The term "Afrinagan" has three different connotations. First, the Afrinagan is a multi-part ceremony of blessing. The term "Afrinagan" is also used to refer to the individual Afrinagan prayers of the Avesta. One or more of these prayers may be used in any particular Afrinagan service. Besides the Avestan Afrinagan prayers, other prayers in Avestan and in Pazand are recited during the service. Finally, the term is used for the ceremonial vessel in which the sacred fire is tended.
The Afrinagan service is central to the outer or public ceremonies of Zoroastrianism. It generally invokes blessings for the entire congregation, which usually participates. It also commemorates the departed members of the community. Thus, it serves an important social function in addition to its religious function. This ceremony can take a wide variety of forms depending on the occasion, but follows a set outline. The chief officiant, the Zoti, acts as intermediary between the elements of God's creation: plants (represented by flowers), animals (represented by milk), fire, water, earth, sky. The priest also represents the seventh creation, mankind. A second priest, called the Raspi, generally assists. It is the Raspi's duty to tend the fire. This service can be conducted in any clean place, and may be performed by qualified laymen as well as priests.
The complete service consists of the following parts:
A. Preliminary prayers The following prayers are recited prior to the main part of the service: * Padyab-Kusti (prayer for tying the sacred cord) * Srosh Baj (prayer to Sraosha 'Obedience') * Gah (prayer of the watch) one of the following according to the time of day: - Hawan (sunrise to noon) - Rapithwin (noon to 3 p.m.) - Uzerin (3 p.m. to sunset) - Aiwisruthrem (sunset to midnight) - Ushahin (midnight to sunrise) * Atash Niyayesh (litany of fire) * Nam Stayishn (prayer of praise) B. Dibache (Introduction to the Afrinagan service in Pazand) C. Afrinagan proper (one or more Avestan Afrinagan prayers): * Repetitions of the Ahuna Vairya (see Table 1) * Ashem Vohu (repeated 3 times) * Fravarane.... * Gah. * Khshnuman: - Khshnuman nani ("lesser dedication") from Siruza 1 - Yatha ... mraotu. - Khshnuman vadi ("greater dedication") from Siruza 2 * Karda * Asirvad (Afrinami khshathrayan Daughu Paiti) (see Afringan of the Gahambars) D. Afrin: (one or more Pazand Afrin prayers) E. Concluding prayers: * Yasnemcha... * Khshnuman nani (see C. above) * Ahmai Raeshcha, Hazangrem, Jasa me, Kerba Mozhd, Ashem Vohu * Tan-Dorosti
Because of the prominent use of flowers in the Afrinagan service, it is sometimes called the flower ritual. In Modi's description of the Afrinagan, eight flowers are used. The Persian Rivayats state that 5 flowers should be used for all Afrinagans, except "when one Dahman is recited", when 3 flowers are used. Further, they should be from the "jujube-tree" or the myrtle tree. The flowers should be one span in length. The five flowers are said to symbolize the five periods or Gahs of the day. According to Modi, it was common practice in Iran for the Priests to hold up a finger instead of the flowers.
Two or more priests perform the preliminary prayers:
They then sit on a carpet, facing each other, with alat (ritual implements) arranged as follows:
Raspi (assistant priest) tray con- vase of fire taining with ladle sandalwood, and tongs frankincense on a white cloth: tray containing tray of myazd (fruit, flowers flowers, milk, wine, water, sherbet, etc.) Zoti (chief priest)
The Zoti recites the DIBACHE.
The KHSHNUMAN is recited next. This varies according to the occasion. (See appendix, table 2.)
Flowers from the small tray are arranged on the myazd tray as follows:
Different numbers of flowers, or no flowers at all, may be used. See the section above on the use of flowers.
One or more Afrinagan is recited through the KARDA section.
After the recital of the particular Karda which forms the particular Afrinagan, the Raspi gets up from his place. The Zoti gives him flower , and himself takes flower . The Raspi, while receiving the flower recites the ASIRVAD section.
