worshippers, and thus it thinks, that they who worship Mazda will therefore not finally hate us more than him who is their own progeny, the son whom they thus bring up as a Mazda-worshipper here below, in fondness and freedom from malice towards well-yielding cattle.
8. 'Then Ardwahisht calls out to the Mazda-worshippers from the upper region, and thus he speaks: "You are for the worship of Mazda; let no one of you become such a slaughterer of cattle as the slaughterers you have been before. 9. Recommend increase in gifts, recommend neighbourliness in person; are you worshipping Mazda? do you slaughter cattle? do you slaughter those of them which give you assistance, which speak to you thus: 'On account of your helpfulness one tells you that you are worshipping Mazda and you may eat?' I am in neighbourliness before that, until the time when you exclaim: 'Mine are the serpent and toad.'
10. '"And you recommend increase, you recommend neighbourliness, and the Mazda-worshippers slaughter cattle, even those of them who give them assistance, so that you are worshipping Mazda and you eat; I am in neighbourliness before that, until the time when you exclaim: 'Mine are the serpent and toad.'
11. '"Contentedly the Mazda-worshippers slaughter cattle, contentedly the cattle of the Mazda-worshippers let them butcher, and contented are the cattle when they do not butcher them; contentedly the Mazda-worshippers eat cattle, and contented are the cattle when they eat them. 12. And then, when there are spirits, the slaughterers and whatever they slaughter, the butchers and whatever they butcher and the eaters and whatever they eat are alike watched by them."'
13. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that century fully elapses, which is the fifth in the second millennium as regards the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, then of all those who are upon the earth, the existences which are both wicked and righteous, two-thirds in the land of Iran are righteous and one-third wicked; and so likewise the Turanians and those who are around Iran remain non-Iranian around Iran; the chief increase in dwellings here below, of those in the embodied existence, remains just as now.'
14. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that millennium has fully elapsed, which is the first of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, what is the separation after the first century?' 15. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.' 16. 'And what is the separation after the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth century?' 17. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.'
18. Then, when thirty winters of the tenth century are unelapsed (aranako), a maiden, who is Shapir-abu, walks up to the water; she that is the mother of that good Ushedarmah, and her former lineage is from Vohu-roko-i Frahanyan in the family of Isadvastar, the son of Zartosht that is brought forth by Arang. 19. Then she sits in that water and drinks it, and she kindles in a high degree those germs which were the second of the last that the righteous Zartosht was dropping forth originally, and they introduce that son whose name is the Developer of Worship (that is, he augments liberality). 20. Though fifteen years old, the damsel (zihanako) has not before that associated with men; nor yet afterwards, when she becomes pregnant, has she done so before the time when she gives birth.
21. When that man becomes thirty years old, the sun stands still in the zenith of the sky for the duration of twenty days and nights, and it shines over all the regions which are seven. 22. So, too, the declaration of them themselves is that they know that the separation of the millennium, which this religion has heard about by listening, is even thus; and of those who do not even then know, that it is something which is different.
23. When that man becomes thirty years old, he confers with the archangels, the good rulers and good providers; on the morrow, in the daylight of the day, if is moreover manifest, when the embodied existence is thus undistressed - without a Kay and without a Karap (that is, not blind and not deaf to the affairs of the sacred beings), and is to be appropriated (that is, has not made its own self apart from the affairs of the sacred beings), and is produced full of life - that it has become extending, and is again great in various places in Eranvej where the good Daiti is.

CHAPTER 10. Ushedarmah's millennium.

