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This digital edition copyright © 1997 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.
Edited by Peshotun Dastoor Behramjee Sanjana, 1881
Be it known that, the Provident Creator Ohrmazd, Who is the Causer of Destiny, has in the limited time (appointed for Ahriman), counterbalanced two kinds of evil-doers by means of two kinds of powerful men. It is by continuing in the idea (i.e. by steadfastly holding the idea) of the great supremacy of God, that man will come to dislike (the use of) his own power to do evil; he does evil because of his power to deceive. His approval of actions (good or bad), is in accordance with his (good or evil) mental propensities. Man, therefore, in that limited period of six thousand years, ought to refrain and curb every tendency towards devilish actions, and (in his life) exhibit to his fellow-creatures, till the end of this world's existence, deeds that are worthy of the soul.
One (of the two kinds of powerful men above-mentioned, and designed) for (human) guidance, is the holy and pure person of the Athornan who possesses in himself the strength of Spenamino, and who contributes to save from sin, in the short span of life allotted to them, those that adhere to him, by communicating to them his own desires (in this life) he thereby acquires victory in the end, entirely baffling and repelling from his fellow-creatures the power of the Blemish-giver (Ahriman).
Such a pious person is said to be in correspondence with Spenamino, because Ohrmazd dwells in him. His garment is white. He is very much advanced (deeply versed) in mystic thoughts by the aid of Vohuman and the Mahraspand. He himself most dignified and illustrious, is guided by his inward Yazads of light. In the human body there dwell spiritual faculties that impart good sense for the guidance of the soul, and convey to man virtue through moral perception, contentment through obedience, and in his habits (i.e. an habitual use of) words of truth through intuitive wisdom.
In the four estates of men in this world, a holy man is regarded as one of the leaders of the priesthood; the religious and secular lord (Zarathushtrotema) being considered as the greatest (chief) among all the people of the world. Of all human clothing, the white garment is (most suitable) for such an enlightened person. -- They are the well-doing righteous ones, who (live only to) exalt or promote the good, and strike down the wicked.
Again, of those who lead (men to evil), one is the bad and impious person (priest), who inculcates the (wicked) faith of the Demon, and who on account of the evil luster of Ahriman in him, brings those who are subject to him, under evil influences, by imparting to them his own (evil) inclinations. Consequently, he cuts them off from their redemption (from hell). And whosoever (priest) loves such a (false) splendor of Ganamino, is blindly ignorant of the final condition (farjamih).
Such a person is styled Ganamino's self, because the latter predominates in him; and his conformity (with Ahriman) contributes to promote the perverse thought respecting the evil faith (i.e. it avails to bind him in perverse adherence to the evil faith), and likewise conduces to the abiding in him of hurtful and refractory demons. The free-handed liberal ones unto him are those hurtful northern planets, whereof one is called by the astronomers the evil Saturn, which will destroy the constellation named Dol (Aquarius) in the religious writings, and which will work harm to mankind by reason of their evil understanding. And such a (priest) will imbue men with (a spirit of) disobedience to God and discontent, and will bring falsehood into their faith through their low-mindedness.
The sinful ones who will be (born) to be priests or rulers among the people of this world, will descend from those wicked leaders of wicked tribes who teach the evil religion; and the (highest) chieftain of the wicked ones in this world, is he who is destined for the worst religion and for the worst abode (hell). And in garments, his clothing resembles that of one who is a slave to the Demon. And among the evil doers his business is to injure the good, and help on the wicked.
Again, one is that heroic person who shapes his conduct by his (constant) association with the pious ones, and who has a mind to encourage and support the Athornans who bring forward pious knowledge, as well as (to encourage) the work of well-conducting (good guidance) in a (wisely) regulated manner and by means of refined ideas (high ideals) ; and (who has a mind) to obtain religious decisions from those who are high-minded in their nature, and to offer beneficial aid to those people who are subject to him. Such a one will, in the appointed time of his life, be capable of saving himself from hell, and of obtaining a final reward. Likewise, such a well-born (hero) will to the end possess heavenly felicity (in himself) in both worlds. The exalted act of such an heroic-souled person has regard to his own virtuous self [lit. garb]; and his knowledge is imbued with the glory of the Good Spirit because of the abode in him of the good angels. He is actually called the philanthropic hero among the brave ones. Also he proves himself to be one who shines forth in the great manly feats of the valiant. And such a one imbibes sublime religious opinions, and preserves through his righteous wishes, good-naturedness in himself, and performs actions sublimely conceived. Among the people of this world those who are strong and of a warlike person [in the (four) professions], belong to the warrior class. Among these the valiant commanders-in-chief are the leaders. In point of garments, their uniform is red in color and of stout material, and is adorned with gold and silver, and inlaid with shining jewels; such a uniform is bright and brilliant too. -- In (civil) transactions their business is to administer superior justice to the world, and to promote and punish the good and the bad respectively.