The priests exchange their flowers. They recite twice the prayer HUMATANAM (Y35.2). During the first recital, the Raspi stands on the right side of the Zoti at the side of the fire vase. The Raspi holds the ladle, placing sandalwood on the fire.
The Zoti lifts up flowers , , and , one by one. The Raspi moves to the left side of the Zoti where he stands during the second recital. The Zoti lifts up flowers , , and . He gives them to the Raspi. At the end the Raspi gives the flowers back. The Zoti then places them on one side of the tray. According to Dabu, while receiving flowers , , and , the Raspi touches the fire-censor with the ladle, then goes to the left side of the Zoti where he is given flowers , , and .
A silent or Baj prayer in Pazand is recited.
The Raspi presents the ladle to the Zoti. The Zoti holds the blade, the Raspi holds the handle. Both recite the AHUNA VAIRYA. During this the Zoti moves the ladle in the tray before him, pointing out the four sides (or cardinal points). Then both recite the ASHEM VOHU, during which the Zoti points to the four corners. According to Dabu, he gives nine knocks on a water pitcher in this order: E, SW, NW, W, NE, SE, S, N, E.
Both recite two more AHUNA VAIRYAs, and a YASNEMCHA. Repeat Khshnuman nani (i.e., the second part of the Avestan Khshnuman.)
Then the two priests pass their hands into each other's hands (Hamazor karvi). The Hamazor karvi is often repeated with the congregation after the last Afrinagan is recited. During this they recite:
"hamazor hama asho bet." "atha jamyat yatha afrinami." They recite the HUMATANAM again. The Zoti recites one or more of the AFRIN prayers. The following prayers are then recited: * Yasnemcha vahmemcha aojascha zavarecha afrinami. * Khshnuman nani * Ahmai Raeshcha.... * Hazangrem.... * Jasa-me.... * Kerba Mazhd.... * Ashem Vohu.... * Tan-dorosti....
During an Afrinagan service, sections B, C, and D may be performed more than once with different prayers. For example, during a happy occasion the Afrinagans of Dadar Ohrmazd, Dahman, and Sraosha would typically be recited, followed by the Afrin of Ardafrawash, Buzorgan, and Dahman.
All of the preliminary prayers should be well known to all Mobeds, and to most of the laity as well. I present the text in full here primarily as an aid to becoming familiar with the method of transliteration.
The Dibache is a Pazand prayer which forms the introduction to the Afrinagan service. It states at the beginning the number of times the Ahuna Vairya prayer will be recited later on in the Afrinagan prayer (see appendix, table 1), and announces the name of the spiritual being to whom the service is dedicated (see appendix, table 2.) The dedication is known as the "Khshnuman", which generally follows the formula, "In khshnumain-e N.N....be-rasat." The Dibache also lists the names of people to be remembered in a section called the "Yad".
According to the Persian Rivayats the first part alone is recited if the Yasna ceremony is performed that day; and if the Dron is also performed, both the first and second parts are recited. If the Afrinagan also uses Myazd (fruits, flowers, water, etc.) all three parts should be recited. The practice in India is to repeat all three on any occasion.
Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat adds the following passage after the names of the departed worthies are invoked which is not found in other versions:
"pedarash madarash edhar yad bad anaosh ruan ruani + ba far zendan xuyshan edhar yad bad anaosh ruan ruani."
Of the Afrinagan prayers described herein, only four, the Afrinagan Dahman, Afrinagan of the Gathas, Afrinagan of the Gahambars, and the Afrinagan of Rapithwin are found in most texts of the Avesta, and usually in abbreviated form. Seven other Afrinagans are described by Modi and are very similar. These seven also occur in Avestan manuscripts, though less frequently. Other Afrinagans also occur, and are used for various occasions.
This Afrinagan may be recited on any day. According to the Persian Rivayats, 7 Ahuna Vairyas should be said with this Afrinagan; the practice in India of reciting 10 Ahuna Vairyas is not attested. According to Modi, this is recited with the Karda of "Tao ahmi nmane", although some priests recite it with a shortened "Yao Visad" Karda instead. Both versions are given below.
