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This digital edition copyright © 1997 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.
Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881.
Be it known that, to test by means of religious wisdom whatever (relating to good creations) is hidden, is to make manifest its functions and to impart intelligence of the result of the experiments thereon. Whosoever is yet to be proved, does not always give confidence; but whosoever (has been tried and) no longer needs be tested on account of his prestige, gives full confidence. He is the tried person who needs no longer be tried on account of his marked professional repute, [likewise] his notoriety, [likewise] public recognition as an experienced person by means of the skilled examiner. By a threefold trial a person or thing is tested. A person or thing that is tried, may be compared to the well-known physician (referred to in the Vendidad), who for the first time administers physic to three individuals and, relieving them from their diseases thereby, is licensed to carry on his profession as a certified physician (pavan hu bazeshkih vazerinidan patash shikunyen). Likewise, by administering medicine for the first time to three individuals respectively, if life become extinct (in all three), the individual is decided upon as a sham physician and is punished. Again, in order to test every other individual professional capability [act] the standard of the test of a physician is laid down. Hence the notoriety of various people connected with religion and sovereignty, depends upon trials of three different kind. and of three different degrees. Thus, whosoever in the trial by the skilled examiner, proves good should be trusted and believed, while whosoever proves bad on account of his various failings should, manifestly, be prevented from continuously contriving pollution and destruction among the people of the world.
Among the good kings who are related to Jamshed, may be included those who are descended from Airik after Faridoon; first, those that are from Minocheher -- secondly, those that are from the Kayanians -- and thirdly, those that come from Huafrit* -- from the very Kayanians they say come the Sasanians.
[* Huafrit may be a name of Darab the son of Bahman by his wife Humai. The name occurs in Yasht 5.180, where the individual referred to desires to attain to the conquest of a large kingdom, probably the conquest Turkestan, Rum and Hindustan ascribed to king Dara by the Shah-namah and the Tarikh-i Tabari. From the evidence of the Denkard in this volume, as well as in the preceding one, Huafrit is the name of a king who was the pioneer of a known dynasty in Iran. Professor Darmesteter regards it as a common word and renders it by the expression "fully blessed." The testimony of the Denkard corroborates the narratives of the Shah-namah, and of the Tarikh-i Tabari. The Denkard tells us that the descendants of Huafrit and Sasan are related to one another. The two Persian books mentioned above trace the Sasanian kings from Sasan the son of Bahman, while the Tarikh-i Tabari gives the descent of the Ashkanians from Dara-i kebr, who was also called Dara-i segar, the second son of Darab, son of Bahman. The Persian text runs as follows: -- (omitted)]
Each of these kings acquired (inherited) from Jamshed the virtues of devotion [irajan = sacrifice of the soul] to the Deity, purity, progress, honest faith and constitutional free Government. Men being in memory thereof (i.e. of the descendants of Jamshed) chose experienced persons to hold sway over them; and through individuals born of his (i.e. Jamshed's) line, and through their continuance from age to age, a connection with the Frashegird is declared (in the good religion.)
It is manifest (from the good religion) that evil-ruling was by the descendants* of Zohak, who were utterly vanquished in the ninth and tenth centuries (after Zoroaster). Each of them, owing to (the heritage of) Zohak ('s evil habits,) was immoral, blemished, unrighteous, contemplating injury, harm and devastation in the world, and embarrassing his subjects by means of evil-ruling.
[* This may be an illusion to Mazdak and his adherents, who were subdued and slain by the order of Noshirwan the Just, in whose reign Mazdakian beliefs were totally suppressed and wiped out of Iran.]
The test of people as evil-monarchs, and the decision of mankind thereupon, may be (easily) achieved by a recollection of (the career of) Zohak. For the descendants of Taj there is declared (in the good religion) infamy, obscurity and obloquy.