Again, for the purpose of leading men into sinfulness [lit. sinful blending], one is the person of the selfish (warrior) who is (doomed) to be an associate of the prison (of hell), because of his evil-minded conduct (in this world), and who is deprived of [lit. throws off] his dignity and greatness (as a rational being) by conducting men into that hostile impiousness and vice which are characteristic of a teacher of the evil doctrines (or knowledge) of the Hinderer (Ahriman), and who eagerly performs actions calculated to (give effect to) his sinful desires, to disturb peace, and to overthrow righteousness. And during the finite period he causes those who are subject to him, to conduct themselves like the wicked Baratrute by means of the power of the evil planetary influence. His meet recompense at the end (i.e. after death), is the appearance (in bodily form) in front of him of all the desires of that (evil) doer. Such a person himself is the druja of perverse sense [lit. lustful]. In him there is a liking for the most confounding demons, and the fitting predominance of the wicked Aeshma. The liberal donor unto him is one of the evil northern planets, which the astronomers call Mars, and which religion designates 'the evil and immoral.' It is the obstinate one among the evil planets. It brings to him (viz. to the wicked warrior) fruitless misery, on account of which his disposition becomes inclined to perverse desires as well as to the selfish religion calculated to destroy his final (happiness). And such a one will in this world be (born) among such rulers as are selfish and perverse fighters. And in the class of- impious priests who are adversaries (of the Mazdayasna), he is the head of the wicked ones, an unworthy ruler and an infidel judge who is possessed of (mischievous) wisdom. And his own selfish person is a garment suitable for him.
Be it known that, the duration of the soul is everlasting; also it is limited. And the powerful (spiritual) substances that work with the soul for (the support of the animal) existence, are likewise eternal. And because of this strength the living organism is finite in this world. Again, the movement (of the animate body) in this world, is owing to the inward breath of life for thanksgiving (unto God). Also the bright soul or the respiratory power of the soul dwells in the navel (or the center of every animate object.) And hence the flowing of the waters and the growing of the trees. It is on account of this inward breath of life that all animate objects work so multifariously. Hence it is (manifest) that the rational animate being will exist for ever.
Be it known that, the continuity of the species of animate creatures of this earthly frame, resembles that of all animate objects. The appearance (or growth) of offspring is owing to the seed that begets it. Again, air is the restorative of the body, and the mutual combination of the (physical) elements (in it), is the result of its soul power on account of this soul power the creature is animate. Just as the workmanship of a goldsmith is judged of from the shape of a crown or throne made by him of the ore of gold; just as the ingenuity of a silversmith is made known to us by the vessels or stools manufactured by him from the ore of silver; just as the knowledge which the blacksmith has of his art is shown by the shape of an iron spade &c. made by him; just as the carpenter's skill is understood from the fashion of the chairs, benches and doors made by him from (unpolished) wood; so is the Lord of Existence known to us as the 'Cause of all Causes.' The origin of the world was owing to that vital luster (the soul); as it is said in the religion, that all inanimate objects have come into being from that vital power. The birth of a moving body is owing to the life pervading the original seed; also it is from the internal vital substance in the mother, that the embryo received its form (of a child). Again the elementary substances in an offspring serve to maintain by means of digestion the consciousness of its sources of intelligence. Just as a crown, a glass or a goblet is formed from gold or silver metal by the ingenuity of a goldsmith or a silversmith; just as a hoe or a spade, a bench or a door-ease, is made of iron metal or wood by the skill of the blacksmith or carpenter; so is a physical body caused to move by means of the life (yehvunashne) in it, so are the forms of seeds and the plants germinating from them by means of their animating essences. Again, it is said in the religion, that what is inanimate is made to move by means of life, and that life subsists (in this world) on account of the person wherein it is embodied.