This Afrinagan may be recited on any day. Any one of the thirty-three dedications in the Siruzas may be used as an Afrinagan to the Fireshte (spiritual being) mentioned in the dedication. For example, the thirteenth dedication, to Tishtrya, would be used for an Afrinagan of Tishtrya, especially during the Tiragan Jashan.
This Afrinagan may be recited on any day, especially the 30th day after death and on the day preceding the first anniversary after death. According to Sethna, on this occasion the following prayers are recited: Padyab-Kusti, Srosh Baj, Gah, Afrinagan of the Siruzas, Farokhshi, Siruza Baj, and Satum. Typically, for an Afrinagan service of the Siruzas, section C. (of the outline above) is done with only the Avestan Afrinagan of the Siruzas, without additional Avestan Afrinagan prayers.
Ardafrawash is the middle Persian term for the holy fravashis, or guardian spirits or angels. During the last ten days of the year, the Frawardigan days, the fravashis of the departed are remembered. The 19th day of each month, and the first month of the year are also dedicated to the fravashis.
The Afrinagan of Ardafrawash is also known as the Afrinagan-i Ashoan. It may be recited on any day, especially on the Frawardigan days, the anniversary of death, during the day Frawardin, month Adar, and on the day Khwarshed, month Day.
Some variations in practice are to be noted:
According to the Persian Rivayats, the practice in Iran is to recite the Karda of "Yao Visad" on each of the Frawardigan days only. On all other occasions the Karda of "Tao ahmi nmane" is recited. Dhabhar states that the practice in Navsari and in some places under its diocesan jurisdiction is to use the Karda of "Yao Visad" for all observances of Ardafrawash. Bahman Punjya's Rivayat says that three Afrinagans should be recited on the thirtieth day after death, and on the one year anniversary: Dahman, Ardafrawash, and Sraosha. These are followed by Dahman Afrin. It further says that the Afrinagan of Ardafrawash should be recited every thirty days during the first year after death. (Also see below, Afrinagan of Dahm Yazata.) According to Sethna, this Afrinagan is also recited on the tenth day after death.
Meherjirana states that the Afrinagan of Ardafrawash must be performed on each of the Frawardigan days and on the anniversary of death. He does not mention which Karda is to be used. He further notes that "On the fourth day in the Hawan gah, one Yasna, Dron (baj) and Afrinagan ceremony in honor of all holy departed spirits (Ardafrawash) should be performed."
Darab Hormazdiar states that this Afrinagan should be recited on the day Frawardin, month Adar, and on the day Khwarshed, month Day. During the first five Frawardigan days, the service should include first the Afrinagan of Ardafrawash, then the Afrinagan of Dahman, and lastly the Afrinagan of Sraosha. Kaus Kamdin's Rivayat states that, during these first five days, the Afrinagan of Ardafrawash (with the Karda of "Yao Visad") is to be recited after chapter 62 of the Yasna, as part of the Yasna of Ardafrawash. In addition, at each recital of the verse "gaomata zasta vastravata ashanasa nemangha" three pieces of sandalwood and three of frankincense should be placed on the fire.
It is evident from the many occasions of its performance that this Afrinagan is an extremely important observance.
This Afrinagan may be recited on any day. It is especially to be recited on the third day of No-Nawar, i.e., the initiation into the priesthood. It is also to be recited day and night for one year as part of the Zinda-Ravan ceremony.
This Afrinagan is commonly recited on any day after the other Afrinagans. The Rivayats state that the following occasions are exceptions: 1.) When a man dies, and on the dawn of the fourth day when the Afrinagan of Dahm Yazad is recited, 2.) on the tenth and thirtieth days after death, and 3.) after the Afrinagan of Mino Nawar. It is especially to be recited on the second day of No-Nawar, i.e., initiation into the priesthood. There is another Afrinagan of Sraosha which is to be said on the three nights after the death of a person. This will be discussed below.