It is revealed (in the good religion) that the gift of the good religion was acquired [lit. shared in] by Gayomard at the beginning of creations,* and the continuance of the human species was through him. Kingship and judgeship were instituted by Hooshang. The gift of immortality was bestowed on the world through Jamshed; and after Jamshed till the age of Zartosht the kings of Jamshed's blood exercised refined sovereignty in Iran (by dint of Jamshed's creed.)
[* The passage laid down in the Avesta, in memory of the farohar of Gayomard, (vide Frawardin Yasht, 87) runs as follows:
"We remember the Fravashi of Gaya Maretan, who first listened unto the thoughts and doctrines of Ahura Mazda, and through whom Ahura Mazda produced the race of the Iranian countries, the seeds (nations) of the Iranian countries.]
Again, by the complete acceptance and propagation (of the revelation) first through Zartosht, the bodies of demons were broken+ (sheda kalput shekaste).
[+ In Y9.14-15, the angel Haoma describes the destruction of the bodies of demons by Zarathushtra in the following words:
"O Zarathushtra! the celebrated one in Airyana Vaejah, thou didst recite the Ahuna Vairya four times, and by the loud intonation and recitation thereof thou didst cause, O Zarathushtra all demons to (disappear under the earth, that before wandered about the earth in human shape. So thou best been, by means of thy material and spiritual powers, the greatest (most revered), the strongest, the most diligent, the most agile and the most victorious."
The four Ahunwars referred to in the above passage, follow the 'aetat tem' formula, and are recited while the Zaota is pounding haoma.]
Secondly, through the renovation by Ushedar, a descendant of Zartosht, the bodies of ferocious quadrupeds will be broken.
Thirdly, through the renovation by Ushedarmah, a descendant of Zartosht, the bodies of poisonous and pernicious serpentine species will be broken.
Fourthly, through the renovation by Soshyant, a descendant of Zartosht, the bodies of the two-legged species of demon-men will be broken. At each epoch [danar=time] by the promulgation in the world of the standard law, and by the belief and faithfulness in it of men generally, the final reformation relating to the tan-i pasin will, it is declared, be accomplished by the will and commandments of the Deity.
Again, the evil religion is for deluding men into the immoral habits of demons, and it was first cherished by Zohak, the diminisher of creations. Again, the composition of the Jewish scriptures was begun by him (i.e. Zohak); and it was owing to Zohak that the world is grown dishonest, blemished, immoral, pernicious and mortal (i.e. liable to hellish torments). The advent of Abraham, the high-priest of the Jews, was owing to him, and the first, the second, and the third submission of men to the Jewish faith, was caused by him. And owing to the expert chieftains of Zohak's creed the adherents in the world of the Mazdayasnian faith will, in every age and in manifold ways, become dishonest, blemished, immoral, lascivious and injurious. It is declared that one ought to be capable (avaeidan) of suppressing [lit. breaking] them (i.e. the above-mentioned evil habits), to cleanse the world of them, and to deliver the people from them. For this reason innumerable other objects, after they have been thrice proved to be good, should be used for improving living humanity. -- Regarding those that are bad, they should be broken and destroyed. -- This standard of test is also declared with reference to sovereignty and religion, good or evil.
Be it known that, whosoever is of the Mazdayasnian Faith, is by reason of his contemplation of the Mazdayasnian revelation, called a voluntary adherent of the Mazdayasnian religion. The simile is this, that as every organic being, by reason by of the blood of its species, is called after that species, so the upholder of the religion, by acting in consonance with the religious thought, is called a Mazdayasnian [lit. an adherent of the Mazdayasnian religion.]
Be it known that, the body is given unto the soul as a powerful complement, such as the horse is unto the rider or the driver. The soul by means of guiding the body to refrain from committing sin, attains to worthy power as a recompense from the Lord and Giver of the body. By the liking for indolent happiness, by casting off (heavenly) benefits through indifference, by not abstaining from sin, and by not doing acts of merit, the soul is doomed to the penal abode it deserves. Like as a monarch bestows presents on [lit. thanks] one, whose vocation is to train up horses, for giving a good training in nice paces to his horses; but fetters are fitly placed on him (i.e. the trainer) by the order of the king, if no good training (of the horses) is achieved by him.