The advent of this superior vital power in the seed, is explained to be like that of a person in the midst of some object, or like the form of a child in the womb of its be-getter (mother). Also it is on account of the ingenious operations of the soul power that a child is formed from a male seed conceived by its mother. Just as the mineral ore is purified by being melted in heat, just as wood is polished by cutting and scraping, so are the living bodies.
Again, it is said in the religion regarding beings (that are) active on account of the life in them, that the very abode of life is constituted by means of this moving vital substance. The formation of all physical existences in this world is by One Alone (the Creator). Just as from an object its nature (becomes manifest), or from a person his habits, so does the complete formation of the face of an offspring in the mother's womb, from the power of the soul (in it). Just as the ingenuity of a goldsmith forms of gold various sorts of crowns, glasses or goblets, just as the skill of a carpenter makes of wood chairs, benches and doors of various shapes, so is this material body organized by means of the soul. Without this powerful vital principle the world would never have existed.
There are multifarious objects and persons (in this world). Regarding the functions of these objects and persons it is said in the religion that they will do righteous or evil actions in proportion to their correspondence with the two invisible spirits (viz. Spenta Mainyu and Angra Mainyu).
Be it known that, these are the ten best monitions by the Holy Zartosht: (1) One is that man should improve himself in order to render obedience unto God; he should remain with firm confidence in the Creator Ohrmazd as His faithful (creature) ; and that the subjects of the people-protecting and righteous sovereign of this world, should place loyal trust in his rule (i.e. in the rule of such a sovereign). -- (2) One is that man ought to believe in the good religion which is the source of piety, that he may exalt himself through righteousness. -- (3) One is that for the purpose of ameliorating (the lot of the people) in this world, they should be guided by the opinions of this religion, with the support [strength] of the authority of the head dastur or ruler. -- (4) One is that every man should become capable of doing good to every other man, and of benefiting every one without doing harm to anybody. -- (5) One is that man should thoroughly defeat and keep off the druj from his person, and improve his nature for (the advent of) the Yazads into him. -- (6) One is that man should perform actions which are known to be good to one who is improved in his nature (by his belief in the religion), and avoid or condemn those which are not so recognized by him. -- (7) One is that man in order to be pure (or freed) from his sins and be adorned with meritoriousness, should keep at a distance from all kinds of evil pertaining to the bad, but associate with the good in all manner of goodness. -- (8) One concerns the practice of khwetodas, for the purpose of terrifying away the demons from one's person, and of securing for one's self the blessing of the pious (Yazads or farohars). -- (9) One is that a just high-priest should be maintained for the purpose of purifying one's self from sin, and of opening the wide path to obtain the recompense for pious merit. -- (10) One concerns the thanksgivings unto God for the attainment of the worthy object (of one's desire), and the glorification, extollings and adoration of the Creator Ohrmazd, the Amesha Spentas, and the Yazads (in gratitude) for any fresh goodness.
Be it known that, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that man should improve himself by rendering obedience unto God, and by having firm confidence in the supremacy of that preserving Ruler of the Universe -- the evil-inspired, vicious Akht proclaimed the disturbance (cessation) of fidelity unto God, or disobedience towards 3 Him. -- (2) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that man ought to have a firm faith in the good religion, in order that he may be enabled to exalt himself through righteousness, -- the evil-conscienced, vicious Akht proclaimed that for the purpose of annihilating the good religion, the evil practices of sorcery should be made current. -- (3) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that for the sake of the prosperity and advancement of the people, justice should be embellished (regulated) in this world, -- the evil-knowing, wicked Akht proclaimed that justice should be administered in this world irrespective of the authority of a ruler (ahuih), and (likewise) without any discrimination. -- (4) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that no injury should be inflicted by anybody on any person, -- the dark-conscienced (black-hearted), sorcerous and vicious Akht, on account of his sorcerous practices and his enmity toward men, proclaimed that no good should be done to any person, but that every person should be rendered capable of doing evil (to others). -- (5) One, Against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that man should improve his nature, in order to be able to repel the druj from his person, and to cause the entrance of the Yazads into him, -- the dark-conscienced, vicious Akht, on account of his enmity to men, proclaimed that human nature should be corrupted so that the Yazads might not enter into the body, but that the demons might abide in the body. -- (6) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that man should embellish (perfect) his nature (and be qualified) for pious actions, that he should perform whatever action he knows to be virtuous, and inquire about, and learn from the learned, whatever he does not know or understand, -- the vicious sorcerer Akht, on account of his enmity to mankind, proclaimed that man should abstain from performing any action that is known to be virtuous, he should neither inquire about, nor learn from the learned, what he does not know or comprehend. -- (7) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that man in order to keep himself pure from sin, and to adorn his soul with the works of merit, should keep far from all the evil ways of the wicked, and