Zoroastrian tradition divides the day into five different periods, called "Gahs", during which special prayers are recited. Rapithwin is the name given to the period between noon to mid-afternoon. During the winter, as the days are shorter, the Rapithwin Gah is not observed, but is replaced by a second morning, or "Hawan" Gah. The Afrinagan of Rapithwin celebrates the return of the observance of this Gah. Technically Rapithwin returns on the first day of the year, but the Afrinagan is normally postponed to the third day of the year. It should also be celebrated on the last day of the year that Rapithwin is observed, namely, day 29 of month 7.
On these occasions the service includes the Afrinagan of Rapithwin prayer followed by the Afrinagan Dahman and the Afrinagan of Sraosha.
The Gahambars are the six major seasonal festivals of the year. They are mid-spring (Maidyozarem), midsummer (Maidyoshahem), harvest (Paitishahem), homecoming of the cattle (Ayathrem), midwinter (Maidyarem), and the end of the year (Hamaspathmaidyem). These festivals each last five days. The Afrinagan of the Gahambars is recited on each day of each Gahambar.
On these occasions the service includes the Afrinagan of the Gahambars, the Afrinagan of Dahm, and the Afrinagan of Sraosha, followed by the Afrin of the Gahambars.
The last five days of the year are dedicated to the Gathas, the five great hymns of Zarathushtra. A special Afrinagan, the Afrinagan of the Gathas, is recited on each of those days. It is also known as the Afrinagan of Panji ("the five").
On these occasions the service includes the Afrinagan of the Gahambars, the Afrinagan of the Gathas, the Afrinagan of Sraosha, and the Afrin of Rapithwin.
This Afrinagan may be recited on any day, but especially on the dawn of the 4th day after death. This is also known as Afrinagan-e Do Dahman. The Persian Rivayats do not seem to distinguish between this and the almost identical Afrinagan of Dahman. It is there stated that it should also be consecrated on the tenth day after death, the thirtieth and thirty-first days and every thirty days throughout the first year after death. On the day before the anniversary of death, and on the anniversary itself, it is again recited. Bahman Punjya's Rivayat says that three Afrinagans should be recited on the thirtieth day after death, and also on the one year anniversary: Dahman, Ardafrawash, and Sraosha. These are followed by Dahman Afrin. According to Sethna, on this occasion the following prayers are said: Padyab-Kusti, 101 Names of God, Srosh Baj, Hawan Gah, Afrinagan of Dahman, and Farokhshi.
This Afrinagan is also called the Afrinagan of the Yazads and Amahraspandan. It is recited on the first of the final four days of initiation into the priesthood. According to the Nirangastan it is recited in the Hawan Gah, though the editor states that the Uzerin Gah is given in the Khorda Avesta.
The Rivayats mention separate Khshnumans for the first and second days of No-nawar, and one for the third and fourth days. According to Barzu Kamdin's Rivayat, the Afrinagan for the first day of No-Nawar should be recited in the Hawan Gah. On the second day, the Afrinagan of Sraosha is recited in any Gah, and on the third day the Afrinagan of Dahman is recited in any Gah.
The thirty days of each month, according to the Zoroastrian religious calendar, are each dedicated to a spiritual being. The first, eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days are each dedicated to the Almighty God, Ohrmazd (Avestan Ahura Mazda). To avoid confusion, the later three are distinguished by using the honorific "Day", which is middle Persian for "Creator", and is named with the day which it precedes. The other days are each dedicated to the created spirits, the "Amahraspandans" or Archangels, and the "Yazads" or Angels. These spiritual beings are sometimes grouped together in seven sets of "Co-workers" or "Hamkars" (see appendix, table 2). The Persian Rivayats recommend reciting the Dahman Afrinagan twice, the Afrinagan of Sraosha, and an Afrin during these days. The dedication should name each of the Co-workers. The days of the month are listed in appendix, table 2.
This Afrinagan is to be recited on occasions of joy, entertainments and marriage.
This Afrinagan is to be recited on the day Ohrmazd of the month Frawardin in the Aiwisruthrem Gah.