Be it known that, men are of superior habits on account of the approach into them of supernatural glory for preserving them from the evil (demoniac) shadow, by which means they (i.e., men) are more zealously active in their avocations as angels are most zealously active in their functions. Whosoever among men is more zealously active in the performance of his duties, is so on account of his soul's communion (with the supernatural.) Likewise, by a cooperation with the good spirits he attains to greater proximity to the Deity; and for a worthy formation of his habits (through supernatural help) he owes thanks to the Deity. Again, such a one to whom has come from the Deity the strength for performing his duties as well as the supernatural glory for protecting him from evil influence, becomes most faithful [lit. most hopeful] towards the Deity. -- It is manifestly stated in the good religion in the words of Ohrmazd: "That the gift of supernatural glory keeps him (i.e. man) zealously active (in the fulfillment of his duties), and far from the evil shadow and baneful influence of the destroyer." -- For this reason, whosoever is most indolent and without any vocation, remains far from communion with the good spirits, and proves ungrateful to the Deity by not fulfilling his duties with the strength that has reached him from the Deity. It is manifestly stated in the good religion in the words of Ohrmazd: "that he is gifted with the sins of indolence from the evil shadow." And for that very reason, Ohrmazd did not produce corn for the indolent who did not desire it (i.e. who caused famine in the country by his indolent habits.)
[* This heading might be, likewise, rendered: "On the acceptance and non-acceptance of what is hidden and unknown to human knowledge, by means of the intelligence of the sayings of the revelation, from the exposition in the good religion." -Eng. tr.] ]
Be it known that, in man reason is the judging faculty. Like unto a judge who, while passing a decision upon a mysterious case, believes the testimony of a great person, and in his judgment approves of what is manifestly sensible and true (in it), the judging faculty of reason discerns, [accepts] by means of the intelligence of the religion, what knowledge of the invisible is acquirable or not acquirable for this life. Whatever is known by the test of reason to be sublime and true in every respect, is the essence of reason. -- Again the sayings of that religion, which proves [is] manifestly miserable and false by the test of reasoning intelligence, are never fit for this life. What is said to be highly obscure in the eye of reason (khratu-akasih), is not accepted in the belief of the judging faculty of reason, just as the forged evidence of a false and deceitful person on a subject which as above-said, is hidden to the judge, is not accepted (as true) by the judging person.
Be it known that, righteous acts ought to be performed, and sin ought not to be committed. Again, righteous acts are of two kinds. First, the actual righteous deeds, such as are for the gratification of the good people. Secondly, righteous acts for (encouraging) the sublime decisions (of the pious people) such as are meant to please the evil people* for promoting the sublime religious decisions of the good people.
[* Such acts are performed not to encourage evil, but to restrain the evil people from doing any harm to the progress of the sublime doctrines of the good religion. -Eng. tr.]
Again, sins are of two kinds. First, the actual sinful deeds, such as are for the purpose of doing harm to the good people. Secondly, sinful acts on behalf of perverse decisions, such as are perpetrated for the purpose of doing harm to people of the evil religion, who mean to propitiate the good people on account of the sublime religious decisions of the good people.
Be it known that, the intellectual part of the spirit (in the person of man) preserves the body internally from its immoderate passions (chihr min az); and that regarding the food that reaches into the innermost body from without, the faculty of intellect guides [takes care of] man to take bread and meat in a moderate measure and to drink wine in a moderate quantity; it preserves him from swallowing dead putrid matter, moist or dry. -- And on this account it guides man to perfume himself externally by the most fragrant produce of trees (viz. fragrant flowers, leaves, etc.) -- It guides (man) to keep aloof from any infection from moist or dry dead matter, and from much putrefaction (emanating) from it. -- The intellectual part of the spirit, by the abode in it of Vohuman, the source of good sense, prevents the evil thought rushing into man and preserves him from inclining to deceitful propensities. He is the well-conducted of piety who is under the rule [lit. guidance] of piety. [Quoted from Y35.8.]