that he should associate with the good, -- the vicious sorcerer Akht prompted by his wicked heart [lit. dark-conciencedly], proclaimed that for the purpose of creating an inclination towards corruption through (the spread of) sin among the people of this world, and thereby effecting great destruction in this world through sorcery, men should associate with the bad in evil doing, while he should keep aloof from the good in all manner of goodness. -- (8) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that khwetodas ought to be practiced for the purpose of greatly tormenting the demons, (and thus driving them) out of one's self, and of being enriched with the blessings of the good spirits,-the vicious sorcerer Akht, on account of his malignity towards the good people, proclaimed that khwetodas which a good person ought to practice, should not be practiced, and that man should lead a distressed (wretched) life (without performing it). -- (9) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that a sapient dastur should be appointed for (the purpose of pointing out the means of) the purification of one's sins, and for opening to men the wide path of (gaining) the recompense for meritorious acts, -- the evil-inspired, wicked Akht proclaimed the non-observance of obedience or submission to the authority of the dastur, and asserted that the recompense for meritorious actions was of no avail, and that there could be no relief (of the soul) from the penalty (penitence) for sins (committed). -- (10) One, against the monition of the Holy Zartosht, that man to be worthy of what is attained by him, should offer thanks unto God, and that he should glorify, extol, and worship the Creator Ohrmazd and the Amahraspands and the Yazads, for every fresh benefit (or boon coming) from the divine beings, -- the evil-hearted, vicious sorcerer Akht proclaimed enmity to the divine beings, affection to the demons, the abandonment of the adoration of the divine beings, and the practice of every maimer of demon-worship.
[* Dayun is the name of a dastur-e-dasturan [Zarathushtrotema] who flourished in the time of the Kayanian king Behman Isfandyar, In the prophecies revealed to Zartosht by Ohrmazd in the Sacred Avesta, We find the following regarding this venerable high priest: -- "From among the dasturs, regarding Dayun it is declared thus: 'When one hundred years shall have passed over the religion, Dayun will be born, and when two hundred years have elapsed he will depart from this world ; and the religion will remain current on this earth through the hundred disciples made by Dayun, the chief high-priest of the Mazdayasnian religion during the hundred years (of his life).'"
The form dayun in this Pahlavi passage, may be identified to a great extent with the Avesta word "danghu", which occurs in the names Danghu-fradanha and Danghu-sruta of persons whose farohars are remembered in the 116th para. of the Frawardin Yasht. Hence it might he assumed that the dayun here alluded to may be identical with one of these two Avesta names.]
Be it known that,.(the following are) the ten monitions of the Holy Dayun regarding the justice of the Mazdayasnian religion. -- (1) One is that with a view to the improvement of the harmless (people) in this world, one should punish, and thereby expiate the guilt of, those who unlawfully injure others. -- (2) One is that in order that he should remain honest one ought not to keep as his own (property, what does not belong to him), nor to retain for himself the wealth which is not given to him by its owner; but that he should return another's wealth to its proper owner, and cause whosoever appropriates the wealth (that is not his own), to be duly punished according to justice; thus he should expiate his crime. -- (3) In order that perfect justice may reach unto those who have a desire for it (viz., justice to themselves), one is that the deciding judge should form his judgment from true evidence and from the essential knowledge (principles of justice) laid down in the good religion; and thus he should lead to the improvement of the people. -- (4) One is that the just ruler or priest should defend (from profanation) the (religious writings of) Hat Manthra, the Gathas, and the Date; they should glorify them and regard them as divine revelations, in order that the good people may (thereby) the more believe in the purity (of their religion). -- (5) One is that that king should be exalted who by means of his
sovereignty will ameliorate the people of the world, and who is most faithful to the Mazdayasnian religion. -- (6) One (of the monitions) uttered by him was that as the doctrine of the Mazdayasnian religion is (fitted) to make the world prosperous, and the laws of the Jewish faith are (calculated) to devastate the world, (it is, therefore, meet that) the kings who are to administer justice in accordance with pure precepts, and to profess the good doctrine of the Mazdayasnian religion, should keep aloof from the Jewish creed, and lead their lives according to the commandments of the Deity. -- (7) One (of the monitions) uttered by him was that [in point of decisions] that ruler or prince is of high merit, who possess the religious supremacy in this world; that such a king should, therefore, be actually considered as the best of all just kings, and that his subjects should live in complete submission to his justice (equitable rule). -- (8) A monition uttered by him was that if among those who follow the evil religions, there should perhaps be kings (intuitively) possessed of the superior justice pertaining to the final conditions, the justice of such rulers should be accepted, and their people should regard them as (they would do) Mazdayasnian rulers; they should praise and obey them, and should entertain worthy opinions about them (i.e. respect then in their thoughts and hearts) -- (9) A monition uttered by him was that the religion of the Dadar [Creator] is calculated to obscure (to bring into disrepute) and imperceptibly to destroy the evil ways of the Blemish-giver. -- (10) A monition uttered by him was that, through the power (influence) of the Dadar's doctrine, perfect failure in the end would overtake all the irreligious creatures of the destroyer, as well as the Blemish-giver himself.