This Afrinagan is performed on the fourth of the Frawardigan days (the last ten days of the year).
This is to be recited during each of the three nights after death in the Aiwisruthrem Gah in the house where death occurs, and also on the second day of No-nawar (when a person is initiated an Ervad).
According to Meherjirana, "If a child passes away at any time between the day of birth and seven years, we must have three Yasnas to Srosh and an Afrinagan to Srosh performed in the Aiwisruthrem gah [sunset to midnight]."
According to Sethna, during this occasion the following prayers are recited: Padyab-Kusti, 101 Names of God, Srosh Baj, Aiwisruthrem Gah, Srosh Yasht Wadi, and the Afrinagan of Sraosha of the three nights after death. The assistant priest prays Patet Pashemani for the dead.
This special Khshnuman is to be recited with the Afrinagan of Dahman during the Zinda-rawan (living soul) ceremony.
The following Afrinagans are included in various manuscripts:
The Afrins are blessings recited in Pazand at the end of the service.
Also known as the Afrin-i Shash Gahambars. It is only recited after the Afrinagan of the Gahambars.
This Afrin is recited after the Afrinagan of Rapithwin, or after other Afrinagans. According to the editor of the Persian Rivayats, the Kadimis call the first part of this Afrin the Afrin-i Dahman, and the second part the Afrin-i Frawardigan. According to Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat it should be recited after the Afrinagan ceremony on each of the last 5 days of the year, (the Gatha days).
This is generally recited after the Afrinagan of Ardafrawash.
This Afrin is generally recited after the Afrin of Ardafrawash. This Afrin is also recited during the marriage ceremony.
This Afrin is generally not used any more.
This Afrin is not used in the Afrinagan service, but is included here for completeness. It is a blessing in the Avestan language rather than Pazand.
This Afrin is generally recited after the Afrin of Ardfrawash and the Afrin of Buzorgan. It can also be recited alone after any Afrinagan. It is also known as the Afrin of Haft Amshaspands, or the Afrin of the Hamkars.
This is recited over wine and milk during the Gahambar festivals.
This short Afrin is found in Antia and in manuscript R115. I have not found any references to its use.
According to Rivayats this is also known as Chithrem Buyad, and also as the Dahman Afrin. This is to be recited before the Afrin of the Gahambars, but according to the editor it is not used in India.
Wherever possible Geldner's standard Vulgate edition of the Avesta has been used. For Afrinagans not given by Geldner, manuscript R115 was consulted for general arrangement, although the manuscript generally has corrupt spelling. For the Atash Niyayesh, Dhalla was used in addition to Geldner.
For the Nam Stayishn and Tan-Dorosti, Kanga was used. For the Afrins and the Dibache, Antia has been the primary source, although manuscripts R115 and T3 were also consulted. Although these texts are in various states of corruption, I have not attempted to amend them. Especially common are false word divisions. In a very few cases the Pazand text has been normalized. This was done by utilizing duplicate passages from the most reliable source.
The mode of transcribing the Avestan and Pazand texts is the same used by Bartholomae except that initial v and y are distinguished from medial v and y by placing dots over them.
Wherever possible the spellings used by Kotwal and Boyd have been adopted. It is regrettable that almost all of the terms have several alternate spellings in use. This can make automatic data retrieval somewhat hazardous to the unwary.
Translations of most sections have been included for completeness. They are not used during the service. There are currently no authorized translations of Avestan or Pazand texts. The English and German translations which are available are largely aimed at the specialist, and not the devotee. I have made some minor changes to the published translations mainly for consistency. Like other languages, many Avestan words have multiple meanings. Especially common is personification. For example, "Sraosha" can refer to "hearkening" or the personification (or Angel) of hearkening. It is frequently not clear if one or both of the meanings is intended.
Asha is a central concept in the Avesta. No single word adequately can be used to convey its meaning. The basic meaning is probably "fitness". Most translators have rendered it as "truth", "righteousness", "holiness", "world-order". I have left the term untranslated. For "Ashawan" I have followed Wolff's rendering "Asha-sanctified".