On the basis of the exposition in the good religion be it known that, the virtuous excellence of kings is more prominent through righteous glory and the right protection of the people or the world; and their moral depravity is intense through evil shadow and the evil keeping of the people of the world. -- Righteous glory is this, that through divine influence the king like a materfamilias, cherishes and well-conducts the people of the world. -- The right protection of the people of the world is this that the straightforward king keeps the world in moral order by the spread of justice, by profiting them and bestowing happiness upon them. -- The evil shadow implies that through the predominance of the demon (Ahriman) the king does not cherish his people like a materfamilias, but leads them to ruin (like a vile woman). -- Again, the evil keeping implies that through badly keeping the people of the world the immoral king by means of injustice pours harm and distress upon them.
Be it known that, the will of the most laudable, pure, and merciful Creator is like unto that of a worthy person, who, when he is praised by any body, contemplates his indebtedness to him and thinks of making return for it, and always regards the fulfillment thereof in the acquirement of the full reward by the praiser who deserves the gift. Thus the Creator bestows recompense for the deed on such of his creatures as acquit themselves of their indebtedness (to Him) by worshipping and extolling Him: for which (worship and extolling) man is endowed (by Him) with proper vigor and rendered capable. For this reason, He contemplates the indebtedness and thinks of making a recompense unto him (i.e. to man) for fulfilling the important duties towards Him; and the acquirement of the reward for doing those duties is to be regarded by the receiver of the gift from Him as recompense for his deeds. -- It is declared even to this extent, that no powerful (i.e. meritorious) deeds of an individual are ever to remain devoid of [far from] recompense (from the Deity).
Be it known that, the principles (or basis) of the good religion rest on men, who act in conformity with the will of Ohrmazd, and on their meditations on (and propagation of) the good religion, [and] the importance which is manifest from the lucid thoughts relating to the ways of both the worlds. -- The basis of the evil religion rests on the perverse thoughts in men against the doctrines of the good religion, on their own identification with the dark decisions of their religion, and on their conscience loading to evil sense [the ill-judged habits or ways derived from their (blunted) conscience]. -- The principles of the evil religion rest on a disbelief in the existence of the true religion, the import of which lies in shutting out the heart from the path of the divine thought, and in keeping aloof from the heart the divine monitions. -- Again, the inferior adherent of the good religion is the inferior meditator on the will of the Deity, [and] the inferior reciter (of the religious formulae) and the inferior doer (of works of merit), and his weight in the good religion is that of the pious man of the inferior stage. -- Again, the adherent of the middle stage of the good religion is the mediocre meditator on the will of the Deity, the mediocre reciter and the mediocre doer; and his weight in the good religion is that of the pious man of the middle stage. -- Again, the adherent of the superior stage of the good religion is the superior meditator on the will of the Deity, the superior reciter, the superior doer, and his weight in the good religion is that of the pious man of the superior stage.