[* Rashn-e-Rish Ashmogh was a Rumi apostate ruler and priest, who flourished after Alexander, i.e. about 400 years after the spread of Zoroastrianism in the world. The prophecy regarding this Rashn-e-Rish, which was revealed to Zartosht by Ohrmazd, is given by this Denkard as follows:
"When 400 years shall have passed over the Mazdayasnian religion, there will come on it trouble or corruption from those of the evil faith. During that period those who remain steadfast and true (in this world), will be afflicted by the tormentor Rashn-e-Rish-Ashmogh; and the (high-priest) Arezvak together with his three colleagues, (Sruto-spadhau, Zrayanghau, and Spento-Khratavau, vide Frawardin Yasht, para. 115) will confirm the fidelity of all who are the creatures of Spenamino."]
Be it known that, (the following are) the ten sayings uttered by the justice-destroying, deceitful Rashn-e-Rish, who resembled in external appearance the (priest) Akvan, of the (King) Karisak, against the justice-embellishing Holy Dayun. -- (1) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun that, for the sake, of the improvement of the harmless (people) in this world, one should punish, and thus expiate the guilt of, those who unlawfully oppress others -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed that men should cause the innocent to be injured, should punish them severely by the weight of their authority, and bestow proportionate rewards on those who are guilty of striking others unlawfully. -- (2) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun, that men, in order to be trustworthy, should retain in their possession only that wealth which is lawfully their own (property); but that they should return (fraj) that wealth which has not been given up (to them) by its rightful possessor (datar), and justly punish and cause to be expiated the sin of, whosoever appropriates (what does not belong to him) -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed that men should regard what is unlawful to be lawful (morally good), and transfer to the immoral and sinful the wealth and property of the innocent, the rightful possessors. -- (3) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun, that man should base their decisions on such evidence as might be deemed reliable by an upright judge, as well as on the authority or religion -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed that men should cast out from the world every upright judge or reliable witness. -- [One,] against this monition of the Holy Dayun, that the divine justice be extolled, believed in, and glorified by the preservation of secular justice by a just king or priest -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed that true justice in this world contributes to the disturbance of justice in the next. --(5) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun, that it (justice) be commended as the support of sovereignty and the medium of defense of the Mazdayasnian) faith, for the people of his world -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed to the world, that it should do nothing good, but should disturb the (Mazdayasnian) faith and sovereignty by promoting in this world the creed and virtues of the infidel and the Jews, as well as by such administration as strengthens perverseness and evil -- (6) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun, that men should extol that justice which is calculated to render the world prosperous, that they should love the just sovereign of the people, help the progress of the world, and keep aloof from such kings as bring about the deterioration of the people, contemn justice, and produce much misery in the world -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish directed (people) to commend such administrations as cause the deterioration of the people, to love such kings, to subject the people (through such systems). to contemn the justice that brings prosperity into the world, to withdraw from upright kings, to degrade them in the world, and to make them inglorious or obscure. -- (7) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun that just kings (lit. kings of high power of discernment) should be regarded as the most excellent rulers (one could have) over oneself, and oneself, and that one should keep himself in perfect allegiance to their laws -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed that sin is the adornment of the world, and a sinful king is its adorner. -- (8) [One,] against the monition of the Holy Dayun that some of the decisions even of (kings of) the evil religion should be accepted (if they were as upright) as the ultimate justice (in heaven), and should be relied upon and that those professing the Mazdayasnian religion should submit to, and recommend them, -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed that the justice pertaining to the religion which is calculated to harmonize the world, is antagonistic to the wishes of the Creator and of the faith of existence (i.e. the faith contributing to prolong existence). -- (9) [One,] against the assertion of the holy Dayun that robbery, infamy, and immorality, the original acts of the Destroyer, are real miseries -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish on account of his having been (an adherent) of the Destroyer Ahriman, proclaimed that these (vices) are the ways that lead to the advancement of the world. -- (10) [One,] against the assertion of the Holy Dayun that by the last judgment all the miserable creatures (muste) of the Blemish-giving Destroyer. will be confounded, and that the Blemish-giver himself will be over-thrown and revealed in all his infamy (anavtan) -- the deceitful Rashn-e-Rish proclaimed the approaching of destruction by the Creator of the people of this world, of their final complete destruction and annihilation.