This has two distinct meanings. One is "religion", the other is "inner self". For a discussion, see Boyce, A History of Zoroastrianism, Volume I, pp. 237-40.
Bailey has convincingly argued for a translation of "good fortune" or "good things".
1. Karda is the term given to the central part of the Afrinagan prayer. Many Afrinagans share common Kardas, generally the Karda known as "Tao-ahmi nmane". The Karda of "Yao visad" is also frequently used, for example, in the Afrinagan of the Gathas. 2. Modi, J. J., The religious ceremonies and customs of the Parsees, 2nd ed., Bombay, 1937, p. 398. 3. Dhabhar, B. N., The Persian Rivayats of Hormazyar Framarz and others. Their version with introduction and notes, Bombay, 1932, p. 303 (Dastur Barzoji). 4. Ibid, p. 315. 5. Modi, op. cit. p. 399. 6. Sethna, T. R., Yasna excluding the Gathas, Visparad, Marriage Blessings, Afrinagans, Afrins, Karachi, 1977, p. 178. 7. Dabu, Message of Zarathushtra, p. 161. 8. Ibid, pp. 161-162. 9. They face each other. Each person holds their hands out parallel with palms facing and thumbs on top. They hold the other's right hand between their palms. This is then repeated with the left hand. Finally, they lift their hands as if to touch their heads, "which is the usual way of saluting superiors." 10. Modi, op. cit. p. 405. According to Mary Boyce, A Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1977, p. 44, the Parsis say "Hamazor bed, hamo asho bed," whereas the Irani Zoroastrians say "Hamazor bem". 11. Sethna, op. cit., p. 164. 12. It should be noted that the Avestan Afrinagan prayers contain dedications in the Avestan language which are also called "Khshnumans". The fourth verse includes the following text: 1. yazashn karda hom 2. darun yashta hom 3. myazd hame rainem 13. Dhabhar, op. cit., pp. xlviii, 317. 14. Ibid, pp. xlviii, 316. 15. Modi, op. cit. pp. 385-386. 16. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. 314. 17. Modi, op. cit. p. 385. 18. According to Modi, op. cit. p. 385, these are recited with the Karda of "Tao ahmi nmane", although some recite a "Yao Visad" Karda instead. 19. Ibid, p. 385. 20. Sethna, op. cit. p. 164. 21. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. xix. 22. Ibid, pp. xlii, 317. 23. Dhabhar, op. cit., p. xlii. Modi, op. cit. p. 385, n. 2. states that the Karda of "Yao Visad" should be used, but he notes that "some recite 'Tao ahmi nmane,' restricting 'Yao Visad' to the last ten days of the year." 24. Dhabhar, op. cit. pp. 177-178. 25. Sethna, op. cit. p. 164. 26. Kotwal & Boyd, op. cit. pp. 153-155.- 27. Ibid, p. 91. 28. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. 317. 29. Ibid, p. 337. 30. Modi, op. cit. p. 386. 31. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. 420. 32. Ibid, p. 422. 33. Modi, op. cit. p. 386. 34. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. 318. 35. Ibid, p. 420. 36. Dastur Erachji Sohrabji Meherjirana, (Kotwal & Boyd, op. cit. pp. 151-152.) explains that the third day is preferred because the dedication, or "Khshnuman" of the Afrinagan of Rapithwin is similar to the dedication of the third day (dedicated to Ardwahisht). Dhabhar, op. cit. p. 303, states that the day of Ardwahisht is proper as Ardwahisht is the first of the four Hamkars ("co-workers") presiding over fire. See also Bulsara, S. J., Aerpatastan and Nirangastan, Bombay, 1915. Reprint 1977. AMS Press, New York, p. 242-4. 