Be it known that, the aspiration of the soul tends to an (immortal) existence on behalf of the Deity, and actuates the individual body to a pious communion with and a fulfillment of the will of the Deity. Such a wish was besought from the Almighty by Zartosht of the adorable farohar. The soul is permeated with the will of the Deity by a life-long act of merit. The fruition of joy from the Divinity unto the soul, rests on the pure mind endowed with good intuitive intelligence. Whosoever approves of the good religion, is a desirer of what is good for the soul (in its heavenly existence), for the spirit of Zartosht was thereby in communion with the Almighty, and he was manifest in this worldly region as the high-priest of the good religion, and (through him) there was dispensation of splendor and glory among sovereigns who possessed angelic habits and who with one accord worked out the divine project, for they caused, through their descendants, the progress of the work of the Frashegird. -- Again, whosoever (i.e. the king) by demoniac propensities works out the demon's will through demon-worship, proves a monarch (a tyrant accursed) with the evil shadow. Such was the propensity [wish] of the tyrant Zohak, the diminisher of creations. Through life-long sinfulness man is permeated with demoniac propensities [lit. the demoniac will is sin in toto.] -- The delight from the demons unto the soul is owing to their connection with the evil-minded perverse sense, whose desires it (i.e. the evil faith) for the soul, ends his life in evil, since on account of it Zohak adhered to the demons, and his life therefore ended in the worst of evil. Accordingly, in this worldly region he became known as the leader of the most evil faith. He inculcated to the people the devilish habits of the wicked tyrant (Ahriman), and delusively bestowed this worldly transient (evil) happiness on those that with one accord worked for the purpose of fulfilling his (Ahriman's) will. He (Zohak) is to do harm to the living creatures again at the end.* -- How can those (heretical) priests be the promoters of the final deliverance, who are to injure mankind hereafter? How can those whose religious sayings (date-melya) teach of mystic vices and of the wicked one (viz. Ahriman), be said to be (adherents) of the truly superior religion? They may be said to be beyond the pale of the good religion and the good sovereignty.
[* It is known regarding Zohak that be is again to harm mankind in future. It is said that when Faridoon took upon himself to kill Zohak, he was prevented from doing so by an inspiration from the holy Srosh, who besought him to bind Zohak in a deep valley of Mount Damawand. Faridoon acted accordingly, and this story is declared in the Shah-namah of Firdausi as follows:
(Persian quote omitted)
It does not occur in the Avesta, but we are told in the Bundahishn, the Zand-e-Vohuman Yasht, the Pahlavi Jamasp-namah, and in the Afrin-e Ardafravash, that Zohak is imprisoned in the depth of Mount Damawand by Faridoon, and that he will be brought out of his captivity at the end of this world (i.e. about the time of the Resurrection) when the hero Sam will completely destroy him.]
Be it known that, the weight of a man may be understood in the following ways: first, by the vigor of his good sense; secondly, by the poverty [lit. leanness] of his good sense. Whosoever possesses a vigorous good sense, forms with good sense, his inclination as regards every object prudently guides himself, prudently takes care of himself and looks to his own preservation. -- Whosoever is weak in intelligence is self-interested in his inclinations and guides himself by self interest. Whosoever guides himself by self-interest, does not see that life is as changeable as the colors of spring-as the ignorant beholders of the moon, understand it to be what it seems to them (and not as it really is.) -- He that has evil inclinations is devoid of good understanding power, and ruins his own life without knowing by means of good sense what he himself is. He cannot distinguish by means of his sense of taste between what is sweet and what is bitter, nor by means of his sense of (moral) hearing discern what is right and what is wrong. It is the needy who regard and call fragrance as stench, and stench as fragrance, sweet as bitter, and bitter as sweet. There are many of such condemned beliefs. -- Many heretical priests adhere to similar beliefs, and likewise create in men, by means of sayings of evil knowledge, a liking for immorality and other vicious habits; and (in spite of the human knowledge regarding true revelation) they call their immoral creed as connected with the source of good and as an all-good revelation of the All-Wise One.