Be it known that, these are the ten monitions of the piously-reared Adarbad Mahraspandan, and of other heads of the religion of the Holy Zartosht. -- (1) Do not nourish in the mind any unlawful spite, in order that a potent enemy may not overpower you. -- (2) Do not hoard up riches avariciously, that the time of penury may not come soon on you. -- (3) Be a welcomer of the good [ones] (i.e. be hospitable towards your guests), that in the next world they (i. e. the divine beings) may welcome you as good (righteous) ones. -- (4) Marry a well-born woman that your progeny may walk in the path of rectitude. -- (5) Deliver your true decision in the case of a plaintiff and a defendant, that you may be the more saved at the last judgment (in the next world). -- (6) Abstain from unlawfully (needlessly) slaughtering cows, sheep, or goats, that no distress may happen unto you thereby at the (final reckoning). Do not consider this world as your permanent dwelling-place, for you will not long remain (in it). -- (7) Expend the wealth of this world for the sake of God, and employ it on actions pertaining to Him, and trust always in the Almighty, for He will be with you in such wise that you will become thereby the best in the body and the soul (mind). -- (8) Exert yourself to store (pious) wealth (merit) for yourself in the next world, because only by the good which you do yourself, will you become a sharer in all the good deeds of the whole world. -- (9) Make the Yazads dwellers (guests) in your person, because if you cause them to dwell in your body, you will be welcomed throughout the whole world. -- (10) Improve yourself by means of the good doctrine, that you may be regarded throughout the world as one reformed.
(1) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad (Mahraspandan), the adorner of piety, that no unlawful spite ought to be cherished in the mind -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that men should approve of rancor and other evil passions (druj) in themselves. -- (2) [One], against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that riches should not be hoarded up avariciously -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that men should cultivate avarice, consume, appropriate, and waste all the unlawfully hoarded wealth of mankind, and amass riches avariciously for (the benefit or) those who possess devilish inclinations to injure the people of this world. -- (3) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, to welcome the good [people] to be one's guests -- the incarnate druj Mani, proclaimed that men should be hospitable towards the indolent. -- (4) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety that one should marry a well-born woman -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that men should unite in relationship (matrimony) with ill-born women, and regard their deceit as sinless acts. -- (5) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety that one ought to be guided by a true judgment in the case of a plaintiff and a defendant -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that the just decision of a judge should be spurned or cursed out of this world. -- (6) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that men should abstain from unlawfully slaughtering cows, sheep, or goats -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that men should in this world habitually rob the property or well-favored (huavtan) cattle of everybody, and thereby ruin mankind. -- (7) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that men should regard this life as the time for continuing one's race (i.e., as the means of procreation) -- the incarnate druj. Mani, proclaimed that by this act of procreation men would be led to commit the sin of kunmarz (sodomy). -- (8) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that the wealth of this world ought to be expended in (doing pious actions relating to) God -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that the wealth of this world fitly belonged to him who committed sin by its means, and to him who bestowed it on the sinful. -- (9) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that the wealth of the next world should be acquired for the sake of one's (soul) -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that the wealth of the invisible world could be obtained, and men could well hope to be saved from hell, by embellishing (or diligent cultivation of) sinfulness in oneself (i.e. by giving a free rein to one's evil inclinations and passions). -- (10) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that the druj (evil inclinations) ought to be banished from one's own person -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that the druj should be cherished in man's body. -- (11) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that the Yazads should be caused to reside in one's own person as guests, the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that the Yazads should not reside as guests in one's person, rather they should be excluded [from it.] -- (12) [One,] against the monition of Adarbad, the adorner of piety, that one should improve himself and, the world, (i.e. his fellow creatures) by means of the good religion -- the incarnate druj, Mani, proclaimed that the world should never be improved, rather it should be destroyed; by the constant blaze of the fire (of hell).