37. Some alternately celebrate this Afrinagan on the sixth day of the year. See Modi, op. cit. p. 386, and Dhabhar, op. cit., p. 302. 38. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. xlix. 39. This is the Shahanshahi practice, corroborated by Dastur Barzu's Rivayat. The Kadimis in India recite two Afrinagans of Gahambar. According to Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat, two Afrinagans of Gahambar, one of Dahm, and one of Sraosha should be recited, followed by "Chithrem Buyad", and the Afrin of the Gahambars. See Dhabhar, op. cit. pp. xlviii, 313, and 316. Mary Boyce op. cit., p. 35, n. 8) reported that the Iranian usage in the Yazd area accords with Shahanshahi practice. 40. Per Barzu Kamdin's Rivayat. Kamdin Shapur's Afrinagan again tells us to recite two Afrinagans of the Gahambars. See Dhabhar, op. cit., pp. 303, 313-4. 41. Modi, op. cit. p. 386. 42. Boyce, op. cit. p. 35. 43. Dhabhar, op. cit. pp. 168-9, 172, 176-7. 44. Ibid, p. 172. 45. Ibid, pp. 177-178. 46. Sethna, op. cit. p. 164. 47. Bulsara, op. cit. p. 293, n. 7. 48. Ibid, p. 295, n. 1. 49. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. xviii. 50. Ibid, pp. 421-422. 51. Ibid, pp. 315-316 (Dastur Barzu). 52. According to the Rivayats, Dhabhar, op. cit. p. xviii. 53. According to the Rivayats, Dhabhar, op. cit. pp. xlviii, 317. The editor however notes that the practice in India is to perform it in the Hawan Gah. 54. According to Meherjirana. See Kotwal & Boyd, op. cit. p. 153. 55. According to the Persian Rivayats. See Dhabhar, op. cit. pp. 171, 177. 56. Ibid, p. xix. 57. Kotwal & Boyd, op. cit. p. 93. 58. Sethna, op. cit. p. 163. 59. Dhabhar, op. cit. p. 317. 60. Ibid, p. xlix. 61. Ibid, p. 303. 62. See Modi, op. cit., p. 389, and Sethna, op. cit. p. 162. 63. Antia, op. cit. p. 111; Afrins, Nirangs, Patets, etc, (MS. R 115: K.R. Cama Oriental Institute Library, Bombay). Ed. by K.M. Jamaspasa and M. Nawabi. 2 parts. Shiraz 1976. Pahlavi codices and Iranian researches, 14, 15, pp. 376-7. 64. Dhabhar, op. cit. pp. xix, 318-319. 65. Ibid, p. xlix. 66. Geldner, K. F., Avesta, the Sacred Books of the Parsis, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1889-96, Volume II pp. 268-277 for Afrinagans, pp. 260-267 for Siruzas from which the Avestan Khshnums are taken. 67. Dhalla, M. N., The Nyaishes or Zoroastrian Litanies, New York, 1908. Reprint 1965. AMS Press, New York. Atash Niyayesh is found on p. 134 ff. Dhalla omits the concluding verses, and does not distinguish some Avestan graphemes. 68. Kanga, M. F., Avesta, the sacred scripture of the Parsees. Part II: Khordeh Avesta & Yasts, Poona, 1962. 69. Antia, E. K., Pazend texts collected and collated, Bombay, 1909. 70. Nirangs, Afrins and prayers, (MS. T 3: First Dastur Meherji Rana Library, Navsari). Ed. by K.M. Jamaspasa and M. Nawabi. Shiraz, 1976. Pahlavi codices and Iranian researches, 28. 71. Bartholomae, C., Altiranisches Worterbuch, Strassburg, 1904. Reprint 1979. 72. Kotwal, F. M., and J. W. Boyd, A guide to the Zoroastrian religion, Scholars Press, Chico, California, 1982. 73. Bailey, H. W., Zoroastrian Problems in the Ninth-Century Books, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971, p. xxx. 74. Wolff uses acaglaubig/ Acaanhanger/ acagerecht (Asha-faithful) when used of people, and acaheilig (Asha-sanctified) when used of divinities, and acaehrwurdig (Asha-divine) when used of Ahura Mazda. 75. Bailey, op. cit. pp. xvi-xviii, 1-77.-