Be it known that, the Creator on account of His dispensation (i.e. bestowal) of all sorts of excellent conditions unto (His) creatures, is worthy to be glorified and worshipped. Also the glorification of the Creator is (necessary) on account of (the manifest proof of) His invisibility (even) to the invisible, His omniscience, omnipotence, all-ruling sovereignty, and every similar manifestation (of His supremacy). In praise He ought to be glorified first; in the yazashna [Yasna] ritual His khshnuman [dedication] must precede (those of the good spirits) whereby there is increase of vigor from the Deity unto His creatures. -- How should the Almighty [He] be extolled? By means of religious wisdom, truth and charity. Because thereby he is sufficiently glorified, and man receives a reward for it. Accordingly, it is right (for man) to glorify his Creator at the end of the Niyayesh prayer, and to repeat the khshnuman respecting Him at the close of the yazashna ritual.* The worship of the Creator is an evidence of good virtues, rectitude and gifted powers, and a means of His creatures' communion with him. There are (certain kinds of) praise, prayer and adoration, which though comprehending the praise, prayer and worship unto God, do not in the end reach the Creator (i.e. are not acceptable to Him), nor His creatures, but [these] would probably cause hatred in the Creator and distress unto His (true) creatures. How can one who adores a demon with the name of a good spirit, be said to enjoy the good existence pertaining to (the worshippers of) the supreme Lord, and a communion with His originally great creatures?
[* Thus in every prayer, at the beginning as well as at the end, the Deity is extolled first, and after him the archangels and the angels.]
Again, the heretical priests who neither utter prayer nor worship, produce disbelief in one another regarding religion. That is the religion which was sent out (revealed) at the beginning or original creation to inculcate unto men the prayer of the Divine. What-ever (religion) does not so (inculcate it) is such as would affect (i.e. desire) serious distresses and defects. And its messengers are to turn (mankind) to Ahriman, the demons, and the druj, and thereby the world becomes subject to disquietude. Can the law (i.e. the religion) that excludes prosperity, be fit to exalt and endow men in this world? The man who is (of a religion directing) to extol and worship God, is gifted therein by the Yazads with their (supernatural) power of the knowledge (of the Divine), and hence that man is manifestly known to fulfill (with the knowledge of the religion) the glorification and worship of the Deity. The predominance and the welfare of mankind is owing to their much glorification of the Deity.*
[* The holy prophet Zartosht makes the following confession in his prayer to Ohrmazd in the 36th Chapter of the Yasna:
"O Ahura Mazda! We (who are Thy indebted creatures) sincerely approach unto Thee through the Fire of Ohrmazd; we sincerely approach unto Thee through Thy good thought and good piety through the acts and words of Thy good wisdom; we sincerely approach unto Thee through all Thy good thoughts, good words, and good actions, we bow to Thee and we invoke Thee; we implore Thy purest person, O Ahura Mazda! that this light (of our souls) may be worthy of one of the most exalted regions -- the heavenly region of the sun."]
Be it known that, he is prudent among men who abstains from uttering and committing the sin that has occurred to his mind [lit. which has reached him in thought]. And the more prudent (man) is he who abstains from thinking of the sin which has occurred to him in desire. -- And the most prudent is he who adopts ways and means (char vaduneda) that his will may refrain from sin.
Be it known that, on the basis of the exposition in the good religion, such is the saying of the fore-seeing sovereign (of the religion, viz. the holy prophet Zartosht,) that as men and as human organisms, the following three kinds are known to be most efficient among the people of this world. True manly nature obtains in the man that (has) these six (qualities): -- virtue, wisdom, good habits, modesty, sympathy, thankfulness, and fidelity. Whosoever has these six qualities, holds thereby an exalted position and higher place among the great people. -- Whosoever is mediocre (in the above-mentioned qualities,) is a man of the mediocre stage. -- Whosoever is inferior (in them) is a man of the inferior stage. -- The being of that man, who has none of those six qualities, but who exists for the purpose of doing harm unto men, is not (truly) human. -- Again, whosoever has ill-habits opposed to the same good qualities, such as immoral sense, deceitful nature, absence of modesty, false love, a strong feeling against partaking in a thanksgiving, faith destroying infidelity, etc., is a demon on account of these demoniac habits. -- Whosoever is devoid of good qualities, and possesses evil qualities pertaining to bad practices [lit. laws,] is a demon-man through human demonism -The (spiritual) youthfulness in this world is for the man that is pure. For this reason, whosoever is devoid of demonism and of any connection with the demon, and possesses many good qualities, shall be extolled and promoted; while he who has many evil defects shall be abhorred and degraded. -- He who possesses no good qualities, shall not be considered as of any dignity among the virtuous; and such is the monition of the good religion that the good-thinking man shall not even associate with him who is a mediocre among the blemished people.