[* Shahanshah Khosrow Kobad was the name of the great Sasanian monarch Noshirwan the Just. He is said to have encouraged the spread of Zoroastrianism throughout his realm, and caused several works on it to be written by the learned dasturs of his time in the Pahlavi, Pazand, and Persian languages. It was this king who discovered and unmasked the impostures of Mazdak who had set up for a prophet, and who was put to death by order of the king. The memory of the farohar of this equitable king is preserved by the high-priests in the Afrin-e Panji, in which he is classed with the good spirits of distinguished upright judges, of religions monarchs who preserved the purity of their faith, and were an honor to their dominion. From the passage in the Pazand Prayer referred to it appears that Khosrow Kobad had during his reign devised measures to establish his kingdom as well as to restore the primitive glory of his religion. The passage runs as follows:
"May the strength of this prayer be (reach) unto the immortal-souled farohar of Khosraw Kobad, and also unto those of all the glorious and honest judges, and of all the Mazdayasnians who restored the purity of their religion and embellished their sovereignty."]
One is that the best ruler in this world is actually that priest
who expounds (to men) the mystic thoughts (manashne-varchin of
the good religion), because such a priest inculcates on a religious
sovereign ideas regarding the next world, in order that he may
be united in pure (sacred) friendship with the Dadar [Creator]
Ohrmazd, the Supreme Ruler of the invincible world. By the impression
of the thought (revealed to the king) through his Righteous Friend,
he (the ruler) will be identified (incorporated) with the pure
friendship (of the good spirits), and will be possessed of the
(knowledge of the) perfect wisdom of the Highest Ruler, of the
zeal to speak and act (on His behalf), and of the perfect goodness
which will help him in both worlds. -- (2) One is that people
should extol the good religion for (the purpose of drawing themselves
into) communion with Ohrmazd; (they should extol) truthful thought
for (i.e. to acquire the habit of) speaking with good-sense; and
(praise) liberality for (the performance of) those actions which
are best and most acceptable (to God and man). -- (3) One is that
just as certain (darveste) pecuniary grants (puhl) are obtained
(from Government) by the leaders of the Mazdayasnian religion,
so such grants be made by every means to the orthodox people (vavrigan)
(by the king's subjects). -- (4) One is that the impostors who
taught a vile doctrine, should be sternly tormented and diminished
(banished) from Iran. -- (5) One is that in order to be grounded
(karde) in the attributes of the Deity and in the ways of the
Yazads, one ought to learn (chashashne kardan) the Manthras and
the Yasna of the religion with the help of (min) the teachings
and writings (karde) of the disciples of Adarbad Mahraspandan,
who was from (i.e. an inhabitant of) the city of Gilan. -- (6)
One is that the pious people who carefully tend the propitious
fire, and who perform the functions of the yozdathregar with the
good (consecrated) waters, should be reverenced and not diminished
from the cities of Iran. -- (7) One is that the knowledge of the
Mazdayasnian religion, which is the gift of (producing) goodness
in the thought (workings) of conscience (manashne-ahu) should
be exemplified by perfect endeavors, and that persons of orthodox
habits be guided towards the means of (acquiring) happiness (in
the next world), and be strongly fortified, and guarded against
evil impostors. -- (8) One is that the performers of the yazashne
of the Deity, be aggrandized in the cities of Iran, whereby the
evil connection with demons be destroyed; the idol-temples broken,
and the infidel idolaters thrown out. -- (9) One is that one should
yield up (his) body and soul to keep our (Zoroastrian) religion
current (in the world), and to spread in the world the thoughts
and rites contributing to happiness (faradin). -- (10) One is,
-- "Let your vigor be employed in helping on your own relations
(co-religionists), and let your own spite towards your enemy be
dismissed from yourself (i.e. from your heart.)
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