1. About the marvellousness which is after the end of the millennium of Ushedar and the arrival of Ushedarmah, until the end of the millennium of Ushedarmah and the arrival of Soshyant; and as to tidings of the same period.
2. The marvellousness of Ushedarmah as to birth, glory of person, sayings, and actions; the standing of the sun amid the sky twenty days long; and the increase of the milk of cattle arrives at a maximum (avartum), just as what it says, that one milks only one mature cow (tora az) for a thousand men, and that he brings as much milk as a thousand men require; also the feebleness of hunger and thirst is just as it says, that by only a single ration one becomes satisfied for three nights, and whoever eats a leg of mutton has plenty for himself for three days and nights. 3. The diminution of decay and extension (veshih) of life, the increase of humility and peace, and the perfection of liberality and enjoyment in the world.
4. Like this which revelation states, that, when the first ten winters in the last millennium pass away the Mazda-worshippers then make enquiry together thus: 'Are we really more hairy-headed (sar-vars-ik-tar) than occurred before, owing to the well-yielding cattle, so that food and clothing are less necessary for us? Has affection come to us more completely, owing to those cattle, than it was ours before? Have we grown up less deteriorated in the hair, by old age, than those grown up before? Are the thoughts, words, and deeds of our women and children more instructed than they were before? 5. And has this thing occurred, that he is classed as disqualified who in training a child has become quite retrogressive (pas-uruzd), and is his penalty arranged? Does the fiend think of the Karap class, and are they utterly destroyed by her through those whose thoughts are most evil, devoid of righteousness, and devoid of a liking for righteousness? 6. Near here, in the disturbance of the existences, does that happen as heard by us from the ancients, when listening to the true proclaimers of the Mazda-worshippers? And now, even when our numbers are so greatly maintaining this dispensation, do we sanctify (aharayinem) righteousness (that is, do we perform duty and good works) more vociferously and more strenuously?'
7. This, too, it says, even that no one passes away in the last millennium, other than those whom they smite with a scaffold weapon, and those who pass away from old age. 8. When fifty-three years of that millennium of his have remained, the sweetness and oiliness in milk and vegetables are so completed that, on account of the freedom of mankind from wanting meat, they shall leave off the eating of meat, and their food becomes milk and vegetables. 9. When three years have remained they shall leave off even the drinking of milk, and their food and drink become water and vegetables.
10. And in his millennium are the breaking (lanako) of the fetters of Zohak, the rousing of Keresaspo for the smiting of Zohak, the arrival of Kay Khusro and his companions for the assistance of Soshyant in the production of the renovation of the universe, and the provision of most of mankind with the Gathic disposition and law; also the occurrence of many other wonders and marvels manifest in that millennium of his.
11. And this, too, it says, namely: 'When that millennium has fully elapsed, which is the second of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, what is the separation after the first century?' 12. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.' 13. 'And what is the separation after the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, or tenth century?' 14. And Ohrmazd spoke thus: 'The sun conceals itself.'
15. And when thirty winters of the tenth century are unelapsed, that maiden, who is Gobak-abu, walks up to the water; she that is the mother of that testifying Soshyant who is the guide to conveying away the opposition of the destroyer, and her former lineage is from Vohu-roko-i Frahanyan in the family of Isadvastar, the son of Zartosht that is brought forth by Arang. 16. 'That maiden whose title is All-overpowerer is thus all-overpowering, because through giving birth she brings forth him who overpowers all, both the affliction owing to demons, and also that owing to mankind.' 17. Then she sits in that water, when she is fifteen years old, and it introduces into the girl him 'whose name is the Triumphant Benefiter, and his title is the Body-maker; such a benefiter as benefits (savinedo) the whole embodied existence, and such a body-maker alike possessing body and possessing life, as petitions about the disturbance of the embodied existences and mankind.' 18. Not before that has she associated with men; nor yet afterwards, when she becomes pregnant, has she done so before the time when she gives birth.
19. When that man becomes thirty years old, the sun stands still in the zenith of the sky for the duration of thirty days and nights, and it arrives again at that place where it was appointed by allotment.

CHAPTER 11. Soshyant and the Renovation [Frashegird].

1. About the marvellousness which is after the end of the millennium of Ushedarmah and the arrival of the Triumphant Benefiter, until the end of the fifty-seventh year of Soshyant and the production of the renovation among the existences.
2. Concerning the marvellousness of Soshyant as to splendour and glory of person, it says that 'when the coming of the last rotation of those rotations of the seasons of Ushedarmah occurs, the man Soshyant is born whose food is spiritual and body sunny (that is, his body is as radiant as the sun);' also this, that 'he looks on all sides with six-eyed power (6-doisarih), and sees the remedy for persecution by the fiend.'
3. This, too, that with him is the triumphant Kayan glory 'which the mighty Faridoon bore when Az-i Zohak was smitten by him; also Kay Khosraw was bearing it when the Tur Frangrasiyak was smitten by him; also Frangrasiyak bore it when the Drve Zenigak was smitten by him; and Kay Vishtasp shall bear it when you fully attract him to righteousness, and through it he shall carry off the fiend from the concerns of the world of righteousness.'
4. And this, too, that in fifty-seven of his years there occur the annihilation of the fiendishness of the two-legged race and others, and the subjugation of disease and decrepitude, of death and persecution, and of the original evil of tyranny, apostasy, and depravity; there arise a perpetual verdant growth of vegetation and the primitive gift of joyfulness; and there are seventeen years of vegetable-eating, thirty years of water-drinking, and ten years of spiritual food.
5. And all the splendour, glory, and power, which have arisen in all those possessing splendour, glory-, and power, are in him on whom they arrive together and for those who are his, when many inferior human beings are aroused splendid and powerful; and through their power and glory all the troops of the fiend are smitten. 6. And all mankind remain of one accord in the religion of Ohrmazd, owing to the will of the creator, the command of that apostle, and the resources of his companions.
7. At the end of the fifty-seven years the fiend and Ahriman are annihilated, the renovation for the future existence occurs, and the whole of the good creation is provided with purity and perfect splendour. 8. Just as revelation states thus: 'When that millennium has fully elapsed, which is the third of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, that Mazda-worshipper whose name is so Triumphant then marches forward from the water Kanyisa with a thousand companions and also maidens of restrained disposition and blindly striving behaviour; and he smites the wicked people who are tyrannical, and annihilates them.'
9. Then those Mazda-worshippers smite, and none are smiting them. 10. Then those Mazda worshippers produce a longing for a renovation among the existences, one ever-living, ever-beneficial, and ever desiring a Lord. 11. 'Then I, who am Ohrmazd, produce the renovation according to the longing among the existences, one ever-living, ever-beneficial, and ever desiring a Lord.'



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