Be it known that, the cure of the world of any infection [lit. connection] from a prevalent disease is by means of the good revelation, which is the elixir of life, the remedy for every (moral) illness of the world. -- The promotion of the living inferior people by the great is always on account of goodness, for goodness ameliorates mankind by the medium of knowledge, and the knowledge of the spirit is the good revelation. Accordingly, the remedy of the world's (moral) illness is owing to the currency in perfect vigor of the good revelation among the people of the world, and thereby the world is cured of its (moral) sickness.
Be it known that, on the basis of the exposition of the good religion the saying of the Poryotkesh regarding whomsoever is good, is that whosoever is generally good, has his body healthy and controls his own individual person, his nourishment is (obtained) without drudgery and without fatigue (lit. zate = injured, distressed), he lives in peace with his co-inmates, and his fame gradually develops. -- Whosoever is always good, is always in happiness. -- Whosoever has his soul healthy, has his body likewise healthy. -- Whosoever is able to drive out the druj (i.e. an evil passion) from his own person, is a ruler over his own individual self. -- Whosoever is content with whatever reaches him (i.e. with his lot), has his nourishment without drudgery and distress. -- Whosoever well preserves the fire, water, cattle, and men that are in his charge, lives in peace with the inmates of his house. Whosoever industriously attends to his vocation, increases gradually in his reputation. -- Whosoever is constantly mischievous injures himself; his body is diseased; he has no power over his individual person; his provision is full of labor and affliction; he is not on peaceful terms with the co-inmates of his house; his reputation is struck (i.e. injured by him.) -- Whosoever continuously commits injury, is always in fear (of infernal penalty.) -- Whosoever has a diseased soul, has his body diseased. -- He in whose body the druj is oppressive, is not powerful over his own body. -- He who is discontented with what he has earned, has a nourishment full of drudgery and affliction. -- He is not in accord with the inmates of his house, who ill-preserves the fire, water, cattle, and men that are under his care. Whosoever does not attend to his vocation, injures his reputation.
Be it known that, the Creator Ohrmazd created every creature (regularly) from a single species, and produced every man from one single father; and for this reason, that (His) creatures may, on account of their common origin, nourish and improve and support one another, and men, from their common birth, may regard one another as their own, and do good to one another as sincere brothers, and remove injury one from the other, in order that Vohuman, Spandarmad, Srosh, and many other angelic powers may reach into men and dwell in them for the purpose of engendering in men an understanding coupled with devotion, a good reasoning power and other superior qualities, whereby men may prove capable of doing deeds of merit, and be meritorious themselves, wherever, and as long as, they desire, think, and speak of righteousness, and practice meritorious acts. But, if with one that is adapted (to perform acts of merit) are associated or closely coupled avarice, lust, wrath, jealousy, shame, spite and other sinful habits and vices, such a sinful and death-promoting person becomes the means of causing injury and affliction to others. There is no casting off the sins of such a person, nor forgiveness, nor absolution unto him from mankind; because if we strike or afflict any body, as a retribution thereof; we are justly punished and scourged according to the precept of religion, and that striking and infliction ever recoil upon our own souls. -- While that striking and other injuries come back upon ourselves, and there is fear of causeless injuries and mischief being punished by justice, it is suitable for man to amend himself by habits of not injuring (i.e. abstaining from injury or hurt). Man is not justified in injuring or hurting his fellow-creatures; hence it is a monition in the revelation that the ruler of a city shall cause that his subjects may be righteous and harmless. -- So among (heretical) priests those that do not see an unjust act of injury as a means of sin, regard avarice, lust, shame, spite and jealousy as appropriate (qualities) in men. -- The utterances of such priests are questionable sayings and palpable falsehood.
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